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Nanobiotechnology Applications, Markets and Companies Product Image

Nanobiotechnology Applications, Markets and Companies

  • Published: April 2014
  • Region: Global
  • 783 Pages
  • Jain PharmaBiotech

Nanotechnology is the creation and utilization of materials, devices, and systems through the control of matter on the nanometer-length scale (a nanometer is one billionth of a meter. Nanobiotechnology, an integration of physical sciences, molecular engineering, biology, chemistry and biotechnology holds considerable promise of advances in pharmaceuticals and healthcare. The report starts with an introduction to various techniques and materials that are relevant to nanobiotechnology. It includes some of the physical forms of energy such as nanolasers. Some of the technologies are scaling down such as microfluidics to nanofluidic biochips and others are constructions from bottom up. Application in life sciences research, particularly at the cell level sets the stage for role of nanobiotechnology in healthcare in subsequent chapters.

Some of the earliest applications are in molecular diagnostics. Nanoparticles, particularly quantum dots, are playing important roles. In vitro diagnostics, does not have any of the safety concerns associated with the fate of nanoparticles introduced into the human body. Numerous nanodevices and nanosystems for sequencing single molecules of DNA are READ MORE >

Part I: Applications & Markets

0. Executive Summary

1. Introduction
Nanomedicine
Basics of nanobiotechnology
European Union definition of nanomaterials
Relation of nanobiotechnology to nanomedicine
Landmarks in the evolution of nanomedicine
Nanomedicine as a part of evolution of medicine

2. Nanotechnologies
Introduction
Classification of nanobiotechnologies
Nanoparticles
Gold nanoparticles
Cubosomes
Fluorescent nanoparticles
Fullerenes
Lipoparticles
Magnetic nanoparticles
Nanoparticles assembly into micelles
Nanoshells
Polymer nanoparticles
Quantum dots
Silica nanoparticles
Synthetic high density lipoprotein nanoparticles
Hybrid nanoparticles
Bacterial structures relevant to nanobiotechnology
Nanostructures based on bacterial cell surface layers
Bacterial magnetic particles
Carbon nanotubes
Medical applications of nanotubes
Dendrimers
Properties
Applications
DNA nanostructures
Potential applications of DNA octahedron
Nanowires
Polymer nanofibers
Nanopores
Nanoporous silica aerogel
Nanostructured silicon
Polymer nanofibers
Virus-like particles
Nanoparticle conjugates
DNA-nanoparticle conjugates
Networks of gold nanoparticles and bacteriophage
Protein-nanoparticle combination
Nanomaterials for biolabeling
DNA Nanotags
Fluorescent lanthanide nanorods
Magnetic nanotags
Molecular computational identification
Nanophosphor labels
Organic nanoparticles as biolabels
Quantum dots as labels
SERS nanotags
Silica nanoparticles for labeling antibodies
Silver nanoparticle labels
Micro- and nano-electromechanical systems
BioMEMS
Microarrays and nanoarrays
Dip Pen Nanolithography for nanoarrays
Applications of dip-pen nanolithography
Protein nanoarrays
Single-molecule protein arrays
Microfluidics and nanofluidics
Nanotechnology on a chip
Microfluidic chips for nanoliter volumes
Use of nanotechnology in microfluidics
Construction of nanofluidic channels
Nanoscale flow visualization
Moving (levitation) of nanofluidic drops with physical forces
Electrochemical nanofluid injection
Nanofluidics on nanopatterned surfaces
Nano-interface in a microfluidic chip
Nanofluidic channels for study of DNA
Visualization and manipulation on nanoscale
4Pi microscope
Atomic force microscopy
AFM basics
Advantages of AFM
AFM as nanorobot
Force sensing Integrated Readout and Active Tip
Cantilever technology
CytoViva® Microscope System
Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer
Fluorescence by Unbound Excitation from Luminescence
Magnetic resonance force microscopy and nanoscale MRI
Multiple single-molecule fluorescence microscopy
Near-field scanning optical microscopy
Nano-sized light source for single cell endoscopy
Nanoparticle characterization by Halo? LM10 technology
Nanoscale scanning electron microscopy
Use of SEM to reconstruct 3D tissue nanostructure
Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens
Photoactivated localization microscopy
Scanning probe microscopy
Partial wave spectroscopy
Super-resolution microscopy for in vivo cell imaging
3D-SIM
RESOLFT Nanoscopy
Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond
Visualizing atoms with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy
Surface plasmon resonance
Nanotechnology and phototherapy

