Contents of the documentation
The Changing Field of Li-Ion Batteries
Ralph J. Brodd, PhD, President, Broddarp of Nevada, Inc.
Since its introduction in 1991, Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries have constituted a dynamic field of research, development and production. It currently is in the process of reinventing itself with a new chemistry base as well as developing a new market for powering portable tools and electric vehicles. The discussion will include a review of the new electrode materials and cell constructions as well as market directions. The market for electric vehicles alone will dominate the technology and markets by 2015. Finally, safety must be accepted as a given quality for the success of Li-Ion batteries. Shipping restrictions and the reasons for them will be discussed.
Anode / Carbon / Nanotechnology
Primary vs. Rechargeable Lithium Batteries for Mobile Applications
Rachid Yazami, PhD, Director, CNRS-CalTech International Laboratory on Materials for Electrochemical Energetics, California Institute of Technology
Most primary lithium batteries have higher energy density and longer shelf-life than rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. In fact metallic lithium anode has the highest specific capacity and the lowest operating voltage compared to any anode material in rechargeable batteries. Many applications do not require charging the battery; instead they require instant readiness of the power source. Power density is where rechargeable batteries find their main advantage compared to primaries. Materials science offers more and more opportunities to design cathode materials with fast kinetics, in particular by using nanostructured materials. Recently we’ve developed a new family of fluorinated carbon materials using carbon multiwalled nanotubes as the starting material. A combination of controlled fluorination yield and cathode engineering made it possible to discharge primary lithium cells at rates as high as 100C and operate them at temperatures between -60ºC and 160ºC, which is beyond the operation limits of rechargeable lithium batteries.
Prospects of Carbon Nanotubes for Lithium Ion Batteries
Brian J. Landi, PhD, Research Scientist, NanoPower Research Labs, Golisano Institute for Sustainability, Rochester Institute of Technology
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a candidate material for use in lithium ion batteries due to excellent conductivity (electrical and thermal), nanoscale porosity, and for lithium ion storage as an anode. The ability to fabricate CNT electrode papers independent of binder or metal foil substrates can increase the useable anode specific capacity by up to 10x. The potential role of incorporating CNTs into batteries as a conductive additive or active material support on either electrode will also be discussed.
Protected Lithium Electrodes (PLEs) as Universal Anodes for Ultra-High Energy Density Batteries and Drug Delivery Systems
Steven J. Visco, PhD, Vice President of Research, PolyPlus Battery Company*
Domestic and international programs focused on the shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources highlight the need for breakthroughs in advanced battery chemistries. The introduction of Li-ion batteries in the early 1990’s was a major advance in energy storage, but still does not meet the demands imposed by plug-in hybrid or all-electric vehicle technology. In order to achieve multiples of 2 or 3 in energy density, new battery technologies need to be developed. The invention of the protected lithium electrode (PLE) allows exploration of ultra-high energy density chemistries including rechargeable Li/Air, and remarkably, the development of very unique drug delivery systems.
*In collaboration with: E.Nimon, B.Katz, M.-Y.Chu, and Lutgard C. De Jonghe
Advanced Silicon Anode Technology for High Performance Li-Ion Batteries
Kiyotaka Yasuda, General Manager, SILX System Project Team, Corporate Technology Center,
Mitsui Mining & Smelting Co., Ltd., Japan
Mitsui has developed a new platform technology of silicon-base electrode (SILX®) and its system, used for lithium ion batteries having high capacity along with sufficient cycle life. SILX® has a unique network-structure composed of silicon and copper with proper internal space to accommodate electrolyte and also relieve the volume change during charge and discharge cycling. The most advantageous characteristic of this technology is the excellent rate performance especially at lower temperatures, which addresses key challenges in HEV and EV applications.
