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Fuel Cell Fuel Sources Market Opportunities, Strategies, and Forecasts, 2007 to 2013

  • ID: 72204
  • January 2005
  • Region: Global
  • 471 Pages
  • Wintergreen Research, Inc
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FEATURED COMPANIES

  • Air Products
  • Energy Partners Ltd.
  • HERA
  • Matsushita
  • Northern Power Systems
  • PSA Peugeot Citroen
  • MORE

A unique and integrated fuel cell power system is aimed directly at low output applications where smaller internal combustion engines (ICE) and batteries are the power source. These include personal transport and fleet type vehicles used in closed range environments (airports, amusement parks, golf courses, malls, delivery circuits).

Renewable energy is the only alternative for making hydrogen. Other sources of energy are more efficiently used directly. Natural gas should be used directly. Electricity is available in off peak hours to make some hydrogen. Otherwise, renewable sources are the most reasonable energy source for manufacturing hydrogen.

Fuel cells for buildings and homes might make good backup generators, but not daily energy sources. Hydrogen can be produced on Earth by water electrolysis. This process may be very efficient (in excess of 80%). There is always a catch. The process uses electricity. It therefore does not make much sense to use electricity to generate hydrogen to generate electricity.

The production of high purity hydrogen can happen via electrolysis for export. Hydroelectricity is generally an attractive way to achieve power sources. The achievement of transporting the electricity efficiently over long distances is perhaps a more effective means of using hydropower than of converting the hydro power to manufacturing hydrogen.

The time scale of the market broadening for natural gas in the motor vehicle sector strongly depends READ MORE >

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
2 of 4

FEATURED COMPANIES

  • Air Products
  • Energy Partners Ltd.
  • HERA
  • Matsushita
  • Northern Power Systems
  • PSA Peugeot Citroen
  • MORE

FUEL CELL FUEL SOURCES EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Fuel Cell Market Development ES-1
Governments Exist To Create Infrastructure ES-6
It Does Not Make Much Sense To Use Electricity To Generate Hydrogen To Generate Electricity ES-7
Production Of High Purity Hydrogen ES-7
Natural Gas Refueling Infrastructure ES-8
Fuel Cell Transportation Vehicles And Refueling ES-10
Central Refueling Infrastructures ES-10
Hydrogen gas, H2, Essential To Power Fuel Cell Engines ES-11
Fundamental Difference Between Methanol Stations And Natural Gas Refueling Stations ES-11

1. FUEL CELL FUEL SOURCES MARKET DYNAMICS AND MARKET DESCRIPTION
1.1 Fuel Cell Market Development 1-1
1.1.1 Stationary Power Market 1-2
1.1.2 Automotive Market 1-3
1.1.3 Micropower Applications 1-3
1.2 Alternative Fuel Sources for Fuel Cells 1-4
1.2.1 Fuel Cells As A Disruptive Technology 1-4
1.2.2 Hydrogen 1-5
1.2.3 Hydrogen Storage Methods 1-6
1.2.4 Natural Gas Systems 1-10
1.2.5 Gasification Of Coal 1-11
1.2.6 Biomass-To-Liquid 1-11
1.3 Fuel Cell Supply Infrastructure 1-12
1.3.1 Hydrogen Applications 1-12
1.3.2 Minor Applications Of Hydrogen 1-14
1.3.3 Infrastructure Spending Is Being Directed Toward Development Of Renewable Energy 1-15
1.4 Hydrogen 1-16
1.4.1 Impact Of Hydrogen On Contact Materials 1-16
1.4.2 Methanol Environmentally Sound And Achieves High Performance 1-17
1.5 End To End Fuel Source Parameter Analysis 1-18
1.5.1 Well-To-Tank Analysis 1-19
1.5.2 Hydrogen Not An Energy Source But An Energy Carrier 1-21
1.5.3 Hydrogen Transport 1-22
1.6 Hydrogen Energy Balance Between Coal and Natural Gas 1-23
1.6.1 Hydrogen Energy Hydro / Electrolysis Energy Efficiency 1-24
1.6.2 Hydrogen Energy Wind Energy Efficiency 1-24
1.6.3 Alternative Liquid Fuels Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Diesel 1-25
1.7 Hydrogen Production 1-25
1.7.1 Chemistry Of Hydrogen Production Is Yet To Be Researched Thoroughly 1-25
1.7.2 Hydrogen Production On Industrial Scale 1-26
1.7.3 Coal Transport And Storage 1-33
1.8 Greenhouse Gas Emissions 1-33
1.9 Direct Hydrogen 1-35
1.10 Fuel Cell Technology Holds Key To Providing Renewable Energy Source 1-36
1.11 Fuel Cell Issues 1-37
1.12 Hydrogen and Safety 1-40
1.12.1 Ford Focus Safety Systems 1-40
1.12.2 Lack Of Refueling Infrastructure 1-40
1.13 Hydrogen Fuel Characteristics 1-41
1.13.1 Powering Fuel Cells 1-42
1.13.2 California Takes The Lead 1-43
1.13.3 Hydrogen Gas 1-43
1.13.4 Producing Hydrogen 1-44
1.13.5 Hydrogen Generation For Stationary Power 1-44
1.13.6 Hydrogen Generation For Vehicular Power 1-45
1.13.7 Hydrogen Generation For Portable Power 1-45
1.13.8 Hydrogen Generators For Stationary Fuel Cell Installations 1-45
1.13.9 Fuel Processing 1-46
1.14 Fundamental Shift In Transportation Technology 1-46
1.14.1 Fuel Cell Dependence On Hydrogen 1-47
1.15 Fuel Cell Description 1-49
1.16 Fuel Cell Operation 1-52
1.16.1 Types Of Fuel Cells 1-52
1.16.2 Types of Fuel Cell Technology 1-55
1.16.3 Alkaline Fuel Cells 1-56
1.16.4 Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC) For Space Missions 1-56
1.16.5 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells 1-57
1.16.6 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC) Commercial Fuel Cells 1-58
1.16.7 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 1-59
1.16.8 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC) Electrolyte 1-60
1.16.9 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 1-61
1.16.10 PEM Fuel Cell Types for Transportation 1-63
1.16.11 Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells 1-64
1.16.12 PEM Fuel Cells 1-67
1.17 Battery Description 1-67
1.18 Hydrogen Fuel 1-68
1.18.1 Hydrogen Fuel 1-69
1.19 Fuel Cell Functional Characteristics 1-70
1.20 Methanol Fuel Cells 1-71
1.20.1 Better Dispersion Of Energy Resources 1-72
1.20.2 Less Fuel Used 1-72
1.20.3 Stable Energy Pricing 1-73
1.20.4 Toxic Fuel Constituents 1-73
1.21 Gasoline Fuel Cells 1-75
1.22 Gasoline Vs. Methanol Fuel For Fuel Cells 1-76
1.23 Hybrid Vehicle 1-77
1.24 Barriers To Alternative Fuel Use 1-78
1.24.1 Average Fuel Economy Credits 1-79
1.25 Energy Security Risks 1-80
1.26 State Incentives 1-81
1.27 Strategic Alliances 1-82
1.27.1 Increased Funding For Research In DMFC Technologies 1-82
1.27.2 Fundamental Shift In Transportation Technology 1-82
1.28 Conventional Transportation Energy Devices 1-84
1.28.1 Rechargeable Batteries 1-84
1.29 Hydrogen Storage Methods 1-84
1.30 Global Trends Driving Fuel Cell Development 1-85
1.31 Fuel Cell Transportation Competitive Landscape 1-87
1.31.1 Adoption of Fuel Cells When Users See Advantages 1-87
1.31.2 Hybrid Systems 1-88
1.31.3 Public Awareness Of Fuel Cell Technology 1-88
1.31.4 Growth Of Fuel Cell Component And Fuel Supply Base 1-88