3. Nanotechnologies for Basic Research Relevant to Medicine
Introduction
Nanotechnology and biology
NanoSystems Biology
Nanobiology and the cell
Biosensing of cellular responses
Control of T cell signaling activity
Measuring mass of single cells
Nanostructures involved in endocytosis
Nanotechnology-based live-cell single molecule assays
Quantum dots for stem cell labeling
Quantum dots for study of apoptosis
Single cell injection by nanolasers
Study of complex biological systems
Tissue-engineering for studying effects of nanoparticles on cells
Molecular motors
Nanomotor made of nucleic acids
phi29 DNA packaging nanomotor
Light-activated ion channel molecular machines
Application of AFM for biomolecular imaging
Future insights into biomolecular processes by AFM
4Pi microscopy to study DNA double-strand breaks
Nanoscale DNA imaging
Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry
Applications of biomolecular computing in life sciences
Microbial nanomaterials
Use of bacteria to construct nanomachines
Bacteriophage nanoshells
Natural nanocomposites
Nanotechnology in biological research
QDs for biological research
Molecular biology and nanotechnology
Structural DNA nanotechnology
RNA nanotechnology
Genetically engineered proteins for nanobiotechnology
Single molecule studies
3D single-molecular imaging by coherent X-ray diffraction imaging
Nanoscale NMR for imaging single molecules
Optical trapping and single-molecule fluorescence
Nanochemistry
Nanoscale pH Meter
Nanolaser applications in life sciences
Nanoelectroporation
Nanomanipulation
Nanomanipulation by combination of AFM and other devices
Surgery on living cells using AFM with nanoneedles
Optoelectronic tweezers
Optical manipulation of nanoparticles
Manipulation of DNA sequence by use of nanoparticles as laser light antennas
Nanomanipulation of single molecule
Fluorescence-force spectroscopy
Nanomanipulation for study of mechanism of anticancer drugs
Nanotechnology in genomic research
Nanotechnology for separation of DNA fragments
Nanotechnology-based DNA sequencing
Role of nanobiotechnology in identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms
Nanobiotechnology for study of mitochondria
Nanomaterials for the study of mitochondria
Study of mitochondria with nanolaser spectroscopy
Role of nanotechnology in proteomics research
Study of proteins by atomic force microscopy
Single cell nanoprobe for studying gene expression of individual cells
Nanoproteomics
Dynamic reassembly of peptides
High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility mass spectrometry
Multi Photon Detection
Nanoflow liquid chromatography
Nanopore-based protein sequencing
Nanopores for phosphoprotein analysis
Nanoproteomics for study of misfolded proteins
Nanotube electronic biosensor for proteomics
Protein nanocrystallography
QD-protein nanoassembly
Proteomics at single molecule level
Study of protein synthesis and single-molecule processes
Protein expression in individual cells at the single molecule level
Single-molecule mass spectrometry using nanotechnology
Biochips for nanoscale proteomics
Protein biochips based on fluorescence planar wave guide technology
Nanofilter array chip
Role of nanotechnology in study of membrane proteins
Nanoparticles for study of membrane proteins
Study of single protein interaction with cell membrane
Quantum dots to label cell surface proteins
Study of single membrane proteins at subnanometer resolution
Nanoparticle-protein interactions
Protein engineering on nanoscale
Nanowires for protein engineering
A nanoscale mechanism for protein engineering
Role of nanoparticles in self-assembly of proteins
Role of nanotechnology in peptide engineering
Manipulating redox systems for nanotechnology
Self-assembling peptide scaffold technology for 3D cell culture
Nanobiotechnology and ion channels
AFM for characterization of ion channels
Aquaporin water channels
Remote control of ion channels through magnetic-field heating of nanoparticles
Role of nanobiotechnology in engineering ion channels
Nanotechnology and bioinformatics
3D nano-map of synapse

