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Antiviral Therapeutics - Technologies, Markets and Companies

  • ID: 471561
  • Report
  • March 2017
  • Region: Global
  • 563 Pages
  • Jain PharmaBiotech
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This report reviews the current state-of-art of antiviral approaches including vaccines, pharmaceuticals and innovative technologies for delivery of therapeutics. The introduction starts with a practical classification of viral diseases according to their commercial importance. Various antiviral approaches are described including pharmaceuticals and molecular biological therapies such as gene therapy and RNA interference (RNAi) as well as vaccines for virus infections. Expert opinion is given about the current problems and needs in antiviral therapy. SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis of antiviral approaches is presented against the background of concept of an ideal antiviral agent.

A novel feature of this report is the use of nanotechnology in virology and its potential for antiviral therapeutics. Interaction of nanoparticles with viruses are described. NanoViricides are polymeric micelles, which act as nanomedicines to destroy viruses. Various methods for local as well as systemic delivery of antiviral agents and vaccines are described. Nanobiotechnology plays an important role in improving delivery of antivirals. Advantages and limitations of delivery of gene-based, antisense and RNAi antiviral therapeutics are discussed.

Anti-influenza measures applicable to human as well as avian forms are described including the recent epidemic of swine flu. Resistance can develop against neuraminidase inhibitors although it is less than that with adamantanes. Considering these problems, there is need for a more effective agent. Investigations into alternative anti-influenza target will probably expand in the coming years. These include the development of mechanisms to inhibit fusion between the virus envelope and the cell membrane.

After a discussion of current therapies of AIDS/HIV and their limitations, new strategies in development of antiviral agents are described. Drug resistance and toxicities are emerging as major treatment challenges. Based on a review of technologies and drugs in development, it can be stated that there are good prospects are of finding a cure for HIV/AIDS in the next decade.

Hepatitis viruses are described with focus on hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Despite the presence of numerous drug candidates in the anti-HCV pipeline, and the commitment of major R&D resources by many pharmaceutical companies, it might still take several years for any new anti-HCV drugs to reach the market. Although many companies are focusing their efforts on developing viral inhibitors, cellular targets in the host are beginning to emerge as attractive possibilities because they might enable the development of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs with less chance for developing viral resistance.

Various commercially important viruses include herpes simplex (HSV) and human papilloma virus (HPV). There a number of treatments but HSV is not destroyed completely and remains dormant and activates from time to time to cause various clinical manifestations. There is discussion about the role of HPV in cervical cancer and vaccines available now seem to be adequate in preventing HSV-induced cervical cancer. There is no effective vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) although monoclonal antibody (MAb) treatment is useful for prophylaxis and reducing the clinical manifestations. There is a need for an agent to eliminate this virus.

Various viruses that either occur in epidemics or in tropics and some naturally emerging infectious diseases are described, e.g. viral hemorrhagic fevers such as dengue and West Nile virus infection. These are a constant threat and impossible to anticipate. Some of these lack antiviral agents or vaccines for prevention. Although these include some of the most serious viral disorders, the development of antiviral agents for these is not commercially attractive. Current research and approaches to these virus infections are discussed.

Markets for antivirals are considered according to viruses and diseases caused by them and also according to management approaches: antiviral drugs, vaccines, MAbs and innovative approaches that include immunological and use of other technologies such as gene therapy, antisense, RNAi and nanobiotechnology. Antiviral markets are estimated starting with 2016 with projections up to the year 2026.

Profiles of 194 companies that are involved in developing various technologies and products are profiled and with 174 collaborations. These include major pharmaceutical companies (12), Biopharmaceutical companies with antiviral products (86), Antiviral drug companies (26) as well as viral vaccine companies (70). The report is supplemented with 53 tables, 15 figures and 550 references from the literature.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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0. Executive Summary

1. Introduction to Virology
Evolution of viruses
Virus databases
A practical classification of viruses
The human virome
Viral genomics
Pathomechanism of viral diseases relevant to therapy
Intrinsic host defense against retroviruses
Interferon-induced B cell deletion in chronic viral infections
Drosha as an interferon-independent antiviral factor
Life cycle of virus as basis for antiviral approaches
Genetic switch in virus infections
Emerging viruses
Viral-induced cancer
Viral encephalitis
Brain’s response to viral infections
Combination of antivirals with immunosuppression in viral encephalitis
Molecular diagnosis of viral diseases
Prophylaxis versus therapy
Economic impact of viral diseases
Historical landmarks in the development of antiviral therapies

