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Advances in Organic Light-Emitting Device - Product Image

Advances in Organic Light-Emitting Device

  • Published: May 2008
  • Region: Global
  • 140 Pages
  • Trans Tech Publications Inc

Organic electroluminescence (OEL) is the phenomenon of electrically-driven emission of light from organic materials; including both fluorescent and phosphorescent organic solids. The organic light-emitting device (OLED), which exploits OEL emission from organic semiconducting thin films (with thicknesses of less than a few hundred nanometers), sandwiched between electrodes, has attracted keen interest in its application to flat-panel displays, due to its high luminous efficiency, low driving voltage, tunable colors as well as a convenient device-structure design and low fabrication costs when compared with every other known display device.

This book describes the general principle of device operation, recent progress made in materials and device design, optimization of device structures, some pertinent processing issues, market trends and the future outlook for OLED-related applications.

It is designed for the reader who has some prior knowledge of physics, chemistry, polymer science and materials science, and is thus suitable for use as a graduate-level one-semester course for chemists, physicists, engineers and polymer or materials scientists. It also provides a very useful guide for those working technologists who wish to learn the principles and applications of OLEDs.

1. History of the OLED
2. Introduction to OLEDs
2.1 Classification of OLEDs
2.2 OLED Using Small Organic Molecules
2.3 PLED Using Emissive Polymers
2.4 Hybrid OLED
2.5 Kinds of Devices According to Function and Structure

3. The Physics behind OLEDs
3.1 Basic Mechanism
3.2 Charge Carrier Injection and Transport
3.2.1 Charge Injection Mechanisms
3.2.1a Thermionic Emission Mechanisms
3.2.1b Tunneling Injection Mechanisms
3.2.2 Charge Transport Mechanisms
3.2.2a Ohmic Transport Regime (m=0)
3.2.2b Space-Charge Limited Transport Regime (m=1)
3.2.2c Trap-Charge Limited Transport Regime (m > 1)
3.2.2d Trap-filled Space Charge Limited Transport Regime (m = 1)
3.2.3 Case Studies for Charge Injection and Transport Characteristics
3.2.3a Charge Injection Studies
3.2.3b Charge Transport Studies
3.3 Delayed EL Owing to Low Charge Carrier Mobility
3.4 Generation of Singlet and Triplet Excitons in OLEDs
3.4.1 Exciton Generation by Optical Excitation
3.4.2 Exciton Generation by Charge Injection
3.5 Efficiency of OLEDs
3.5.1 Photoluminescence Quantum Efficiency in Films
3.5.2 Electroluminescence Quantum Efficiency in OLEDs
3.5.3 Luminous and Energy Efficiencies in OLEDs
3.6 Exciton Energy Transfer from Donor (Host) to Acceptor (Guest)
3.6.1 Förster Energy Transfer
3.6.2 Dexter Energy Transfer
3.6.3 Examples of High Efficiency Devices using a Doped Layer

4. Organic Materials (Small Molecules ) for OLEDs
4.1 Hole-injecting Materials
4.2 Hole-transporting Materials
4.3 Light-emitting Materials (Organic Light-Emitters)
4.3.1 Green Light-emitting Materials
4.3.2 Blue Light-emitting Materials
4.3.3 Red Light-emitting Materials
4.4 Hole-blocking Materials
4.5 Electron-transporting Materials
4.6 Electron-injecting Materials
4.7 Electrodes

5. Polymeric Materials for PLEDs
5.1 Polymers for Buffer Layer
5.2 Light-emitting Polymers
5.2.1 Green LEPs
5.2.2 Blue LEPs
5.2.3 Red LEPs
5.3 Hole-blocking/Electron-transporting/Electron-injecting Polymers
5.4 Electrode Materials

6. Materials for Hybrid OLEDs
6.1 Materials for All-organic HOLEDs
6.1.1 Main Chain Polymers for HIL or HTL
6.1.2 Side Chain Polymers for HIL or HTL
6.1.3 Molecularly-Doped Polymers for HIL and HTL
6.2 Materials for Organic-Inorganic HOLEDs

7. Reliability and Lifetime
7.1 Moisture Effect
7.2 Oxygen Effect
7.3 Impurity Effect
7.4 Progressive Electrical Short
7.5 Solvent and Polymer Side-Chain Effects in PLEDs
7.6 Intrinsic Material Stability and Luminance Decay Mechanism

8. OLED Displays
8.1 Passive Matrix-Organic Light-emitting Display (PM-OLED)
8.1.1 Anode Patterning and Inter-insulating Layer Coating
8.1.2 Cathode Separator
8.1.3 Substrate Pre-treatment
8.1.4 Organic Layer and Cathode Deposition
8.1.5 Encapsulation and Driving Circuits
8.2 Active-matrix – Organic Light-emitting Display (AM-OLED)
8.3 Full-color OLED Displays

9. Ongoing Challenges
9.1 Flexible OLED
9.2 Organic Light-emitting Transistors
9.3 OLED for Lighting Applications

10. OLED Market Trends and Outlook
10.1 OLED Market Trends
10.2 Outlook

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