4. Nanomolecular Diagnostics
Introduction
Nanodiagnostics
Rationale of nanotechnology for molecular diagnostics
Nanoarrays for molecular diagnostics
Fullerene photodetectors for chemiluminescence detection on microfluidic chip
Nanofluidic/nanoarray devices to detect a single molecule of DNA
Protein nanoarrays
Protein nanobiochip
Silver nanorod array for on-chip detection of microbes and chemicals
AFM for molecular diagnostics
Nanofountain AFM probe
AFM for immobilization of biomolecules in high-density microarrays
AFM for nanodissection of chromosomes
Nanoparticles for molecular diagnostics
Gold nanoparticles
QDs for molecular diagnostics
Quantum dots for detection of pathogenic microorganisms
Bioconjugated QDs for multiplexed profiling of biomarkers
Imaging of living tissue with QDs
Diagnostics based on 3DNA® Dendrimers
Use of nanocrystals in immunohistochemistry
Magnetic nanoparticles
Magnetic nanoparticles for bioscreening
Monitoring of implanted NSCs labeled with nanoparticles
Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles to track therapeutic cells in vivo
Superparamagnetic nanoparticles for cell tracking
SPIONS for real-time tracking of viral delivery
SPIONs for calcium sensing
Magnetic nanoparticles for labeling molecules
Study of living cells by SPIONs
Imaging applications of nanoparticles
CT image enhancement by nanoparticles
Dendritic nanoprobes for imaging of angiogenesis
Functionalized MWCNTs as ultrasound contrast agents
Nanoparticles as contrast-enhancing agents for MRI
Gadolinium-loaded dendrimer nanoparticles for tumor-specific MRI
Gadonanotubes for MRI
Gold nanorods and nanoparticles as imaging agents
In vivo imaging using nanoparticles
Manganese oxide nanoparticles as contrast agent for brain MRI
Magnetic nanoparticles as contrast agents for MRI of pancreas
Nanoparticles as contrast agent for MRI
Optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes
QDs for biological imaging
SPIONs combined with MRI
Concluding remarks and future prospects of nanoparticles for imaging
Applications of nanopore technology for molecular diagnostics
Nanopore technology for detection of single DNA molecules
Nanocytometry
DNA-protein and -nanoparticle conjugates
Resonance Light Scattering technology
Nanobarcodes technology
Nanobarcode particle technology for SNP genotyping
QD nanobarcode for multiplexed gene expression profiling
Biobarcode assay for proteins
Single-molecule barcoding system for DNA analysis
Nanoparticle-based colorimetric DNA detection method
SNP genotyping with gold nanoparticle
Nanoparticle-based up-converting phosphor technology
Surface-Enhanced Resonant Raman Spectroscopy
Near-infrared (NIR)-emissive polymersomes
Nanobiotechnology for detection of proteins
Captamers with proximity extension assay for proteins
Immunoliposome-PCR
Nanobiosensors
Cantilevers as biosensors for molecular diagnostics
Advantages of cantilever technology for molecular recognition
Antibody-coated nanocantilevers for detection of microorganisms
Cantilevers for direct detection of active genes
Carbon nanotube biosensors
Carbon nanotube sensors coated with ssDNA and electronic readout
Carbon nanotubes sensors wrapped with DNA and optical detection
FRET-based DNA nanosensor
Ion channel switch biosensor technology
Electronic nanobiosensors
Electrochemical nanobiosensor
Metallic nanobiosensors
Nanomaterial-based sensors for diagnosis from exhaled breath
Quartz nanobalance biosensor
Viral nanosensor
PEBBLE nanosensors
Detection of cocaine molecules by nanoparticle-labeled aptasensors
Nanosensors for glucose monitoring
Nanobiosensors for protein detection
Optical biosensors
Laser nanosensors
Nanoshell biosensors
Plasmonics and SERS nanoprobes
Optical mRNA biosensors
Surface Enhanced Micro-optical Fluidic Systems
Nanoparticle-enhanced sensitivity of fluorescence-based biosensors
Nanowire biosensors
Nanowire biosensors for detection of single viruses
Nanowires for detection of genetic disorders
Nanowires biosensor for detecting biowarfare agents
Concluding remarks and future prospects of nanowire biosensors
Future issues in the development of nanobiosensors
Applications of nanodiagnostics
Nanotechnology for detection of biomarkers
Nanotechnology for genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms
Nanoparticles for detecting SNPs
Nanopores for detecting SNPs
Nanobiotechnologies for single molecule detection
Protease-activated QD probes
Labeling of MSCs with QDs
Nanotechnology for point-of-care diagnostics
Nanotechnology-based biochips for POC diagnosis
Carbon nanotube transistors for genetic screening
POC monitoring of vital signs with nanobiosensors
Nanodiagnostics for the battle field and biodefense
An integrated nanobiosensor
Nanodiagnostics for integrating diagnostics with therapeutics
Concluding remarks about nanodiagnostics
Clinical trials of nanodiagnostics
Future prospects of nanodiagnostics