2. FUEL CELL FUEL SOURCES MARKET SHARES, MARKET OPPORTUNITIES, AND MARKET FORECASTS
2.1 Hydrogen Market Development 2-1
2.1.1 Hydrogen as Fuel for Personal Power Systems 2-3
2.1.2 Hydrogen Delivered By Pipeline 2-5
2.1.3 Investment in a Regional Hydrogen Infrastructure 2-6
2.2 Fuel Cells Promise To Create A Vast New Industry 2-8
2.3 Fuel Cell Issues 2-9
2.4 Opportunities Associated With Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology 2-12
2.5 Economics of Fuel cost 2-14
2.5.1 Early Mass Market For Hydrogen 2-15
2.5.2 Hydrogen Delivered By Pipeline 2-16
2.5.3 Investment in a Regional Hydrogen Infrastructure 2-17
2.5.4 Hydrogen Infrastructure Cost 2-18
2.5.5 Advantages Of Onsite Hydrogen Production 2-19
2.5.6 Cost For Installing A Hydrogen Refueling Station 2-20
2.5.7 Key Elements Of A Hydrogen Economy Work 2-20
2.5.8 Costs 2-22
2.5.9 Investment for a Regional Hydrogen Infrastructure 2-22
2.5.10 Hydrogen Supply Cost 2-25
2.6 Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuel Delivery 2-25
2.6.1 Natural Gas As A Direct Fuel And A Fuel To Manufacture Hydrogen 2-26
2.6.2 Hydrogen From Water Using Off Peak Electricity 2-27
2.6.3 Solar and Wind Power to Fuel Manufacture of Hydrogen 2-29
2.6.4 Infrastructure for Power to Manufacture Hydrogen 2-30
2.7 Potential For Alternative Fuels By 2020 2-39

