- Language: English
- 508 Pages
- Published: March 2012
- Region: World
Lithium Mobile Power - 3rd Edition: Advances in Lithium Battery Technologies for Mobile Applications
- Published: March 2009
- Region: World
- 340 Pages
- Knowledge Press
This book provides an insight and interdisciplinary review of recent significant innovations within the lithium-ion battery industry. The book emphasizes the latest breakthroughs in novel electrode and electrolyte materials, system integration, implementation, and commercialization for a variety of mobile and portable lithium battery applications, from micro medical devices to high-power automotive; outlines the roadmap for an emerging market with huge potential; gives comprehensive comparison with portable fuel cells development.
Areas addressed include:
- Application Driven Lithium Battery Development
- Li Batteries: From Materials and Components to Systems Design and Integration
- Li-ion Battery Electrolytes - Challenges and Solutions
- Novel Electrode Technologies to Improve Li Battery System Performance
- Safety, Degradation & Performance Studies
- Lithium Batteries and Fuel Cells: Different Problems - Common Solutions
- - Editions are topical reference books that include complete narratives, charts, graphs and illustrations
Chapter 1 - The Changing Field of Li-Ion Batteries
Ralph J. Brodd, PhD, President, Broddarp of Nevada, Inc.
Since its introduction in 1991, Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries have constituted a dynamic field of research, development and production. It currently is in the process of reinventing itself with a new chemistry base as well as developing a new market for powering portable tools and electric vehicles. The discussion will include a review of the new electrode materials and cell constructions as well as market directions. The market for electric vehicles alone will dominate the technology and markets by 2015. Finally, safety must be accepted as a given quality for the success of Li-Ion batteries. Shipping restrictions and the reasons for them will be discussed.
Chapter 2 - Prospects of Carbon Nanotubes for Lithium Ion Batteries
Brian J. Landi, PhD, Research Scientist, NanoPower Research Labs, Golisano Institute for Sustainability, Rochester Institute of Technology
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a candidate material for use in lithium ion batteries due to excellent conductivity (electrical and thermal), nanoscale porosity, and for lithium ion storage as an anode. The ability to fabricate CNT electrode papers independent of binder or metal foil substrates can increase the useable anode specific capacity by up to 10x. The potential role of incorporating CNTs into batteries as a conductive additive or active material support on either electrode will also be discussed.
CHAPTER 3 - Advanced Silicon Anode Technology for High Performance Li-Ion Batteries
Kiyotaka Yasuda, General Manager, SILX System Project Team, Corporate Technology Center, Mitsui Mining & Smelting Co., Ltd., Japan
Mitsui has developed a new platform technology of silicon-base electrode (SILX™) and its system, used for lithium ion batteries having high capacity along with sufficient cycle life. SILX™ has a unique network-structure composed of silicon and copper with proper internal space to accommodate electrolyte and also relieve the volume change during charge and discharge cycling. The most advantageous characteristic of this technology is the excellent rate performance especially at lower temperatures, which addresses key challenges in HEV and EV applications.
CHAPTER 4 - Electrolytes for Wide Operating Temperature Range Li-Ion Cells
Marshall C. Smart, PhD, Senior Member of Technical Staff, Electrochemical Technologies Group, Device Research & Application Section, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology*
Due to their attractive properties and proven success, Li-ion batteries have become identified as the battery chemistry of choice for a number of future NASA missions. A number of these applications would be greatly benefited by improved performance of Li-ion technology over a wider operating temperature range, especially at low temperatures. In many cases, these technology improvements may be mission enabling, and at the very least mission enhancing. In addition to aerospace applications, the DoE has interest in developing advanced Li-ion batteries that can operate over a wide temperature range to enable terrestrial HEV applications. Thus, our focus at JPL in recent years has been to extend the operating temperature range of Li-ion batteries, especially at low temperatures. In addition to improving the low temperature performance, effort has been devoted to improving the high temperature resilience of Li-ion cells. In the present paper, we would like to present some of the results we have obtained with a number of carbonate-based electrolytes, optimized for wide operating temperature range, using a number of technical approaches. In addition to investigating the behavior in experimental cells initially, the performance of the most promising electrolyte systems were demonstrated in large capacity, vendor manufactured Li-ion prototype cells (capacity range = 0.25 Ah to 35.0 Ah). These cells were subjected to a number of performance tests, including discharge rate characterization, charge rate characterization, cycle life performance at various temperatures, and power characterization tests. *In collaboration with: R.V.Bugga, K.A.Smith, L.D.Whitcanack
CHAPTER 5 - Enabling Battery Prognostics
Bor Yann Liaw, PhD, Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, SOEST, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Useful remaining life of a battery is very critical for mobile power application, but existing solutions are limited. Battery modeling and simulation in concert with effective battery monitoring protocols remain to be the best choice for estimating useful remaining life of mobile power sources. Correct application of modeling tools with monitor protocols is essential to the success of prognostics. We will discuss several technological barriers to be overcome to enable battery prognostics for mobile power applications.