5. Nanopharmaceuticals
Introduction
Nanobiotechnology for drug discovery
Nanofluidic devices for drug discovery
Gold nanoparticles for drug discovery
Tracking drug molecules in cells
SPR with colloidal gold particles
Use of QDs for drug discovery
Advantages of the use of QDs for drug discovery
Drawbacks of the use of QDs for drug discovery
QDs for imaging drug receptors in the brain
Lipoparticles for drug discovery
Biosensor for drug discovery with Lipoparticles
Magnetic nanoparticles assays
Analysis of small molecule-protein interactions by nanowire biosensors
Cells targeting by nanoparticles with attached small molecules
Role of AFM for study of biomolecular interactions for drug discovery
Nanoscale devices for drug discovery
Laboratories-on-a-chip
Lab-on-Bead
Nanotechnology for drug design at cellular level
Role of nanobiotechnology in microbial biofabrication
Nanobiotechnology-based drug development
Dendrimers as drugs
Fullerenes as drug candidates
Nanobodies
Preclinical studies and human clinical trials of nanoparticles
Role of nanobiotechnology in the future of drug discovery
Nanobiotechnology in drug delivery
Ideal properties of material for drug delivery
Improved absorption of drugs in nanoparticulate form
Interaction of nanoparticles with human blood
Nanoscale devices delivery of therapeutics
Nanobiotechnology solutions to the problems of drug delivery
Nanocomposites for protein delivery
Nanosuspension formulations
Nanotechnology for solubilization of water-insoluble drugs
Self-assembled nanostructures with hydrogels for drug delivery
Nanomaterials and nanobiotechnologies used for drug delivery
Viruses as nanomaterials for drug delivery
Bacteria-mediated delivery of nanoparticles and drugs into cells
Cell-penetrating peptides
Nanoparticle-based drug delivery
Cationic nanoparticles
Ceramic nanoparticles
Cyclodextrin nanoparticles for drug delivery
Dendrimers for drug delivery
DNA-assembled dendrimers for drug delivery
Fullerenes for drug delivery
Amphiphilic fullerene derivatives
Fullerene conjugates for intracellular delivery of peptides
Gold nanoparticles as drug carriers
Layered double hydroxide nanoparticles
Micelles for drug delivery
Nanocomposite membranes for magnetically triggered drug delivery
Nanocrystals
Nanocrystalline silver
Elan's NanoCrystal technology
Biorise system
Nanodiamonds
Polymer nanoparticles
Biodegradable PEG nanoparticles for penetrating the mucus barrier
PLGA-based nanodelivery technologies
Polymeric micelles
Chitosan nanoparticles
QDs for drug delivery
Special procedures in nanoparticle-based drug delivery
Coated nanoparticles for penetrating cell membranes without damage
Combinatorial synthesis of nanoparticles for intracellular delivery
Drug delivery using “Particle Replication in Nonwetting Templates”
Encapsulating water-insoluble drugs in nanoparticles
Filomicelles vs spherical nanoparticles for drug delivery
Flash NanoPrecipitation
Magnetic nanoparticles for drug delivery
Nanoparticles bound together in spherical shapes
Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles for imaging and targeted drug-delivery
Prolonging circulation of nanoparticles by attachment to RBCs
Self-assembling nanoparticles for intracellular drug delivery
Trojan nanoparticles
Therapeutic protein delivery from nanoparticle-protein complexes
Triggered release of drugs from nanoparticles
Liposomes
Basics of liposomes
Stabilization of phospholipid liposomes using nanoparticles
Lipid nanoparticles
Applications of lipid nanoparticles
Polymerized liposomal nanoparticle
Solid lipid nanoparticles
Lipid nanocapsules
Lipid emulsions with nanoparticles
Nanostructured organogels
Niosomes
Limitations of liposomes for drug delivery
Liposomes incorporating fullerenes
Arsonoliposomes
Liposome-nanoparticle hybrids
Nanogels
Nanogel-liposome combination
Nanospheres
Nanotubes
Carbon nanotubes for drug delivery
CNT-liposome conjugates for drug delivery into cells
Lipid-protein nanotubes for drug delivery
Halloysite nanotubes for drug delivery
Nanocochleates
Nanobiotechnology and drug delivery devices
Nano-encapsulation
Nanotechnology-based device for insulin delivery
Nanoporous materials for drug delivery devices
Nanopore membrane in implantable titanium drug delivery device
Measuring the permeability of nanomembranes
Nanovalves for drug delivery
Nanochips for drug delivery
Nanobiotechnology-based transdermal drug delivery
Introduction
Delivery of nanostructured drugs from transdermal patches
Effect of mechanical flexion on penetration of bucky balls through the skin
Ethosomes for transdermal drug delivery
NanoCyte transdermal drug delivery system
Safety issues of applications of nanomaterial carriers on the skin
Transdermal administration of lipid nanocapsules
Transdermal nanoparticle preparations for systemic effect
Nasal drug delivery using nanoparticles
Mucosal drug delivery with nanoparticles
Future prospects of nanotechnology-based drug delivery
Nanomolecular valves for controlled drug release
Nanosponge for drug delivery
Nanomotors for drug delivery

6. Role of Nanotechnology in Biological Therapies
Introduction
Nanotechnology for delivery of proteins and peptides
Nanobiotechnology for vaccine delivery
Bacterial spores for delivery of vaccines
Lipid nanoparticles for immunostimulatory RNA delivery
Nanoparticles for DNA vaccines
Nanoparticle-based adjuvants for vaccines
Nanospheres for controlled release of viral antigens
Proteosomes™ as vaccine delivery vehicles
Targeted Synthetic Vaccine Particle (tSVP™) technology
Nanobiotechnology for gene therapy
Nanoparticle-mediated gene therapy
Calcium phosphate nanoparticles as nonviral vectors
Carbonate apatite nanoparticles for gene delivery
DNA nanoparticles
Gelatin nanoparticles for gene delivery
Immunolipoplex for delivery of p53 gene
Lipid nanoparticles for targeted delivery of nucleic acids
Nanoparticles for imaging and intracellular delivery of nucleic acids
Nanoparticles linked to viral vectors for photothermal therapy
Nanoparticles for p53 gene therapy of cancer
Nanoparticles with virus-like function as gene therapy vectors
Nanobiolistics for nucleic acid delivery
Photo-controlled in vivo activation of biomolecules by nanoparticles
Silica nanoparticles for gene delivery
Targeted nanoparticle-DNA delivery to the cardiovascular system
Dendrimers for gene transfer
Cochleate-mediated DNA delivery
Nanorod gene therapy
Nanomagnets for targeted cell-based cancer gene therapy
NanoNeedles for delivery of genetic material into cells
Application of pulsed magnetic field and superparamagnetic nanoparticles
Nanobiotechnology for antisense drug delivery
Antisense nanoparticles
Dendrimers for antisense drug delivery
Polymer nanoparticles for antisense delivery system
Nanoparticle-mediated siRNA delivery
Chitosan-coated nanoparticles for siRNA delivery
Delivery of gold nanorod-siRNA nanoplex to dopaminergic neurons
Polymer-based nanoparticles for siRNA delivery
Polyethylenimine nanoparticles for siRNA delivery
siRNA-PEG nanoparticle-based delivery
Polycation-based nanoparticles for siRNA delivery
Calando's technology for targeted delivery of anticancer siRNA
Delivery of siRNA by nanosize liposomes
Quantum dots to monitor RNAi delivery
Topical delivery of siRNA-nanoparticle conjugates