3. FUEL CELL FUEL SOURCES DESCRIPTION
3.1 Innovative Fuel Cell Applications 3-1
3.2 Fuels for Fuel Cells 3-1
3.3 Hydrogen 3-2
3.3.1 Hydrogen Fuel Mass-Production 3-3
3.3.2 Hydrogen Security Of Supply And Fuel Diversification 3-3
3.3.3 Hydrogen Distribution And Storage 3-4
3.3.4 Hydrogen Loss Rates Through Boil-Off 3-5
3.3.5 Advantages Of On Site Production Of Hydrogen 3-6
3.3.6 Central Production Of Hydrogen 3-7
3.3.7 Hydrogen Power Train 3-9
3.3.8 Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure 3-10
3.3.9 Hydrogen Sources 3-11
3.3.10 Hydrogen Distributed Generation 3-12
3.3.11 Fuel Cell Refueling Requires Cooperation Between The Vehicle OEMs And The Fuel Provider 3-12
3.3.12 Codes and Standards 3-12
3.4 Hydrogen Production And Movement 3-14
3.4.1 Hydrogen Production 3-16
3.4.2 Near-Term Hydrogen Production 3-16
3.4.3 Hydrogen Fuel 3-17
3.4.4 Local manufacture of Hydrogen 3-18
3.5 GreenVolt 3-18
3.5.1 GreenVolt HY-Cat product line. 3-18
3.6 Shell Hydrogen 3-19
3.6.1 Hydrogen-Powered Vehicles 3-20
3.6.2 Shell Hydrogen Station In Amsterdam 3-21
3.6.3 Shell Hydrogen Stations 3-22
3.7 Large-Scale Hydrogen Production for Vehicles 3-22
3.7.1 Fuel Price Neutrality 3-23
3.7.2 Export of Hydrogen 3-24
3.7.3 Fuel Cell Military Applications 3-25
3.7.4 Military Micro-Applications 3-27
3.7.5 Military Vehicular Applications 3-29
3.7.6 Fuel Cells In Large Military Vehicles And In Large Naval Vessels 3-30
3.8 Fuel Cell Fuel Sources Logistical Challenges 3-30
3.8.1 Military Use Of Smaller Portable Systems Below 1kW 3-34
3.9 Fuel Cell Vehicle Fuelling 3-34
3.10 Fuel Cell Efficiency 3-39
3.11 Natural Gas Refueling Infrastructure 3-41
3.11.1 Fuel Distribution Variables 3-42
3.11.2 Overall Cost Advantage For Natural Gas Against Gasoline And Against Diesel 3-43
3.11.3 Natural Gas Vehicle Infrastructure Costs 3-44
3.11.4 Natural Gas Vehicle Infrastructure Maintenance Costs 3-45
3.11.5 Natural Gas Alternative Fuels 3-46
3.11.6 Natural Gas Vehicles Have A Co2 Advantage 3-46
3.11.7 Optimized Natural Gas Engine Technology 3-47
3.11.8 Long-Distance Gas Distribution Infrastructure Is Required For Stationary Uses 3-47
3.11.9 Liquefied Petroleum Gas 3-50
3.11.10 Natural Gas Codes And Standards Harmonization 3-50
3.11.11 European Commission Targets For Alternative Fuels 3-51
3.11.12 Investment for a European Hydrogen Infrastructure 3-54
3.11.13 Hydrogen Supply Cost 3-54
3.11.14 Fuel Cell Industry Groups For Codes And Standards 3-55
3.12 Dais Analytic Polymer Materials 3-55
3.13 DaimlerChrysler Fuel Cell Vehicle "F-Cell" 3-56
3.13.1 DaimlerChrysler F-Cell Global Partnership Program 3-57
3.14 Bridgestone Corporation Intelligent Tires 3-58
3.14.1 Fuel Cell Vehicle Intelligent Tires 3-58
3.15 MTU CFC Stationary Carbonate Fuel Cell Solutions 3-59
3.15.1 Chrysler Group Development Of Fuel Cell Fuel Systems 3-60
3.15.2 Fuel Sources For Fuel Cell Bus Project 3-61
3.15.3 Sodium Borohydride (NaBH4) As A Fuel Cell Fuel Source 3-61
3.16 Millennium Cell Hydrogen on Demand 3-61
3.17 Natural Gas Broken Down Chemically Into Carbon Dioxide And Hydrogen 3-62
3.18 DaimlerChrysler Methanol-A Liquid 3-63
3.19 Hydrogen Filling Stations 3-63
3.19.1 DaimlerChrysler 3-64
3.20 Duracell 3-64
3.20.1 Fuel Cell Vehicles Need Hydrogen Storage to Compete On The Basis Of Range And Cargo Space 3-66
3.21 Coleman Powermate 3-66
3.22 GreenVolt Power 3-66
3.22.1 GreenVOLT Modular Systems 3-67
3.22.2 IdaTech Development of Prototype Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel Cell System 3-69
3.22.3 IdaTech Natural Gas Fuel Cell System 3-70
3.23 Fuel Processing 3-71
3.24 IdaTech Fuel Processors 3-71
3.24.1 IdaTech FPM 20™ Fuel Processor Module 3-73
3.24.2 IdaTech Multi-Fuel Solutions 3-73
3.25 Hydrocarbon Strategy 3-73
3.25.1 Methanol Is Common 3-75
3.25.2 Methanol Efficient and Versatile 3-76
3.25.3 Methanol Fuel Service Solutions 3-77
3.25.4 IdaTech Hydrocarbon Strategy 3-77
3.26 Hybrid Solutions 3-78
3.26.1 Strength Of A Photovoltaic (PV) Solar System 3-78
3.26.2 Strength Of A Fuel Cell System 3-79
3.27 IdaTech Solar-Fuel Cell Hybrid System 3-79
3.27.1 IdaTech Service Solutions 3-80
3.28 Millennium Cell Manufacturing Process Of Sodium Borohydride 3-81
3.28.1 Millennium Cell Hydrogen on Demand™ System 3-81
3.28.2 Millennium Cell Hydrogen on Demand Chrysler Town & Country Natrium 3-82
3.28.3 Millennium Cell Hydrogen Solution 3-83
3.28.4 Millennium Cell Partnership With Ballard 3-85
3.28.5 Millennium Cell Uses Boron, A Close Cousin Of Carbon 3-86
3.28.6 Millennium Cell Hydrogen On Demand 3-86
3.29 Ford Crown Victoria 3-87
3.29.1 Ford Explorer 3-87
3.30 Nuvera Gemini 3-88
3.31 Proton Energy Systems 3-89
3.31.1 Proton Energy Systems Strategic Positioning 3-89
3.31.2 Proton Energy Systems / Acquisition of Northern Power Systems 3-90
3.31.3 Northern Power Systems 3-90
3.31.4 Proton Energy Systems Products 3-91
3.32 UTC Fuel Cells 3-91
3.32.1 HydrogenSource - UTC Fuel Cells Partnered With Shell Hydrogen 3-92
3.32.2 HydrogenSource Power Systems and Integration 3-92
3.32.3 Hydrogen Not Energy Unless It Is Put Into A Form That Can Be Used 3-93
3.32.4 What Cost Hydrogen Becomes Ideal 3-93
3.33 California Infrastructure 3-94
3.34 Polar Fuel Additives 3-95