2. Antiviral Approaches
Antiviral drug discovery and development
Antiviral drug targets - viral versus cellular
Antivirals based on double-stranded RNA activated caspase oligomerizer
Antimicrobial peptides
Human DDX3 protein as a target for developing broad spectrum antiviral agents
Immunological approaches
Basics of immune regulation in relation to viruses
Effect of viruses on the immune system
Latent viral infections and the immune system
Immunomodulating agents
Amplification of innate immunity
Blocking the effects of thromboxane A2 on thromboxane receptor
Enhancers of immune system
Promoting immune-mediated clearance of a chronic viral infections
Bovine lactoferrin
Monoclonal antibodies
Antibody production technologies
Treatment of viral infection with radiolabeled MAbs
Limitations of MAbs and measures to overcome these
Interferon-based approaches
Novel antiviral approaches
Phosphatidylethanolamine inhibitors as potential antivirals
Synthetic modified hypericin compounds
Targeting Toll-like receptors
Potential and drawbacks of TLR-ligands in viral diseases
Inhibition of viral transport from cytoplasm into the cell nucleus
Nitric Oxide based antiviral therapeutics
Amino acid cognate anticodon binding specificity
Antisense approaches to viral infections
Antisense oligonucleotides
Limitations of antisense oligonucleotides as antivirals
Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers
Gene therapy for viral infections
RNAi screens of viral genomes
RNAi for treatment of viral infections
Promise and pitfalls of RNAi gene therapy
Role of proteomics in virology
Interaction of proteins with viruses
Quantitative temporal viromics
Management of rapidly evolving pathogens
Personalized medicine and viral diseases
An integrated approach to viral diseases
Current problems and needs in antiviral therapy
Immunoinformatic approach to vaccine design for emerging infections

3. Vaccines for Virus Infections
Types of vaccines
Live attenuated virus vaccines
DNA vaccines
mRNA vaccines
Nanotechnology-based vaccines
Recombinant viral vaccines
SMART vaccines
Synthetic peptides as vaccines
Vaccines based on reverse genetics
Virus-like particles
Routine vaccination in children against viral infections
Personalized vaccines
Limitations of vaccines
Neurological complications of vaccination
Expert opinion on antiviral vaccines

4. Role of Nanotechnology in Developing Antiviral Agents
Study of interaction of nanoparticles with viruses
Nanoparticle antiviral agents
Silver nanoparticles
Nanoparticles mimic RNAi for treatment of viral infections
Role of micelles in nanopharmaceuticals
Some physicochemical characteristics common to polymeric micelles
Structure and function of nanoviricides
Mechanism of action of NanoViricides
Advantages of NanoViricides

5. Delivery of Antivirals
Methods of delivery of antiviral agents
Local application of antivirals
Systemic delivery of of protein-polymer antiviral drugs
Controlled delivery of antivirals
Targeted delivery of antivirals
Delivery of antivirals to the brain across the blood-brain barrier
Antiviral vaccine delivery systems
Minicell vaccine delivery
Transnasal delivery of vaccines by Newcastle disease virus as vector
Transdermal delivery of vaccines
Dissolvable microneedle array for vaccine delivery
Electroporation for administering DNA vaccines
HIV/AIDS vaccination by transdermal application
Microneedles for transdermal delivery of vaccines
Needle-free delivery of vaccines
Transdermal vaccines for influenza
Use of nanotechnology for improving delivery of antivirals
Macrophage-based nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy
Improvement of antiviral vaccine delivery by nanotechnology
Bacterial spores for delivery of vaccines
Chitosan-derived nanoparticles for vaccine delivery
Dendrimer-based intracellular delivery of antibodies
Gold nanorods for delivery of RNA immune activator molecules
Lipid nanoparticles for immunostimulatory RNA delivery
Liposomal antiviral vaccine preparations
Nanoparticles for DNA vaccines
Nanospheres for controlled release of viral antigens
Proteosomes™ as vaccine delivery vehicles
Polymeric micellae for delivery of DNA vaccine
“Smart” nanoparticles for delivery of vaccines
Nanocoating for local viricidal effect
Delivery of gene-based antiviral drugs
Limitations of delivery of gene, RNAi and antisense therapies
Systemic delivery of NanoViricides
Concluding remarks on delivery of antiviral agents