Development of Thermally Stable Anode Graphites for High Power Lithium Ion Batteries
Bharat S. Chahar, PhD, PE, Product Manager, CPreme® Energy Storage Materials, ConocoPhillips Company
Based on 50 years of experience in converting heavy hydrocarbons to value added carbons, ConocoPhillips has developed CPreme® graphite anode materials for high performance Li-ion batteries (LI-B). These materials were developed specifically to address the challenging needs of Li-B in automotive and other high-power applications. Extensive evaluations by customers and other third-party labs show that CPreme® graphites provide excellent combination of power, energy capacity, long cycle life and safety. This presentation will provide details behind the technology platform used in making CPreme® graphites. Examples of how CPreme® graphites can help the LiB manufacturers meet the difficult requirements of future automobiles will be discussed.
New Electrolyte Systems Using LiF, Li2O or Li2O2 with Boron-Based Lewis Acids as Additives and their Application in High Voltage Lithium-Ion Batteries
Xiao-Qing Yang, PhD, Principle Investigator, Chemistry Dept, Brookhaven National Laboratory*
New system of electrolytes has been developed and studied for lithium-ion batteries. These new systems are based on the interactions between LiF, Li2O or Li2O2 and tris(pentafluorophenyl) borane (TPFPB) in carbonate based organic solvents. This opens up a completely new approach in developing non-aqueous electrolytes. In general, the solubility of LiF, Li2O or Li2O2 is very low in organic solvents and the ionic conductivities of these solutions are almost undetectable. By adding certain amount of TPFPB, one type of boron based anion receptors (BBARs), the solubility of LiF, Li2O and Li2O2 in carbonate based solvents was significantly enhanced. In addition, the Li+ transference numbers of these new electrolytes measured were as high as 0.7, which are more than 100% higher than the values for the conventional electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. The room-temperature conductivities are around 1x10-3 S/cm. The compatibility of these new electrolytes with various cathode and anode materials and their potential use as high voltage electrolytes for lithium ion batteries has been studied and the results will be reported.
*In collaboration with: H.S.Lee, W.S.Yoon, K.W.Nam, and J.McBreen, BNL (USA); L.Li, B.Xie, Z.Liu, H.Li, X.Huang, & L.Chen, Inst. Physics, Chinese Acad. of Sci., China
Electrolytes for Wide Operating Temperature Range Li-Ion Cells
Marshall C. Smart, PhD, Senior Member of Technical Staff, Electrochemical Technologies Group, Device Research & Application Section, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology*
Due to their attractive properties and proven success, Li-ion batteries have become identified as the battery chemistry of choice for a number of future NASA missions. A number of these applications would be greatly benefited by improved performance of Li-ion technology over a wider operating temperature range, especially at low temperatures. In many cases, these technology improvements may be mission enabling, and at the very least mission enhancing. In addition to aerospace applications, the DoE has interest in developing advanced Li-ion batteries that can operate over a wide temperature range to enable terrestrial HEV applications. Thus, our focus at JPL in recent years has been to extend the operating temperature range of Li-ion batteries, especially at low temperatures. In addition to improving the low temperature performance, effort has been devoted to improving the high temperature resilience of Li-ion cells. In the present paper, we would like to present some of the results we have obtained with a number of carbonate-based electrolytes, optimized for wide operating temperature range, using a number of technical approaches. In addition to investigating the behavior in experimental cells initially, the performance of the most promising electrolyte systems were demonstrated in large capacity, vendor manufactured Li-ion prototype cells (capacity range = 0.25 Ah to 35.0 Ah). These cells were subjected to a number of performance tests, including discharge rate characterization, charge rate characterization, cycle life performance at various temperatures, and power characterization tests.
*In collaboration with: R.V.Bugga, K.A.Smith, L.D.Whitcanack
Safety / Testing / Prognostics
Enabling Battery Prognostics
Matthieu Dubarry, PhD and Bor Yann Liaw, PhD, Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, SOEST,
University of Hawaii at Manoa
Useful remaining life of a battery is very critical for mobile power application, but existing solutions are limited. Battery modeling and simulation in concert with effective battery monitoring protocols remain to be the best choice for estimating useful remaining life of mobile power sources. Correct application of modeling tools with monitor protocols is essential to the success of prognostics. We will discuss several technological barriers to be overcome to enable battery prognostics for mobile power applications.