4. FUEL CELL FUEL SOURCES TECHNOLOGY AND COUNTRY INITIATIVES
4.1 Shell Offshore Initiatives 4-1
4.2 Fuel Cell Technology 4-3
4.2.1 Fuel Cell Technology Research 4-3
4.3 Fuel Cell Technology Holds Key To Providing Renewable Energy Source 4-4
4.3.1 Onboard Reformation vs. Off-Board Hydrogen Production 4-5
4.3.2 Centralized vs. Distributed Generation 4-6
4.3.3 Hydrogen Storage 4-7
4.3.4 Compressed Hydrogen Storage 4-7
4.3.5 Storage vs. Vehicle Efficiency 4-8
4.3.6 Advanced Hydrogen Storage 4-9
4.4 Transportation Industry Hydrogen Sources 4-12
4.4.1 Well-To-Wheels Study On Greenhouse Gas Emissions 4-13
4.4.2 Large-Scale Introduction Of Natural Gas As Motor Fuel 4-14
4.4.3 Substitution Of Gasoline Or Diesel With Natural Gas 4-15
4.4.4 Hydrogen Potential Main Energy Carrier 4-16
4.4.5 Linking Hydrogen And Natural Gas Fuel Infrastructures Supports Introduction Of Hydrogen As Fuel 4-16
4.4.6 Large Market Introduction Of Hydrogen Internal Combustion Vehicles 4-17
4.4.7 Hydrogen Production From Biomass 4-17
4.4.8 Ethanol Safety 4-17
4.4.9 Hydrogen Has A Low Flash Point 4-18
4.5 Hydrogen Potential 4-18
4.5.1 U.S. Federal Spending 4-20
4.5.2 U.S. DoE Hydrogen Research Funds reduced by 50 Percent 4-20
4.5.3 New Jersey Genesis 4-21
4.5.4 California Infrastructure 4-21
4.5.5 California South Coast Air Quality Management District 4-22
4.5.6 European Commission 4-22
4.5.7 Canadian Government 4-23
4.5.8 Japan Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization 4-23
4.5.9 Satellite Containing An Array Of Mirrors And Focusing Lenses To Gather Sunlight 4-24
4.5.10 Hydrogen Is A Solution Crying Out For It's Own Solution 4-25
4.5.11 Options To Replace The Power Density Of Electricity Produced From Fossil Fuels 4-25
4.5.12 It Does Not Make Much Sense To Use Electricity To Generate Hydrogen To Generate Electricity 4-26
4.5.13 Solar Power Satellite 4-27
4.6 Hydrogen Production 4-27
4.6.1 Chemistry Of Hydrogen Production Is
4.6.2 Yet To Be Researched Thoroughly 4-28
4.6.2 Hydrogen Production On Industrial Scale 4-29
4.6.3 Coal Transport And Storage 4-35
4.7 Hydrogen Flows Through Channels In Flow Field Plates 4-36
4.7.1 Air 4-36
4.7.2 Membrane Electrode Assembly 4-37
4.7.3 Flow Field Plates 4-37
4.7.4 Fuel Cell Module 4-37
4.7.5 Iceland Vast Resources Of Natural Geothermal And Hydro Power 4-37
4.8 Boron Hydrides 4-38
4.9 Reverse Fuel Cells 4-39
4.9.1 Local Hydrogen Manufacture Is Compelling 4-39