6. Competitive Assessment of Antiviral Approaches
An ideal antiviral agent
SWOT analysis
Concluding remarks

7. Influenza Viruses
Clinical features of influenza
Colds due to rhinovirus
Effects of influenza on the respiratory system
Effect of avian influenza on the nervous system
Supermap of avian influenza
Influenza A
Avian influenza affecting humans
Human infection with a H7N9 Virus
Human influenza versus avian influenza
H1N1 influenza
Immune system and influenza
Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resources
Role of Tpl2 in antiviral host defense mechanisms
Anti-influenza approaches
Neuraminidase inhibitors
Mechanism of action
Resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors
Adverse effects of neuraminidase inhibitors
Concluding remarks on neuraminidase inhibitors
Other drugs for influenza
Current recommendations for the use of antiviral agents for influenza
Seasonal influenza vaccines
Live attenuated influenza vaccine vs. inactivated vaccine
Vaccines for H1N1 influenza
Vaccines for H7N9 influenza
Current status of influenza vaccines
Current recommendations for influenza vaccination
Current status of vaccine preparedness against seasonal influenza
Current status of vaccine preparedness against H5N1
Limitations, needs and challenges of influenza vaccines
Limitations of current influenza vaccines
Needs of influenza vaccines
Problems with demand and supply of influenza vaccines
Problems with access to virus samples
FluVac project for development of pandemic influenza vaccine
Influenza vaccines for multiple strains of influenza
Quadrivalent influenza vaccine
Universal influenza vaccines
Future of influenza vaccines
Application of new technologies for influenza vaccines
Cell culture-derived influenza vaccines
DNA vaccines for avian influenza
Epitope-based vaccines for influenza
Gene-based vaccines for influenza
Live attenuated vaccines
MAbs for passive immunization against avian influenza
M2e-based human influenza A vaccine.
RNA vaccines against influenza A
Pre-pandemic split antigen H5N1 vaccine
Recombinant-protein based influenza vaccines
Synthetic avian influenza vaccine
Viral vectors for influenza vaccination
Virus-like particles as influenza vaccines
RNAi-based approaches
Inhibition of influenza virus by siRNAs
Limitations of RNAi approach to influenza
Challenges and future prospects of siRNAs for influenza
Antisense approaches
NEUGENE® antisense for inhibition of multiple strains of influenza A
Nanoviricides against influenza
Other innovative approaches
Polymeric coatings to inactivate influenza virus
Cytotoxic therapy
Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate
Value of antivirals in preventing spread of influenza after exposure
Resistance to influenza therapy and efforts to overcome it
FLUCURE project
NIAID Centers of Excellence for research on pandemic influenza viruses
Research on influenza viruses at Bayer
Concluding remarks and future prospects