7. Nanodevices & Techniques for Clinical Applications
Introduction
Clinical nanodiagnostics
Nano-endoscopy
Application of nanotechnology in radiology
High-resolution ultrasound imaging using nanoparticles
Nanobiotechnology in tissue engineering
Nanoscale surfaces for stem cell culture
3D nanofilament-based scaffolds
Electrospinning technology for nanobiofabrication
Nanomaterials for tissue engineering
Carbon nanotubes for artificial muscles
Nanofibers for tissue engineering of skeletal muscle
Nanobiotechnology combined with stem cell-based therapies
Nanomaterials for combining tissue engineering and drug delivery
Nanobiotechnology for organ replacement and assisted function
Exosomes for drug-free organ transplants
Nanobiotechnology and organ-assisting devices
Nanosurgery
Miniaturization in surgery
Nanotechnology for hemostasis during surgery
Minimally invasive surgery using catheters
Nanorobotics
Nanoscale laser surgery

8. Nanooncology
Introduction
Nanobiotechnology for detection of cancer
Aptamer-nanoparticle combinations for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics
Dendrimers for sensing cancer cell apoptosis
Detection of circulating cancer cells
DNA nanospheres for isolation of CTCs
Magnetic nanoparticles for capturing CTCs
Nano-Velcro technology for capturing CTCs
Differentiation between normal and cancer cells by nanosensors
Gold nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis
Gold nanorods for detection of metastatic tumor cells
Implanted biosensor for cancer
Nanotubes for detection of cancer proteins
Nanobiochip sensor technique for analysis of oral cancer biomarkers
Nanodots for tracking apoptosis in cancer
Nanolaser spectroscopy for detection of cancer in single cells
Nanoparticles designed for dual-mode imaging of cancer
Nanotechnology-based single molecule assays for cancer
QDs for detection of tumors
QD-based test for DNA methylation
Nanobiotechnology for early detection of cancer to improve treatment
Nanobiotechnology-based drug delivery in cancer
Nanoparticle formulations for drug delivery in cancer
Anticancer drug particles incorporated in liposomes
Cerasomes
Doxorubicin nanocarriers
Encapsulating drugs in polymeric nanoparticles
Encapsulating drugs in hydrogel nanoparticles
Exosomes
Folate-linked nanoparticles
Gold nanoparticles stabilized with resveratrol
Iron oxide nanoparticles
Lipid based nanocarriers
Micelles for drug delivery in cancer
Minicells for targeted delivery of nanoscale anticancer therapeutics
Nanoconjugates for subcutaneous delivery of anticancer drugs
Nanomaterials for delivery of poorly soluble anticancer drugs
Nanoparticle formulation for enhancing anticancer efficacy of cisplatin
Nanoparticle formulations of paclitaxel
Nanoparticles containing albumin and antisense oligonucleotides
Niosomes for anticancer drug delivery
Pegylated nanoliposomal formulation
Peptide-linked nanoparticle delivery
Poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate nanoparticles
Polypeptide-doxorubicin conjugated nanoparticles
Protosphere nanoparticle technology
Zinc oxide nanoparticles for drug delivery in cancer
Nanoparticles for targeted delivery of anticancer therapeutics
Canine parvovirus as a nanocontainer for targeted drug delivery
Carbon magnetic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in cancer
Carbon nanotubes for targeted drug delivery to cancer cells
Cyclosert system for targeted delivery of anticancer therapeutics
DNA aptamer-micelle for targeted drug delivery in cancer
Fullerenes for enhancing tumor targeting by antibodies
Gold nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in cancer
Magnetic nanoparticles for remote-controlled drug delivery to tumors
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles
Nanobees for targeted delivery of cytolytic peptide melittin
Nanobody-shell polymeric micelles for targeted drug delivery
Nanovehicles for targeted delivery of paclitaxel
Nanocell for targeted drug delivery to tumor