5. FUEL CELL COMPANY PROFILES
5.1 Fuel Cell Companies 5-1
5.2 Air Products 5-5
5.3 Anuvu 5-6
5.4 Ballard 5-6
5.4.1 Ballard Chief Technology Officer Change 5-7
5.4.2 Ballard Power Systems Revenue 5-8
5.4.3 Ballard Revenue 5-9
5.4.4 Ballard Government / Industry Partnerships 5-10
5.4.5 Michelin Challenge Bibendum 5-11
5.4.6 Ballard Nexa 5-12
5.4.7 Ballard AirGen 5-12
5.4.8 Ballard AirGen Fuel Cell Generators 5-13
5.4.9 Ebara Ballard 5-13
5.4.10 Ballard Acquisition Of Coleman Powermate 5-14
5.4.11 Ballard / Coleman Powermate AirGen™ Fuel Cell Generator 5-14
5.4.12 Ballard Next Generation Transportation Fuel Cell Engine 5-15
5.4.13 Ballard Strategy 5-15
5.4.14 Ballard Carbon Fiber Products 5-16
5.4.15 Ballard Ecostar™ Power Converter 5-18
5.4.16 Ballard Plans For PEM Fuel Cell Products 5-18
5.4.17 Ballard Customers 5-20
5.4.18 DaimlerChrysler and Ford Funding 5-20
5.4.19 Ballard Power Electronics 5-21
5.4.20 Ballard Discontinued Internal Combustion Engine Generator Sets 5-22
5.4.21 Ballard Acquisition Of FirstEnergy Stationary Power Subsidiary 5-23
5.4.22 Ballard Power Systems 5-23
5.5 California Fuel Cell Partnership 5-24
5.6 DaimlerChrysler 5-25
5.6.1 DaimlerChrysler Balanced Portfolio Of Environmental Initiatives 5-25
5.6.2 DaimlerChrysler Fuel Cell Drive System Planned Investment 5-26
5.7 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) 5-26
5.8 Dynetek 5-27
5.8.1 Lightweight Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Storage Cylinder 5-28
5.8.2 Dynetek Revenue Fourth Quarter and the Year Ended 2003 5-29
5.8.3 Dynetek Industries Strategic Positioning 5-30
5.9 Ebara 5-31
5.9.1 Environmental Engineering Group Product Set 5-32
5.9.2 Ebara Corporation Strategic Positioning 5-35
5.10 Energy Conversion Devices 5-35
5.10.1 Energy Conversion Devices Synthesis Of New Materials 5-35
5.10.2 Multi-Disciplinary Business, Scientific, Technical And Manufacturing Organization 5-36
5.10.3 Energy Conversion Devices Proprietary technologies 5-37
5.10.4 Energy Conversion Devices Business Strategy 5-38
5.10.5 Energy Conversion Devices Battery And Photovoltaic Products 5-39
5.10.6 Energy Conversion Devices Information Technology Activities 5-39
5.10.7 Energy Conversion Devices Revenue 5-40
5.11 Energy Partners Ltd. 5-42
5.12 Ford 5-43
5.13 FuelCell Energy 5-44
5.13.1 FuelCell Energy Commercial Distribution Alliances 5-44
5.13.2 FuelCell Energy / Versa Power Systems 5-46
5.13.3 FuelCell Energy and Marubeni 5-47
5.13.4 FuelCell Energy / Global Thermoelectric 5-48
5.14 Fuel Cell Technologies 5-48
5.14.1 5 kW SOFC Undergoing Tests In Alaska 5-48
5.14.2 Fuel Cell Technologies Revenue 5-49
5.14.3 Fuel Cell Technologies Operations 5-50
5.15 GE Energy 5-52
5.15.1 GE Energy Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System Benefits 5-52
5.15.2 GE Energy Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System Improved Efficiency and Reduced Emissions 5-53
5.15.3 How The GE Energy Proton Exchange Membran (PEM) Fuel Cell Systems Work 5-53
5.15.4 GE Energy Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Processor 5-55
5.15.5 GE Energy Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Stack 5-55
5.15.6 GE Energy Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Power Conditioner 5-55
5.16 General Motors 5-56
5.16.1 General Motors Invested $1 Billion In Developing Fuel Cell Technology 5-57
5.17 GreenVolt Power 5-58
5.18 HERA Hydrogen Storage Systems Private Company Owned By Shell Hydrogen and Hydro-Quebec CapiTech 5-59
5.18.1 Shell Hydrogen Storage 5-60
5.18.2 Shell Hydrogen Manufacturing 5-61
5.18.3 Shell Hydrogen Marketing and Business Development 5-61
5.18.4 HERA Hydrogen Storage Systems / Ergenics 5-61
5.19 Hitachi / Tokai 5-62
5.20 Hydrogenics 5-63
5.20.1 Hydrogenics Clean Power Generation 5-63