Current concepts of pathomechanisms
Decoding the structure of an entire HIV genome
Genetic basis of resistance against HIV
Host-pathogen interactions that regulate HIV-1 replication
Pathogenesis of AIDS
Visualization of the interaction of HIV-1 proteins with target cells
Viral latency in HIV
Complications of AIDS
AIDS and the nervous system
AIDS wasting syndrome
Coexistent HIV-1 and HSV-2
Coexistent hepatitis virus infections with HIV
Opportunistic infections in AIDS
HIV and tuberculosis
Current therapies
Aim of anti-HIV drugs
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
Protease inhibitors
Fusion inhibitors
Impact of antiretroviral treatment on transmission of HIV
Preexposure prophylaxis against HIV
Postexposure prophylaxis against HIV
Antiretroviral therapy in early asymptomatic HIV infection
Limitations of current therapies
Adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy
Drug resistance in AIDS
Effect of interruption of HIV treatment
Reservoirs of HIV Infection
Persistance of low-level viremia in HIV-1 patients on retroviral therapy
Reconsideration of abandoned therapies for AIDS
Therapies in development
Drugs in development for HIV/AIDS
NRTIs in development
NNRIs in development
Novel protease inhibitors
Overcoming HIV-1 resistance to PIs
Entry inhibitors targeting CCR5 receptor
MAbs targeting CCR5 receptor
PRO 140
Integrase inhibitors
Raltegravir (Isentress)
Design of fusion inhibitor peptides against enfuvirtide-resistant HIV-1
Maturation inhibitors
Blocking of pre-integration complex translocation
Immune enhancers
Combinations of drugs for AIDS
Raltegravir, enfuvirtide, and darunavir
Other innovative antiviral approaches against HIV/AIDS
A filtration device for HIV-1 as an adjunct to the immune system
Anti-HIV therapies based on editing enzymes
Anti-HIV activity of drugs that stimulate cholesterol efflux
Antiviral hyperactivation-limiting therapeutics
ATR kinase as a target for anti-HIV drug discovery
Blocking of HIV budding by DC-SIGN protein
Drugs from natural sources
Enhancing immune response by blockade of PD-1 receptor
IL-2 as adjunct to antiretroviral therapy
In vitro evaluation of antiviral drug activity
Methods for sustaining antiviral activity
Microbicidal agents for local application in HIV/AIDS
Investigational microbicidals against HIV and their limitations
CCR5 receptor blockers
PSC-Rantes and recombinant chemokine analogs
HIV-1 entry inhibitor griffithsin as a topical microbicide
Nanotechnology-based topical microbicides
Next generation microbicides for HIV
Vaginal application of anti-retroviral drugs against HIV
Nanoviricides for HIV/AIDS
Prophylactic measures to prevent HIV infection
Selective targeting of ITK to block multiple steps of HIV replication
Cell therapy for HIV/AIDS
hESCs converted to T-cells for treatment of HIV infection
Transplantation of genetically modified hematopoietic cells
Transplantation of genetically modified T cells
Overlapping Peptide-pulsed Autologous Cells
Gene therapy strategies in HIV/AIDS
Gene editing for HIV-1
Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by lentiviral vectors
VRX496-T (Lexgenleucel-T)
Insertion of protective genes into target cells
Use of genes to chemosensitize HIV-1 infected cells
Autocrine interferon-? production by somatic cell gene therapy
Intracellular immunization in HIV
Engineered cellular proteins such as soluble CD4s
Intracellular antibodies
Selection of T-cell vaccine antigens
Glycoprotein 120 as target for neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies
Anti-rev single chain antibody fragment
HIV/AIDS vaccines
Cell-based vaccines for HIV
Delivery of HIV vaccine by an adenoviral vector
DNA vaccines for HIV/AIDS
Epitope-based DNA vaccines against HIV
Gene transfer for HIV vaccination
Recombinant HIV proteins
Vaccination after discontinuation of antiretroviral treatment
Innovations in HIV/AIDS vaccine
Attenuated rabies virus-based vaccine for HIV
Dendritic cell-based vaccine for HIV
Early control of HIV by an effector memory T cell vaccine
Immunogens for inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies
MVA nef vaccine
Peptide-based vaccine for HIV
Personalized vaccine for HIV
RV144 HIV vaccine trial
Transdermal nanoparticles for immune enhancement in HIV
Vaccine to prevent HIV entry at the mucosal level
Limitations and future of HIV vaccines
Antisense approaches to AIDS
Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides
Antisense efforts with PNA constructs
RNA decoys
RNAi applications in HIV/AIDS
A multiple shRNA approach for silencing of HIV-1
Aptamer-mediated delivery of anti-HIV siRNAs
Bispecific siRNA constructs
Role of the nef gene during HIV-1 infection and RNAi
siRNA-directed inhibition of HIV-1 infection
Synergistic effect of snRNA and siRNA
Targeting CXCR4 with siRNAs
Targeting CCR5 with siRNAs
Concluding remarks on RNAi approach to HIV/AIDS
Companies involved in developing gene therapy for HIV/AIDS
Conclusions regarding gene therapy of HIV/AIDS
Testing for new anti-HIV therapies
Personalized approach to management of HIV
Differences in response of the body to HIV
Variations in action of drugs on HIV
Drug-resistance in HIV
PhenoSense® to test HIV drug resistance
Role of biomarkers in management of HIV/AIDS
Role of diagnostic testing in management of HIV
Prevention of adverse reactions to antiviral drugs
Nanoviricides as a personalized approach to HIV
Concluding remarks and future prospects