CHAPTER 6 - Designing Safe Lithium Ion Battery Packs Using Thermal Abuse Models
Ahmad A. Pesaran, PhD, Principal Engineer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; and Eric C. Darcy, Battery Group Lead, NASA Johnson Space Center*
Use of large numbers of series-parallel strings of small 18650 high-energy lithium-ion cells in mobile applications is on the rise. One such application by NASA is use of sixty to eighty commercial 18650 cells in a closely packed container for spacesuit applications. Designing safe packs with high energy density is a major goal of NASA. In support of this activity, NREL is utilizing its cell and module mathematical thermal abuse modeling to better understand the performance and safety limitations of the commercial 18650 cell designs. We are investigating various abuse conditions such as short circuit in a cell and its impact on the pack. We will present the results of our thermal network and electrical circuit models to predict initial heat release triggered by an abuse condition and how design changes could make packs more abuse tolerant to prevent thermal runaway propagation throughout a battery. *In collaboration with: G.H.Kim, K.Smith, NREL
CHAPTER 7 - Using Electrochemical Thermodynamic Measurements to Detect Effects of Battery Aging
Joseph McMenamin, PhD, Vice President, VIASPACE, Inc.*
The temperature dependence of the open circuit voltage of an electrochemical cell can be used to measure the thermodynamic properties of entropy and enthalpy as a function of charge state. The entropy changes can be directly related to changes in the crystal structure of the cell electrodes with the state of charge (SOC). By comparing the entropy vs. SOC curves for new and aged cells the effects of aging on the structure of the cell electrodes can be determined.*In collaboration with: John Paul Ruiz, CFX Battery, Inc.; and Rachid Yazami, CalTech
CHAPTER 8 - Lithium Ion Batteries: Large Format and Applications to PHEV and Battery Electric Vehicles
Gitanjali DasGupta, Manager, Electric Vehicle Programs, Electrovaya, Canada*
Electrovaya recently announced joining forces with Phoenix Motorcars BEV that will be on the road in 2008, a collaboration with ExxonMobil, and the launch of the Maya-300 low-speed electric vehicle. Electrovaya’s Lithium Ion SuperPolymer battery systems feature its MN-Series chemistry (offering up to 50% higher energy density than our Phosphate-Series), balanced energy-power optimization and integrated iBMS (intelligent battery management system). System designs range from 4kWh to over 100 kWh systems with corresponding 48V to over 700V configurations. Applications similarly range across heavy duty, medium duty, passenger, specialty and off-road all electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Electrovaya is working on these programs with a variety of OEM partners. *In collaboration with: Sankar DasGupta, Electrovaya
CHAPTER 9 - 5V Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Battery
S. Gopukumar, PhD, Senior Scientist, Advanced Battery/Electrochemical Energy Systems Division, Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CSIR), India
Spinel LiMn2O4 is preferred over LiCoO2 considering the ease of synthesis, environment friendly and low cost. Increasing miniaturization and constrains on volume to weight ratioís on lithium ion batteries has led to the development of high performing materials. Towards, this goal, development of 5V cathode materials based on LiMn2O4 is an interesting option. In this talk, I present our recent results on sol-gel synthesized 5V LiMxMn1-xO4 (M = Zr, Cu) and LiMxMyMn2-x-yO4 (M = Co, Fe, Cr) using different chelating agents. The synthesized powders were subjected to different physical characterizations viz., XRD, SEM/TEM and TG/DTA for understanding the phase purity, morphology and thermal behavior respectively. Electrochemical charge/discharge cycling studies reveal that the partial substitution of manganese by copper or by equal amounts of iron and nickel enhances the electrochemical performance of the spinel compound.
CHAPTER 10 - Charging Systems for High-Power Cells
Rory Pynenburg, PhD, Manager of Application Engineering, Micro Power Electronics, Inc.
High power Li-ion batteries support pulses over 100 Amps. Taking advantage of the high rate charge/discharge capabilities adds new electrical and mechanical challenges to a traditional charger design. Micro Power addresses both electrical and mechanical design considerations/guidelines for designing chargers that can utilize the new capabilities offered by these high power batteries. Topics included in this session include fast charging, power supply selection, electrical contacts and connections, thermal management, and prevention of Electromagnetic Interference (EMI).