5.20.2 Hydrogenics Test Division, Greenlight Power Technologies 5-64
5.20.3 Fuel Cell Power Generation Products In Premium Power Markets 5-64
5.20.4 Hydrogenics Strategy 5-65
5.20.5 Hydrogenics Revenue 5-65
5.21 Hyundai Motor 5-66
5.22 Icelandic New Energy 5-66
5.22.1 Icelandic New Energy Ltd Research 5-67
5.23 IdaCorp / IdaTech 5-67
5.24 Impco 5-67
5.25 Johnson Controls / Optima Batteries 5-69
5.25.1 Johnson Controls Building Automation Systems 5-70
5.25.2 Johnson Controls Acquires Borg Instruments AG 5-71
5.26 Marubeni 5-71
5.27 Matsushita 5-72
5.27.1 Matsushita Plans To Develop Fuel Cells Into Small Cogeneration Systems For Home Use 5-73
5.28 Messer 5-74
5.29 Millennium Cell 5-75
5.29.1 Millennium Cell Patents 5-75
5.29.2 Millennium Cell Core Business Strategy 5-78
5.29.3 Millennium Cell Proprietary Rights Agreement With DaimlerChrysler 5-78
5.29.4 Millennium Cell and Borax/ Rio Tinto 5-79
5.29.5 Millennium Cell and Air Products 5-79
5.29.6 Millennium Cell Development Agreement With Aperion Energy Systems 5-80
5.30 Mitsui 5-80
5.31 NEC 5-81
5.32 Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. 5-81
5.33 Northeast Advanced Vehicle Consortium (NAVC) 5-82
5.34 Nuvera 5-85
5.34.1 Nuvera Fuel Cells Small-Scale, On-Board Fuel Processing 5-87
5.34.2 Nuvera Fuel Cells Agreement With TotalFinaElf 5-88
5.34.3 Nuvera Cross-Platform Product Line 5-89
5.34.4 Nuvera Andromeda 5-90
5.34.5 Nuvera Star 5-90
5.34.6 Nuvera / Renault 5-90
5.34.7 Nuvera Gemini 5-91
5.34.8 Nuvera Strategy 5-92
5.35 Northern Power Systems 5-92
5.36 Palcan 5-93
5.36.1 Palcan Fuel Cells / Singapore's CET Technologies 5-93
5.37 Polar 5-94
5.37.1 DurAlt - The Technology 5-95
5.37.2 DurAlt Key Market Drivers 5-97
5.38 Proton Energy Systems 5-100
5.38.1 Proton Energy Systems Contracts 5-100
5.38.2 Proton Energy Systems Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) 5-103
5.38.3 Proton Energy Systems Strategic Positioning 5-104
5.38.3 Proton Energy Systems / Acquisition of Northern Power Systems 5-104
5.38.5 Proton Energy Systems Products 5-105
5.39 Plug Power 5-106
5.39.1 Plug Power Acquires H Power 5-106
5.39.2 H Power 5-107
5.40 PSA Peugeot Citroen 5-108
5.40.1 PSA Peugeot Citroen Vehicles Sold 5-109
5.41 PolyFuel 5-110
5.42 Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology 5-110
5.43 Sanyo 5-110
5.44 Shell Oil Company 5-111
5.44.1 Shell Hydrogen LLC 5-112
5.45 Siemens Westinghouse 5-112
5.45.1 Siemens Power Generation 5-114
5.46 Snow Leopard 5-114
5.47 Teledyne Technologies / Teledyne Energy Systems 5-114
5.47.1 TESI Advanced Power Group 5-115
5.47.2 TESI Combined With Energy Partners 5-115
5.47.3 Teledyne Energy Systems 5-116
5.47.4 Teledyne MedUSA 5-117
5.47.5 Teledyne Perry NG Fuel Cell 5-119
5.47.6 Teledyne's TITAN™ Water Electrolysis Products 5-122
5.47.7 Teledyne Medusa™ Fuel Cell Test Stations 5-123
5.48 Tokyo Gas 5-123
5.48.1 Tokyo Gas Profile 5-124
5.49 Toshiba 5-125
5.50 TotalFinaElf 5-125
5.51 Toyota 5-126
5.51.1 Toyota Motor Sales 5-126
5.51.2 Toyota Revenue 5-126
5.51.3 Toyota Fuel-Cell Hybrid Vehicles 5-127
5.51.4 Toyota Prius Gas-Electric Hybrid Vehicle 5-128
5.51.5 Toyota FCHV-3 5-128
5.51.6 Toyota FCHV-5 5-130
5.51.7 Toyota Jointly Developed Fuel-Cell Hybrid Bus, the FCHV-BUS1 5-130
5.51.8 Toyota Fuel Cell-Friendly Model Communities 5-131
5.51.9 Toyota, UC Irvine and Horiba Expand the Hydrogen Community 5-131
5.52 UTC Fuel Cells 5-132
5.52.1 UTC Fuel Cells / Hyundai 5-134
5.52.2 UTC Fuel Cells for NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter 5-134
5.52.3 HydrogenSource - UTC Fuel Cells Partnered With Shell Hydrogen 5-135
5.52.4 HydrogenSource Power Systems and Integration 5-135
5.52.5 UTC Fuel Cells Distributed Generation And Transportation 5-135
5.53 Ultralife Batteries 5-137