Designing Safe Lithium Ion Battery Packs Using Thermal Abuse Models
Ahmad A. Pesaran, PhD, Principal Engineer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; and
Eric C. Darcy, Battery Group Lead, NASA Johnson Space Center*
Use of large numbers of series-parallel strings of small 18650 high-energy lithium-ion cells in mobile applications is on the rise. One such application by NASA is use of sixty to eighty commercial 18650 cells in a closely packed container for spacesuit applications. Designing safe packs with high energy density is a major goal of NASA. In support of this activity, NREL is utilizing its cell and module mathematical thermal abuse modeling to better understand the performance and safety limitations of the commercial 18650 cell designs. We are investigating various abuse conditions such as short circuit in a cell and its impact on the pack. We will present the results of our thermal network and electrical circuit models to predict initial heat release triggered by an abuse condition and how design changes could make packs more abuse tolerant to prevent thermal runaway propagation throughout a battery.
*In collaboration with: G.H.Kim, K.Smith, NREL
Using Electrochemical Thermodynamic Measurements to Detect Effects of
Joseph McMenamin, PhD, Vice President, VIASPACE, Inc.*
The temperature dependence of the open circuit voltage of an electrochemical cell can be used to measure the thermodynamic properties of entropy and enthalpy as a function of charge state. The entropy changes can be directly related to changes in the crystal structure of the cell electrodes with the state of charge (SOC). By comparing the entropy vs. SOC curves for new and aged cells the effects of aging on the structure of the cell electrodes can be determined.
*In collaboration with: John Paul Ruiz, CFX Battery, Inc.; and Rachid Yazami, CalTech
Technologies for Li-ion Batteries in Large Format and Improved Safety Features
Steve Mesibov, Lead Project Engineer, Planar Energy Devices
The tendency of rechargeable lithium batteries to suffer catastrophic failure due to abuse or internal shorting has been an unacceptable risk for most electric car manufacturers. Battery designers have attempted to mitigate this risk by exploring various electrode and electrolyte materials. Sadly, this approach tends to decrease the energy density while only reducing and not eliminating the problem. Now a new battery cell separator technology has been developed that is mechanically pressed between the anode and cathode which chemically shuts down the cell at temperatures above 100ºC while maintaining performance for more life cycles even at elevated temperatures.
APPLICATION DRIVEN LI BATTERY DEVELOPMENT (Cont’d)
Lithium Ion Batteries: Large Format and Applications to PHEV and Battery Electric Vehicles
Meinard Machler, Chief Engineer, and Gitanjali DasGupta, Manager, Electric Vehicle Programs, Electrovaya, Canada*
Electrovaya recently announced joining forces with Phoenix Motorcars’ BEV that will be on the road in 2008, a collaboration with ExxonMobil, and the launch of the Maya-300 low-speed electric vehicle. Electrovaya’s Lithium Ion SuperPolymer battery systems feature its MN-Series chemistry (offering up to 50% higher energy density than our Phosphate-Series), balanced energy-power optimization and integrated iBMS (intelligent battery management system). System designs range from 4kWh to over 100 kWh systems with corresponding 48V to over 700V configurations. Applications similarly range across heavy duty, medium duty, passenger, specialty and off-road all electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Electrovaya is working on these programs with a variety of OEM partners.
*In collaboration with: Sankar DasGupta, Electrovaya
Materials Challenges for Electrode Development
HEV and PHEV Batteries with Nano-Li4Ti5O12 Negative Electrodes
John Shelburne, PhD, Director - Cell Development and Engineering, AltairNano, Inc.