Nanodiamonds for local delivery of chemotherapy at site of cancer
Nanoimmunoliposome-based system for targeted delivery of siRNA
Nanoparticle-mediated targeting of MAPK signaling pathway
Nanoparticles for targeted antisense therapy of cancer
Nanoparticles for delivery of suicide DNA to prostate tumors
Nanoparticles for targeted delivery of concurrent chemoradiation
Nanoparticle-based therapy targeted to cancer metastases
Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of multiple anticancer agents
Nanostructured hyaluronic acid for targeted drug delivery in cancer
Perfluorocarbon emulsion for targeted chemotherapeutic delivery
Polymer nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in cancer
Polymersomes for targeted cancer drug delivery
Quantum dots and quantum rods for targeted drug delivery in cancer
Remote controlled drug delivery from magnetic nanocrystals
Targeted delivery of nanoparticulate drugs into lymphatic system
Targeted drug delivery with nanoparticle-aptamer bioconjugates
Use of T cells for delivery of gold nanoparticles to tumors
Dendrimers for anticancer drug delivery
Application of dendrimers in boron neutron capture therapy
Application of dendrimers in photodynamic therapy
Dendrimer-based synthetic vector for targeted cancer gene therapy
Poly-L-lysine dendrimer as antiangiogenetic agent
RNA nanotechnology for delivery of cancer therapeutics
Delivery of siRNAs for cancer
Tumor priming for improving delivery of nanomedicines to solid tumors
Nanotechnology-based cancer therapy
Devices for nanotechnology-based cancer therapy
Convection-enhanced delivery with nanoliposomal CPT-
Nanoengineered silicon for brachytherapy
Anticancer effect of nanoparticles
Antiangiogenic therapy using nanoparticles
Cytotoxic effects of cancer nanoparticles
Gold nanoparticles for inhibiting tumor growth
Nanoshell-based cancer therapy
Nanobody-based cancer therapy
Nanoparticles combined with physical agents for tumor ablation
Boron neutron capture therapy using nanoparticles
Gold nanoparticles combined with radiation therapy
Laser-induced cancer destruction using nanoparticles
Nanoparticle-mediated thermal ablation of cancer
Ultrasound radiation of tumors combined with nanoparticles
Nanomedicines combined with molecular targeted anticancer therapeutics
Impact of nanotechnology-based imaging in management of cancer
Cornell dots for cancer imaging
Nanoparticle-MRI for tracking dendritic cells in cancer therapy
Nanoparticle-CT scan
QDs aid lymph node mapping in cancer
Nanosensor device as an aid to cancer surgery
Role of nanoparticle-based imaging in oncology clinical trials
Nanoparticle-based anticancer drug delivery to overcome MDR
Nanoparticles for targeting tumors
Nanocarriers with TGF-? inhibitors for targeting cancer
Nanobombs for cancer
Combination of diagnostics and therapeutics for cancer
Aptamer conjugated magnetic nanoparticles
Biomimetic nanoparticles targeted to tumors
Dendrimer nanoparticles for targeting and imaging tumors
Gold nanoparticle plus bombesin for imaging and therapy of cancer
Gold nanorods for diagnosis plus photothermal therapy of cancer
Magnetic nanoparticles for imaging as well as therapy of cancer
Micelles for targeted drug delivery and PET imaging in cancer
Nanobialys for combining MRI with delivery of anticancer agents
Nanoparticles, MRI and thermal ablation of tumors
pHLIP nanotechnology for detection and targeted therapy of cancer
QD conjugates combine cancer imaging, therapy and sensing
Squalene-based nanocomposites for tumor imaging and therapy
Radiolabeled carbon nanotubes for tumor imaging and targeting
Ultrasonic tumor imaging and targeted chemotherapy by nanobubbles
Nanorobotics for management of cancer
Bacterial nanorobots for targeting cancer
DNA robots for targeting cancer
Fullerenes for protection against chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity
Concluding remarks and future prospects of nanooncology