9. Hepatitis Viruses
Hepatitis delta virus infection
Hepatitis A virus infection
Hepatitis E virus infection
Structure of the HEV
Treatment of HEV infection
HEV vaccines
Epidemiology of HBV
Pathogenesis of HBV-induced liver disease
Current approaches to management of HBV
Adefovir dipivoxil
Pegylated interferon-alpha
Limitations of current therapies and needs of HBV
Personalized management of HBV
Innovations in the management of HBV
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
Hepatitis B immune globulins
HepaGam B
Hepatitis B vaccine composed in a novel nanoemulsion adjuvant
Innovative pharmaceuticals for HBV
Helioxanthin analog 8-1
HepDirect prodrugs
Monoclonal antibodies for HBV
RNAi-based therapy of HBV
Personalized treatment of hepatitis B
Concluding remarks and future prospects of management of hepatitis B
Epidemiology of HCV
HCV characteristics
Pathomechanism of HCV infection
Mechanism of HCV entry
HCV and the immune system
Mechanism of HCV replication and response to interferon
Current approaches to management of HCV
Interferon therapy for HCV
Limitations of current HCV therapies
Novel approaches to HCV
HCV protease inhibitors
Combined daclatasvir and asunaprevir
Small molecule HCV protease inhibitors
Innovations in interferon therapy for HCV
Directed evolution of gene-shuffled IFN-a for treatment of HCV
Personalizing interferon therapy of HCV
Innovative ribavirin-based treatments
Targeted delivery of hemoglobin-ribavirin conjugate for HCV
Nucleoside polymerase inhibitor
Host cell targets for hepatitis C therapy
NS5a inhibitors
NS5b inhibitors
Novel combination of a protease inhibitor and a NS5a inhibitor
Compounds targeting HCV receptor E2
Cyclophilin inhibitors
Methylene blue
Cyclosporine and analogs as anti-HCV agents
Clemizole and HCV
RNAi-based approaches to HCV
Use of adenoviral vectors for RNAi
siRNAs for HCV
Limitations and drawbacks of siRNA therapy for HCV
Role of miRNA in viral infections
miR-122 antagonists
Gene therapy for HCV
Vaccines for HCV
HCV vaccine based on viral vectors to boost T cell memory
Vaccine based on neutralizing antibodies to HCV 
Clinical trials of HCV therapeutics
Limitations to the development of effective anti-HCV therapeutics
Causes of treatment failure in chronic hepatitis C
HCV drug resistance
Personalized management of HCV infection
Role of sequencing in personalized management of HCV
Concluding remarks about HCV therapy
Drug combinations for HCV
IFN-free combinations for HCV
Search for new drugs for HCV
Future needs in HCV therapy

10. Miscellaneous Commercially Important Virus Infections
Herpes viruses
Neuroinvasive herpesviruses
Herpes simplex virus
Treatment of HSV-1
Vaccines for HSV
Antisense therapy for HSV-1
Herpes simplex virus 2 and genital herpes
Intravaginal microbicidal agents for HSV-2
Vaccines for HSV-2
Herpes simplex keratitis
Herpes simplex encephalitis
Limitations of current HSV therapies
Genomic diversity of HSV-1 as a cause of failure of vaccines
Herpes zoster virus
Herpes zoster and chicken pox
Epidemiology of herpes zoster
Treatment of herpes zoster
Herpes zoster vaccines
Epstein-Barr virus
Latent herpes virus infection
Current treatment of CMV
Brincidofovir (CMX001)
Valganciclovir hydrochloride
Limitations of current treatment and future prospects
T cell therapy for CMV
Vaccines for CMV
Gene therapy of CMV
Antisense approach to CMV
siRNA treatment of CMV
Human papilloma virus
Vaccines for HPV
DNA vaccine VGX-3100
GTL001 and GTL002
Vaccine based on fusion proteins of HPV envelope
Limitations of HPV vaccines
Antivirals for HPV
Novel approaches against HPV
Intrabody strategies for the treatment of HPV
A novel peptide to inhibit HPV
Heat shock protein-based antivirals
Respiratory syncytial virus
Current management of RSV
RNAi approach to RSV
Other approaches to RSV antivirals
Vaccines for RSV
BCG as a vaccine against RSV
Oral DNA vaccine for RSV
Neutralizing antibodies against preactive form of hRSV_F protein
Challenges for development of RSV antivirals
Other respiratory viruses
Parainfluenzavirus type 3
Human metapneumovirus
Gastrointestinal viruses
Potential for development of antiviral agents against noroviruses
Vaccines against noroviruses
Concluding remarks