The performance of high specific power & high rate capability of cells and with nano-Li4Ti5O12 negative electrodes developed in particular for HEV and PHEV application will be discussed. The power performance of 3.5 Ah cells delivering specific power of about 4.5 kW/kg, using HPPC power characterization test, will be shown. EIS impedance data and 10 sec pulse impedance data showing about 10 Ohms-cm2 specific impedance will be used to explain the outstanding power performance of the nano-Li4Ti5O12 based 4Ah cells. Data for capacity retention during continuous charge and discharge at up to 80C rate corresponding to 45 sec. cell’s full charge and discharge duration will be also displayed. The outstanding power performance and charge & discharge rate capability at low temperature down to -40ºC will be also reported. Continuous cycling test at 1C charge rate & 1C discharge rate and at 55ºC with 90% capacity retention after 4000 cycles will be displayed. Particular attention will be paid on the excellent cycle and calendar life performance of these nano-Li4Ti5O12 based cells. Finally the results from safety tests performed on these cells showing no safety events will be displayed.
Large Format Li-Ion cells with LiFePO4 Cathode Material
Bridget Deveney, Research Scientist, SAFT Specialty Battery Group, SAFT
SAFT has developed LiFePO4 technology for its defense markets. Two cell sizes are currently available, a 10Ah very high power cell and a 25Ah high power cell. It is well known to everyone in the battery community that large cells do not behave the same as small cells. The performance of these fairly large cells in terms of specific energy, power and life will be described. Comparisons with other standard Li-ion chemistries will be made. Behavior under abuse conditions will also be discussed. Battery systems and the challenges of electronics for LiFePO4 systems will also be discussed.
Particle Size Effect of Carbon Sources on the Electrochemical Performance of LiFePO4
George T.-K. Fey, PhD, Professor, Dept of Chemical & Materials Engineering, National Central University, Taiwan*
Carbon-coated LiFePO4 cathode materials were prepared by a solid state method incorporating different sizes of PS spheres as carbon sources. The LiFePO4 precursor sintered with 0.22 µm PS spheres delivered the first discharge capacity of 145 mAh g-1 at a 0.2C-rate, but it only sustained 289 cycles at 80% capacity retention. However, the first cycle discharge capacity of LiFePO4 synthesized with a 2.75µm PS sphere was 132 mAh g-1 and achieved 755 cycles. A small particle carbon source was conducive to achieving higher capacity, while a large particle carbon source tended to result in longer cycle life.
*In collaboration with: Y.-D.Cho and H.-C.Tu
Recent Efforts at Yardney Technical Products towards Domestically Produced Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Cells
Maggie Gulbinska, PhD, Principal Project Scientist, Yardney Technical Products/Lithion Inc.*
Yardney Technical Products (YTP) with its strategic partner, BASF Catalysts LLC, have undertaken an effort to develop and test domestic, high quality cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIB). Several most promising cathode candidate materials were developed and tested in cells varying from 4mAh to 60Ah in size, at temperatures ranging from -30ºC to 60ºC, and using varied charge/discharge rates (C/20 to 100C continuous discharge). The testing results are compared against the State of the Art commercial (foreign produced) materials.
*In collaboration with: F.J.Puglia, S.Santee, YTP; J.Lambert, BASF Catalysts LLC
Advances in Materials Development for Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries
Ganesh Skandan, PhD, CEO, NEI Corporation
New generation rechargeable Li-ion batteries are being developed, where advanced cathode and anode materials compositions are being utilized to deliver the needed safety, energy density and power density. Although safety and abuse tolerance are universal requirements for all rechargeable batteries, different materials need to be used as electrodes since the performance requirements of the applications vary from each other. For example, stationary power applications require a very large cycle life, >3000 cycles, but the energy density requirements may be modest. On the other hand, hybrid electric vehicle applications need rechargeable batteries with a high rate capability, and need to be operational at temperatures as low as -30ºC. Similarly, aerospace applications need high energy density and high power density, but long cycle life may not be as important. A major challenge in all these cases is to develop suitable processes for producing cathode and anode materials that can satisfy the functional performance requirements of these applications. The properties and performance of the materials are closely tied to the particular production process used. In this presentation, the materials characteristics of mixed metal oxides, particularly the particle size and morphology, will be correlated with the electrochemical performance in both Li-test cells and Li-ion full cells. The pros and cons of an ultrafine particle or grain size will be described.