List of Tables and Figures

FUEL CELL FUEL SOURCES EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Table ES-1 ES-1
Commercialization Challenges Of The Fuel Cell Industry
Figure ES-2 ES-4
Global Number of Hydrogen From Wind and Solar New Fuel Cell Stations Per Year, 2005-2011
Figure ES-3 ES-5
Global Hydrogen Manufacture Form Water Using Solar and/or Wind Power Cost Per Local Fuel Cell
Refueling Station Forecast, 2005-2011
Table ES-4 ES-6
Fuel Cell Infrastructure Investment Needed
Table ES-5 ES-8
Production Of High Purity Hydrogen

FUEL CELL FUEL SOURCES MARKET DYNAMICS AND MARKET DESCRIPTION
Table 1-1 1-1
Fuel Cell Market Applications
Table 1-2 1-8
Hydrogen Storage Products
Table 1-3 1-9
Industrial / Commercial Hydrogen Suppliers
Table 1-4 1-12
Largest Uses Of Hydrogen
Table 1-5 1-14
Minor Applications Of Hydrogen
Table 1-6 1-15
Alternative fuels
Table 1-7 1-18
End To End Fuel Source Parameter Analysis
Table 1-8 1-20
Primary Energy Sources
Table 1-9 1-22
Options for Location of Manufacture Of Hydrogen
Table 1-10 1-28
Hydrogen Production On Industrial Scale
Table 1-11 1-29
Key Factors In Hydrogen Production Processes
Table 1-12 1-30
Key Factors In Hydrogen Production Efficiency
Table 1-13 1-31
Hydrogen Manufacture Aspects
Table 1-14 1-32
Hydrogen And Fuel Cells Provide A Way To Store Energy
Table 1-15 1-33
Low-carbon production systems
Table 1-16 1-37
Basic Fuel Cell Functionality Issues
Table 1-17 1-38
Fuel Cell Issues
Table 1-18 1-39
Domestic Fuel Cell System
Table 1-19 1-41
Hydrogen Sources
Table 1-20 1-48
Fuel Cell Uses An Electrochemical Process To Create Energy
Table 1-21 1-50
Fuel Cell Characteristics
Table 1-22 1-51
Fuel Cell Description
Table 1-23 1-52
Types Of Fuel Cells
Table 1-24 1-54
Classes Of Fuel Cells
Table 1-25 1-55
Fuel Cell Applications
Table 1-26 1-56
Alkaline Fuel Cell Features
Table 1-27 1-57
Phosphoric acid fuel cells applications
Table 1-28 1-58
Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Features
Table 1-29 1-60
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells
Table 1-30 1-61
Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Features
Table 1-31 1-65
Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Functions
Table 1-32 1-69
Commercial Challenges Of Hydrogen as Fuel For Automotive Applications
Table 1-33 1-70
Fuel Cell Functional Characteristics
Table 1-34 1-74
Estimated Half-Lives Of Methanol, Benzene, And MTBE
Table 1-35 1-76
Gasoline Vs Methanol As Fuel For Fuel Cells
Table 1-36 1-80
Benefits Of These Methanol Applications For Fuel
Table 1-37 1-86
Global Trends Driving Fuel Cell Development

FUEL CELL FUEL SOURCES MARKET SHARES MARKET OPPORTUNITIES, AND MARKET
FORECASTS
Table 2-1 2-1
Commercialization Challenges Of The Automotive, Truck, and Bus Fuel Cell Industry
Table 2-2 2-4
Integrated Fuel Cell Personal Transport Power Systems
Table 2-3 2-7
Regional Investment Needed For Hydrogen Infrastructure
Table 2-4 2-10
Fuel Cell Issues
Table 2-5 2-10
Fuel Cell Questions
Table 2-6 2-11
Energy Conversion Of Water To Hydrogen Issues
Table 2-7 2-12
Energy Materials For Manufacturing The Catalyst Issues
Table 2-8 2-13
Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology Application Opportunities
Table 2-9 2-18
Regional Investment Needed For Hydrogen Infrastructure
Table 2-10 2-19
Types of Hydrogen Supply
Table 2-11 2-23
Regional Investment Needed For Hydrogen Infrastructure
Table 2-12 2-24
Hydrogen Infrastructure Buildout
Figure 2-13 2-26
Global Natural Gas New Refueling Station Infrastructure Annual Construction Cost, Market Forecast,
Dollars, 2005-2011
Figure 2-14 2-27
Global Hydrogen From Natural Gas Fuel Cell New Refueling Station Infrastructure Annual Construction
Cost, Market Forecast, Dollars, 2005-2011
Figure 2-15 2-28
Global Hydrogen From Water Using Off Peak Electricity Fuel Cell New Refueling Station Infrastructure
Annual Construction Cost, Market Forecast, Dollars, 2005-2011
Figure 2-16 2-29
Global Hydrogen Manufacture From Wind and Solar Power Fuel Cell New Refueling Station
Infrastructure Annual Construction Cost, Market Forecast, Dollars, 2005-2011
Figure 2-17 2-31
Global Natural Gas and Fuel Cell New Refueling Station Infrastructure Annual Construction Cost, Market
Forecast, Dollars, 2005-2011
Table 2-18 2-32
Global Refueling Station Fuel Cell Infrastructure Costs by Fuel Type, Dollars, 2005-2011
Figure 2-19 2-33
Global Natural Gas Cost Per Refueling Station Forecast, 2005-2011
Figure 2-20 2-34
Global Hydrogen From Natural Gas Cost Per Fuel Cell Refueling Station Forecast, 2005-2011
Figure 2-21 2-35
Global Hydrogen From Natural Gas Cost Per Fuel Cell Refueling Station Forecast, 2005-2011
Figure 2-22 2-36
Global Hydrogen Manufacture From Water Using Solar and/or Wind Power Cost Per Fuel Cell Refueling
Station Forecast, 2005-2011
Table 2-23 2-37
U.S. Fuel Cell Refueling Station Installed Infrastructure By Fuel Type, Number of Stations, 2005-2011
Table 2-24 2-38
Global Fuel Cell Refueling Station Installed Infrastructure By Fuel Type, Number of Stations, 2005-2011