11. Viruses with High Impact but Low Commercial Significance
Chikungunya fever
Chikungunya antiviral therapy
Chikungunya vaccines
Enterovirus 71
Coxsackie virus
Japanese encephalitis
Vaccines for JE
Polyomavirus JC
Rabies vaccines
Recombinant viral vaccines for rabies
DNA vaccine against rabies
Rabies immune globulin
Monoclonal antibodies for rabies
NanoViricides approach for rabies
Protein-protein interactions as targets for antirabies drug discovery
siRNA-based approach against rabies
The Milwaukee protocol for rabies
Rotavirus genome
Vaccines against rotavirus
Viral hemorrhagic fevers
Bas-Congo virus associated with acute hemorrhagic fever
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
Antivirals in development
Dengue vaccines
Elimination of dengue vector mosquitoes by fungus
Genetic elimination of dengue vector mosquitoes
Ebola virus
Pathogenesis and diagnosis of Ebola virus
Sequencing of the Ebola genome
Antiviral approaches to Ebola virus infection
Antivirals for Ebola based on inhibition of RNA polymerase
Cell entry blockers as antivirals for filoviruses
Development of RNAi-based antiviral drugs for Ebola
Monoclonal antibody immunotherapy for Ebola
Vaccines for Ebola
Ebola whole virus vaccine
Companies developing antivirals against Ebola
Concluding remarks and future prospects
Human hanta viruses
Lassa fever
Marburg hemorrhagic fever
Therapies in development against Marburg virus
Yellow fever
Vaccines for yellow fever
Sequencing of Aedes aegypti genome and control of yellow fever
West Nile virus
Treatment of West Nile neuroinvasive disease
Vaccines against WNV
Innovative treatments for WNV
Zika virus
Introduction to Zika virus
ZIKV in the USA
Clinical features of ZIKV
Molecular epidemiology of ZIKV
Molecular diagnosis of ZIKV infection
Neurological complications of ZIKV infection
Guillain-Barré syndrome
Prevention and treatment of ZIKV infection
Antiviral agents against ZIKV
Preventive measures against ZIKV infection
Vaccines for ZIKV
WHO views on challenges in management of ZIKV
Western equine encephalitis
Tick-borne encephalitis
TBE vaccines
Human coronaviruses
Therapeutic approaches to SARS
MAbs for SARS
siRNA treatment of SARS
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus
Development of therapeutics for MERS-CoV
MERS vaccines
Future directions for management of MERS
Zoonotic viral infections
Vaccines for zoonotic viral diseases
Virus bioterrorism and biowarfare
Small pox as a biological weapon
Status of small pox vaccination
Strategies against virus bioterrorism and biowarfare
Increasing resistance by stimulating innate immune mechanisms
Nanoviricides for combating viral bioterrorism
Concluding remarks

12. Markets for Antivirals
Markets according to disease
Influenza market
HIV/AIDS market
Hepatitis B and C markets
Economics of care of hepatitis C and impact on the market
Markets for diseases with low commercial significance
Markets according to products and approaches
Market values of monoclonal antibodies for viral diseases
Market values of vaccines for viral diseases
Markets for vaccines against HPV
Research investment and potential markets for HIV/AIDS vaccines
Markets for other antiviral vaccines
Markets according to geographical areas
Emerging markets for antiviral therapeutics
Geographical distribution of HIV/AIDS market
Unmet needs in antivirals
Policies regarding conquered viral diseases
Future of polio vaccine
Policies concerning HPV vaccine for prevention of cervical cancer
HPV vaccine in developing countries
Future prospects of innovative approaches
US Government support of antiviral efforts
US Government support for R & D in avian influenza vaccines
US Government support for developing anti-bioterrorism agents
The European Union support of antiviral research
European Commission’s research support for anti-HIV/AIDS programs
European Commission's support anti-influenza programs
Collaboration of biotechnology companies with big pharma 
Strategies for marketing

13. Companies
Top companies
Profiles of pharmaceutical companies
Profiles of biopharmaceutical companies with antiviral products
Profiles of antiviral drug companies
Profiles of viral vaccine companies