9. Nanoneurology
Introduction
Nanobiotechnology for neurophysiological studies
Use of nanoelectrodes in neurophysiology
Nanowires for monitoring brain activity
Gold nanoparticles for in vivo study of neural function
Nanodiagnosis and nanoparticle-based brain imaging
Applications of nanotechnology in molecular imaging of the brain
Nanoparticles and MRI for macrophage tracking in the CNS
Nanoparticles for tracking stem cells for therapy of CNS disorders
Multifunctional NPs for diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders
Nanotechnology-based drug delivery to the CNS
Nanoencapsulation for delivery of vitamin E for CNS disorders
Nanoparticle technology for drug delivery across BBB
G-Technology®
LipoBridge? technology
Nanovesicles for transport across BBB
Transcytosis of transferrin-containing nanoparticles across the BBB
Nanotechnology-based drug delivery to brain tumors
Multifunctional nanoparticles for treating brain tumors
Nanoparticles for delivery of drugs to brain tumors across BBB
NP delivery across the BBB for imaging and therapy of brain tumors
Intravenous gene delivery with nanoparticles into brain tumors
PLA nanoparticles for controlled delivery of BCNU to brain tumors
NP-based targeted delivery of chemotherapy across the BBB
Nanoparticles as nonviral vectors for CNS gene therapy
Silica nanoparticles for CNS gene therapy
Cationic lipids for CNS gene therapy
Polyethylenimine-based nanoparticles for CNS gene therapy
Dendrimers for CNS gene therapy
Carbon nanotubes for CNS gene therapy
Nanoparticle-based drug delivery to the inner ear
Nanotechnology-based devices and implants for CNS
Nanobiotechnology and neuroprotection
Nanobiotechnology for regeneration and repair of the CNS
Nanowire neuroprosthetics with functional membrane proteins
Nanotube-neuron electronic interface
Role of nanobiotechnology in regeneration and repair following CNS trauma
Nanofibers as an aid to CNS regeneration by neural progenitor cells
Peptide nanostructures for repair of the CNS
Nanobiotechnology for repair and regeneration following TBI
Nanoparticles for repair following SCI
Repair of SCI by nanoscale micelles
Nanobiotechnology-based devices for restoration of neural function
Nanobiotechnology-based artificial retina
Nanoneurosurgery
Femtolaser neurosurgery
Nanofiber brain implants
Nanoparticles as an aid to neurosurgery
Nanoscaffold for CNS repair
Electrospun nanofiber tubes for regeneration of peripheral nerves
Bucky balls for brain cancer
Application of nanobiotechnology to pain therapeutics

10. Nanocardiology
Introduction
Nanotechnology-based cardiovascular diagnosis
Detection of biomarkers of myocardial infarction in saliva by a nanobiochip
Nanobiosensors for detection of cardiovascular disorders
Use of magnetic NPs as MRI contrast agents for cardiac imaging
Perfluorocarbon NPs for combining diagnosis with therapy in cardiology
Cardiac monitoring in sleep apnea
Detection and treatment of atherosclerotic plaques in the arteries
Monitoring for disorders of blood coagulation
Nanotechnology-based drug delivery in cardiovascular diseases
Controlled delivery of nanoparticles to injured vasculature
IGF-1 delivery by nanofibers to improve cell therapy for myocardial infarction
Injectable peptide nanofibers for myocardial ischemia
Liposomal nanodevices for targeted cardiovascular drug delivery
Low molecular weight heparin-loaded polymeric nanoparticles
Nanoparticles for cardiovascular imaging and targeted drug delivery
Nanofiber-based scaffolds with drug-release properties
NP-based systemic drug delivery to prevent cardiotoxicity
Nanotechnology-based therapeutics for cardiovascular diseases
Nanolipoblockers for atherosclerotic arterial plaques
Nanotechnology approach to the vulnerable plaque as cause of cardiac arrest
Nanotechnology for regeneration of the cardiovascular system
Nanotechnology for cardiac revascularization
Nanotechnology-based stents
Restenosis after percutaneous coronary angioplasty
Drugs encapsulated in biodegradable nanoparticles
Magnetic nanoparticle-coated DES
Magnetic nanoparticles encapsulating paclitaxel targeted to stents
Nanocoated DES
Nanopores to enhance compatibility of DES
Application of nanotechnology in cardiac catheterization

11. Nanopulmonology
Introduction
Nanoparticles for pulmonary drug delivery
Systemic drug delivery via pulmonary route
Nanoparticle drug delivery for effects on the respiratory system
Fate and toxicology of nanoparticles delivered to the lungs
Nanoparticle drug formulations for spray inhalation
Nanobiotechnology for improving insulin delivery in diabetes
Inhalation of glucose-sensitive NP for regulated release of insulin
Pulmonary delivery of insulin by surface acoustic wave technology
Nanotechnology-based treatment of pulmonary disorders
Management of cystic fibrosis
Nanobiotechnology-based gene transfer in CF
Nonviral DNA nanoparticle-mediated CFTR gene transfer
Liposome-mediated CFTR gene transfer
Magnetofection for enhancing nonviral gene transfer to the airways
NP-based delivery of antibiotics for treatment of pulmonary infections in CF
Nanotechnology-based treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Nanotechnology-based treatment of pulmonary inflammation

12. Nanoorthopedics
Introduction
Application of nanotechnology for bone research
Reducing reaction to orthopedic implants
Enhancing the activity of bone cells on the surface of orthopedic implants
Synthetic nanomaterials as bone implants
NanoBone implants
NanoCeram? fibers
NanoBone versus BioOss
Nanoparticles for repairing bone cracks
Carbon nanotubes as scaffolds for bone growth
Aligning nanotubes to improve artificial joints
Cartilage regeneration by nanoparticle-based hydrogels
Cartilage disorders of knee joint
Role of nanotechnology in engineering of a replacement for cartilage
Nanotechnology as an aid to arthroscopy
Scanning force arthroscope