FUEL CELL FUEL SOURCES DESCRIPTION
Table 3-1 3-8
Early Phase Of Hydrogen And Fuel Cell Market Introduction
Table 3-2 3-13
Fuel Cell Codes and Standards
Table 3-3 3-14
Hydrogen Issues To Be Addressed
Table 3-4 3-15
Sources of Hydrogen
Table 3-5 3-20
Shell Hydrogen Heat- And Mass- Transfer Technology
Table 3-6 3-23
Fuel Price Neutrality Issues
Table 3-7 3-24
Range Of Conditions Needed To Achieve Hydrogen Export
Table 3-8 3-25
Non-Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technologies
Table 3-9 3-26
Military Fuel Cell Applications Factors
Table 3-10 3-28
Military Micro-Applications Fuel Cell Issues
Table 3-11 3-29
Military Micro-Applications
Table 3-12 3-31
Fuel Cell Fuel Sources Logistical Challenges
Table 3-13 3-33
Fuel Cell Fuel Sources Logistical Challenges For The Military
Table 3-14 3-36
Fuel Cell Vehicle Fuelling Infrastructure Issues
Table 3-15 3-38
Role of Government in Fuel Cell Vehicle Fuelling Infrastructure
Table 3-16 3-52
Pathways Allow Specifying A Range For Well To Tank Base
Table 3-17 3-53
Hydrogen Infrastructure Buildout
Table 3-18 3-68
GreenVOLT Focus On Stationary Power Applications
Table 3-19 3-74
Primary Fuel Cell Challenges With Traditional Hydrocarbon Fuels
Table 3-20 3-75
Hydrocarbon Fuels For Fuel Cells
Table 3-21 3-77
Methanol Advantages
Table 3-22 3-80
Advantages of a Solar-Fuel Cell Hybrid System
Table 3-23 3-84
Millennium Cell Hydrogen Solution Applications

FUEL CELL FUEL SOURCES TECHNOLOGY AND COUNTRY INITIATIVES
Table 4-1 4-1
Fuel Cell Technology Uses
Table 4-2 4-3
Basic Fuel Cell Functionality Issues
Table 4-3 4-8
Advanced Hydrogen Storage Materials
Table 4-4 4-9
Advanced Hydrogen Storage Issues
Table 4-5 4-29
Hydrogen Production On Industrial Scale
Table 4-6 4-30
Key Factors In Hydrogen Production Processes
Table 4-7 4-31
Key Factors In Hydrogen Production Efficiency
Table 4-8 4-32
Hydrogen Manufacture Aspects
Table 4-9 4-33
Hydrogen And Fuel Cells Provide A Way To Store Energy

FUEL CELL COMPANY PROFILES
Table 5-1 5-1
Selected Companies Participating In Fuel Cell Markets
Table 5-2 5-3
Selected Publicly Traded Fuel Cell Companies
Table 5-3 5-18
Ballard Plans To Bring PEM Fuel Cell Products To Market
Table 5-4 5-33
Environmental Engineering Group Products
Table 5-5 5-34
Environmental Engineering Group New Energy Systems
Table 5-6 5-37
Energy Conversion Devices Proprietary Technologies
Table 5-7 5-43
Ford Fuel Cell and Hybrid Vehicles 43
Table 5-8 5-45
FuelCell Energy Commercial Distribution Alliances
Table 5-9 5-54
GE Energy Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System Major Components
Table 5-10 5-68
IMPCO Go To Market Strategy
Table 5-11 5-77
Millennium Cell Patents
Table 5-12 5-83
Northeast Advanced Vehicle Consortium (NAVC) Recommended Practices
Table 5-13 5-102
Proton Energy Systems Design Goals
Table 5-14 5-106
Plug Power Strategic Partners
Table 5-15 5-116
Teledyne MedUSA™ Fuel Cell Test Stations Typical Applications
Table 5-16 5-117
Teledyne Modular PEM Fuel Cell Stacks
Table 5-17 5-119
TESI PEM Fuel Cell Stacks And Systems
Table 5-18 5-127
Toyota FCHV-3 Fuel-Cell Hybrid Vehicle Features
Table 5-19 5-132
UTC Fuel Cells Participation In The Transportation Market

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
3 of 4

- Air Products
- Anuvu
- Ballard
- California Fuel Cell Partnership
- DaimlerChrysler
- Dynetek
- Defense Advanced Reasearch Projects Agency (DARPA)
- Ebara
- Energy Conversion Devices
- Energy Partners Ltd.
- Ford
- FuelCell Energy
- Fuel Cell Technologies
- GE Energy
- General Motors
- GreenVolt Power
- HERA
- Hitachi/Tokai
- Hydrogenics
- Hyundai Motor
- Icelandic New Energy
- IdaCorp/IdaTech
- Impco
- Johnson Controls/Optima Batteries
- Merubeni
- Matsushita
- Messer
- Millennium Cell
- Mitsui
- NEC
- Niagra Mowhawk Power Corp
- Nuvera
- Northeast Advanced Vehicle Consortium (NAVC)
- Northern Power Systems
- Palcan
- Polar
- Proton Energy Systems
- Plug Power
- PSA Peugeot Citroen
- Polyfuel
- Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology
- Sanyo
- Siemans Westinghouse
- Snow Leopard
- Teledyne Technologies/Teledyne Energy Systems
- Tokyo Gas
- Toshiba
- TotalFinaElf
- Toyota
- UTC Fuel Cells
- Ultralife Batteries

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
4 of 4
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

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