14. References

List of Tables
Table 1-1: A practical classification of viruses
Table 1-2: Viruses causing encephalitis
Table 1-3: Vaccines vs therapeutics for viral diseases
Table 1-4: Historical landmarks in the development of antiviral therapies
Table 2-1: Classification of antiviral strategies
Table 2-2: Viral vs cellular targets for discovery of antivirals
Table 2-3: Viruses amenable to antisense oligonucleotides
Table 2-4: Inhibition of viral replication by RNAi
Table 3-1: Types of vaccines for viral diseases
Table 4-1: Role of nanobiotechnology in virology
Table 5-1: Methods of delivery of antiviral agents
Table 5-2: Role of nanotechnology for improving delivery of antivirals
Table 5-3: Commercially available liposomal antiviral vaccines
Table 6-1: SWOT of monoclonal antibodies
Table 6-2: SWOT of agents that prevention viral entry into cells
Table 6-3: SWOT of drugs interfering with intracellular replication
Table 6-4: SWOT of protease inhibitors
Table 6-5: SWOT of integrase inhibitors
Table 6-6: SWOT of maturation inhibitors
Table 6-7: SWOT of neuraminidase inhibitors
Table 6-8: SWOT of targeting Toll-like receptors (TLRs)
Table 6-9: SWOT of topical antivirals agents against viral infections
Table 6-10: SWOT of gene therapy, antisense oligonucleotides, RNAi
Table 6-11: SWOT of vaccines
Table 6-12: SWOT of NanoViricides
Table 7-1: Anti-influenza approaches
Table 7-2: Antiviral drugs used for influenza
Table 7-3: Various approaches to production of influenza vaccines
Table 8-1: Drugs in clinical development for HIV/AIDS
Table 8-2: Strategies for gene therapy of AIDS
Table 8-3: Classification of HIV/AIDS vaccines in clinical trials
Table 8-4: Companies involved in developing gene therapy for HIV/AIDS
Table 9-1: Innovations in the treatment of HBV
Table 9-2: Innovations for management of HCV
Table 9-3: Antiviral agents for HCV targeting host cells
Table 9-4: HCV drugs in clinical trials
Table 10-1: Methods of delivery of acyclovir
Table 11-1: Antiviral strategies against Ebola virus infection
Table 11-2: Companies developing antiviral products against Ebola
Table 11-3: ZIKA vaccines in development
Table 11-4: Strategies against virus bioterrorism and biowarfare
Table 12-1: Worldwide market for all antiviral approaches 2016-2026
Table 12-2: Markets for antiviral drugs according to virus infections 2016-2026
Table 12-3: Markets values of all drugs for HIV/AIDS 2016-2026
Table 12-4: Market values of monoclonal antibodies for viral diseases 2016-2026
Table 12-5: Market values of vaccines for viral diseases 2016-2026
Table 12-6: Markets for antiviral drugs according to geographical areas 2016-2026
Table 12-7: Markets for antiviral vaccines according to geographical areas 2016-2026
Table 12-8: Emerging markets for antiviral drugs according to countries 2016-2026
Table 12-9: Emerging markets for antiviral vaccines according to countries 2016-2026
Table 13-1: Top antiviral companies
Table 13-2: Roche antiviral products in development
Table 13-3: Collaborations of antiviral companies
List of Figures
Figure 1-1: Varieties of host and cell responses to viral infections
Figure 1-2: Cycle of infection and replication of a retrovirus
Figure 1-3: Viral-induced cancer
Figure 2-1: An integrated approach to viral diseases
Figure 4-1: Schematic representation of NanoViricide attacking a virus particle
Figure 7-1: Evolution of mutations associated with virulence/drug resistance in H5N1
Figure 7-2: Mechanism of development of resistance to oseltamivir
Figure 8-1: Mode of action of some current anti-HIV drugs
Figure 8-2: Nanocarrier-mediated siRNA delivery for treatment of HIV/AIDS
Figure 9-1: Steps of HBV replication and site of action of various drugs
Figure 9-2: Omega DUROS device for interferon delivery in chronic hepatitis C
Figure 11-1: Ebola virus
Figure 11-2: Strategies for development of ZIKV vaccines
Figure 11-3: Transmission and pathogenesis of MERS-CoV
Figure 12-1: Unmet needs in antivirals

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Professor K. K. Jain is a neurologist/neurosurgeon by training and has been working in the biotechnology/biopharmaceuticals industry for several years. He received graduate training in both Europe and USA, has held academic positions in several countries and is a Fellow of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Medicine of the Royal Colleges of UK. Currently he is a consultant at Jain PharmaBiotech. Prof. Jain is the author of 415 publications including 16 books (2 as editor) and 48 special reports, which have covered important areas in biotechnology, gene therapy and biopharmaceuticals.
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