CHAPTER 11 - Fuel Cell & Battery Hybrid Systems
Zhigang Qi, PhD, Fellow, MTI Micro Fuel Cells Inc.*
A fuel cell system can hardly run smoothly without a battery (or a capacitor). The crucial functions played by the battery when it is used to assist the fuel cell comprise of starting the fuel cell system, providing power during a power demand surge, and shutting down the fuel cell system after the fuel cell stack is turned off. The battery can also be used as the primary power source with the fuel cell as a charger. MTI Micro Fuel Cells Inc. develops direct methanol fuel cell systems that utilize neat methanol and unhumidified ambient air for portable applications. Thousands of hours of single cell life tests showed that the fuel cell decay rate could be controlled to 6% or less per 1000 hours. The fuel cell stack called Mobion™ Chip has demonstrated an initial power density over 60 mW/cm2, 1.8 Wh energy output per gram of methanol, and higher than 80% fuel utilization. The fuel cell system can operate from 0 to 40°C ambient temperatures at any humidification levels. *In collaboration with: G.Lu, C.Carlstrom, and J.Prueitt
CHAPTER 12 - Commercial Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell/Li Ion Hybrid System for Portable Power Applications
John M. Pope, PhD, Director, NDC Power
This paper will present a new commercially available direct ethanol fuel cell integrated into a Li-ion hybrid portable power charging station. Fuel cell stack performance including >3,000 hours at 50 mA/cm2 will be detailed, along with an overview of the materials and engineering that have enabled a 90% reduction in stack costs over DMFC technology. Full system performance will also be detailed for a 20 W portable charging station that utilizes replaceable fuel cartridges.
CHAPTER 13 - Direct Glycerin Fuel Cell & Lithium-Ion Battery Hybrid for Mobile Applications
Steven R. Ragsdale, PhD, MBA, Chief Technology Officer, CyVolt Energy Systems, Inc.
A direct glycerin fuel cell has been developed for mobile applications. The fuel cell combines a lithium-ion battery and power management into a hybrid system that seamlessly integrates with most commercial electronic devices. The hybrid system allows the superior power density of batteries and high energy density of fuel cells to be preserved. The fuel cell technology to be presented utilizes a passive-cell design that minimizes parasitic losses from balance-of-plant components. An anion-exchange membrane (AEM) configuration generates an electroosmotic flow that impedes fuel crossover and water management problems, increases fuel cell efficiency and allows the use of higher fuel concentrations.
CHAPTER 14 - Low- to Mid-Power Fuel Cell / Battery Hybrid Systems
Jeremy Steinshnider, PhD, Director of Fuel Cell Technology, Lynntech Inc.
This presentation will address current technological advances and market opportunities for fuel cell / battery hybrid power systems. An overview of recent technological advancements in Lynntechís low- and mid-power fuel cell / battery hybrid power systems will presented. Specific topics to be discussed will include power management, thermal management, fuel cell architecture, and hydrogen generation.
CHAPTER 15 - Li Battery / Fuel Cell Hybridization to Extend System Lifetime and Usability
Mack W. Knobbe, VP of Engineering, Jadoo Power
Fuel cells and batteries are natural companions to creating an optimized power solution. Fuel cell sub-systems provide improved energy storage density while lithium batteries provide high peak power capabilities. Beyond this known advantage is the ability of the combination to extend the life of both components. Additionally, a hybrid power system can enable the use of an array of fueling options, including chemical hydrides that may not have hydrogen available immediately.
CHAPTER 16 - New Charging Method for Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries
Ibrahim Abou Hamad, PhD, Research Associate, University of Delaware
We present a new charging method that is capable of charging a battery in a fraction of the time needed when using traditional methods, with the potential for much shorter charging times after optimizing the control parameters of our charging scheme. Moreover, the presented method seems not to have a negative effect on the battery capacity or cycle lifetime. Finally, while our method offers a great improvement in charging time, its implementation does not require major changes to current chargers available in the market place.
CHAPTER 17 - PANEL DISCUSSION: The Electrification of the Automobile - The 21st Century Shift
- Kev Adjemian, Nissan Technical Center North America, Inc.
- Chris Mi, 1Power Solutions
- Terry Payne, U.S. Department of Energy
- Ann Marie Sastry, University of Michigan
- John Van Zee, University of South Carolina
Available technology pathways: HEV, PHEV, EV, FCV Pros and Cons
- Technology barriers which still exist
- Market trends
- Market adoption
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