Materials Challenges for Electrode Development (Cont’d)
High Energy and High Power Li-Ion 18650 Cylindrical Cells via Quantum Simulations based Battery Materials Search and Design Platform
Deepak Srivastava, PhD, Chief Technology Officer, Nanoexa
High rate and high energy density lithium ion batteries constitute a major requirement for cord-less power tools and plug-in and electric automotive applications. Quantum simulations based database and search engine technology platform for finding new battery materials compositions has been developed for battery electrode materials. Demonstration of the database and search engine technology and electro-chemical performance of 18650 cylindrical cells based on mixed metal oxide layer-layer composite cathode materials will be discussed in this presentation.
5V Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Battery
S. Gopukumar, PhD, Senior Scientist, Advanced Battery/Electrochemical Energy Systems Division, Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CSIR), India
Spinel LiMn2O4 is preferred over LiCoO2 considering the ease of synthesis, environment friendly and low cost. Increasing miniaturization and constrains on volume to weight ratio’s on lithium ion batteries has led to the development of high performing materials. Towards, this goal, development of 5V cathode materials based on LiMn2O4 is an interesting option. In this talk, I present our recent results on sol-gel synthesized 5V LiMxMn1-xO4 (M = Zr, Cu) and LiMxMyMn2-x-yO4 (M = Co, Fe, Cr) using different chelating agents. The synthesized powders were subjected to different physical characterizations viz., XRD, SEM/TEM and TG/DTA for understanding the phase purity, morphology and thermal behavior respectively. Electrochemical charge/discharge cycling studies reveal that the partial substitution of manganese by copper or by equal amounts of iron and nickel enhances the electrochemical performance of the spinel compound.
Advances in Charging Technology
IC Based Active Charge Balancing of Lithium Ion Battery
Chris Mi, PhD, Chief Technical Officer, 1Power Solutions
Battery safety and longevity issues are significantly magnified in large battery systems. 1Power Solutions has developed charge isolation architecture which provides thermal balance and equal charge and discharge within +/- 2mV for battery cells in large systems. Every cell tightly balances during charge and discharge in any combination of rows, modules, arrays, or strings of batteries. Experimental results show significant increase in available battery capacity and life cycle. 1Power has developed additional ICs that will increase system reliability in case a bad cell is detected. The ICs will automatically disconnect or bypass the bad cell.
Charging Systems for High-Power Cells
Rory Pynenburg, PhD, Manager of Application Engineering, Micro Power Electronics, Inc.
High power Li-ion batteries support pulses over 100 Amps. Taking advantage of the high rate charge/discharge capabilities adds new electrical and mechanical challenges to a traditional charger design. Micro Power addresses both electrical and mechanical design considerations/guidelines for designing chargers that can utilize the new capabilities offered by these high power batteries. Topics included in this session include fast charging, power supply selection, electrical contacts and connections, thermal management, and prevention of Electromagnetic Interference (EMI).
New Charging Method for Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries
Ibrahim Abou Hamad, PhD, Research Associate, University of Delaware
We present a new charging method that is capable of charging a battery in a fraction of the time needed when using traditional methods, with the potential for much shorter charging times after optimizing the control parameters of our charging scheme. Moreover, the presented method seems not to have a negative effect on the battery capacity or cycle lifetime. Finally, while our method offers a great improvement in charging time, its implementation does not require major changes to current chargers available in the market place. SHOW LESS READ MORE >
Contents of the documentation