13. Nanoophthalmology
Introduction
Nanocarriers for ocular drug delivery
Nanoparticle-based topical drug application to the eye
Chitosan nanoparticles for topical drug application to the eye
Polylactide nanoparticles for topical drug application to the eye
Ophthalmic drug delivery through nanoparticles in contact lenses
Nanoparticles for intraocular drug delivery
DNA nanoparticles for nonviral gene transfer to the eye
Nanotechnology for treatment for age-related macular degeneration
Nanotechnology-based therapeutics for eye disorders
Use of dendrimers in ophthalmology
Nanotechnology for prevention of neovascularization
Nanoparticles as nonviral vectors for gene therapy of retinal disorders
Nanobiotechnology for treatment of glaucoma

14. Nanomicrobiology
Introduction
Nanodiagnosis of infections
Detection of viruses
Cantilever beams for detection of single virus particles
Carbon nanotubes as biosensors for viruses
Electric fields for accelerating detection of viruses
QD fluorescent probes for detection of respiratory viral infections
Verigene Respiratory Virus Plus Assay
Surface enhanced Raman scattering for detection of viruses
Detection of bacteria
Nanoparticle-based methods for bacterial detection
QDs for detection of bacterial infections
Role of nanobiotechnology in diagnosis of fungal infections
Magnetic nanoparticle-based technique for detection of fungi
Nano-amplification technique for the detection of fungal pathogens
Nanobiotechnology and virology
Study of interaction of nanoparticles with viruses
Study of pathomechanism of viral diseases
Transdermal nanoparticles for immune enhancement in HIV
Nanofiltration to remove viruses from plasma transfusion products
Role of nanobacteria in human diseases
Nature of nanobacteria
Nanobacteria and kidney stone formation
Nanobacteria in cardiovascular disease
Nanotechnology-based microbicidal agents
Carbon nanotubes as antimicrobial agents
Gold and silver nanoparticles as anti-tuberculosis agents
Nanoemulsions as microbicidal agents
Nanoparticles for overcoming antibiotic resistance
Nanoformulations of antifungal agents
Nanoscale bactericidal powders
Nanotubes for detection and destruction of bacteria
Nanoscale surface structure for antibacterial defense
Silver nanoparticle coating as prophylaxis against infection
Nanotechnology-based antiviral agents
Silver nanoparticles as antiviral agents
Fullerenes as antiviral agents
Gold nanorod-based delivery of RNA antiviral therapeutics
Nanocoating for antiviral effect
Nanoviricides

15. Miscellaneous Healthcare Applications of Nanobiotechnology
Introduction
Nanoimmunology
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Nanohematology
Artificial red cells
Feraheme
Nanoparticle-based drug delivery for gastrointestinal disorders
Nanoparticles for targeted therapeutic delivery to the liver
Nanonephrology
Nanobiotechnology-based renal dialysis
Nanotechnology-based human nephron filter for renal failure
Blood-compatible membranes for renal dialysis
Ceramic filter for renal dialysis
Nanotechnology for wound healing
Nanotechnology-based products for skin disorders
Cubosomes for treating skin disorders of premature infants.
Nanoparticles for improving targeted topical therapy of skin
Nanoparticle-based sun screens
Nanoengineered bionic skin
Topical nanocreams for inflammatory disorders of the skin
Nanobiotechnology for disorders of aging
Personal care products based on nanotechnology
Nanotechnology for hair care
Nanodentistry
Bonding materials
Dental caries
Nanospheres for dental hypersensitivity
Nanomaterials for dental filling
Nanomaterials for dental implants
Nanomedical aspects of oxidative stress
Nanoparticle antioxidants
Fullerene-based antioxidants
Ceria nanoparticles as neuroprotective antioxidants
Antioxidant nanoparticles for treating diseases due to oxidative stress
Nanotechnology and homeopathic medicines
Nanoparticles as antidotes for poisons
Nanoparticles for chemo-radioprotection
Role of nanobiotechnology in biodefense
Nanoparticles to combat microbial warfare agents
Removal of toxins from blood
Nanobiotechnology for public health
Nanotechnology for water purification
Nanofiltration to remove viruses from water
Nanostructured membranes for water purification
Nanotechnologies for water remediation
Nanotechnology-based photochemical water purification
Magnetic nanoscavengers for water purification
Nanobiotechnology and nutrition
Nanobiotechnology and food industry
Role of nanobiotechnology in personalized nutrition

16. Nanobiotechnology and Personalized Medicine
Introduction
Role of nanobiotechnology in personalized management of cancer
Nanotechnology-based personalized medicine for cardiology
Nanobiotechnology for therapeutics design and monitoring

17. Nanotoxicology
Introduction
Toxicity of nanoparticles
Testing for toxicity of nanoparticles
In vitro testing of nanoparticle toxicity
Variations in safety issues of different nanoparticles
Carbon nanotube safety
Fullerene toxicity
Gold nanoparticle toxicity
Quantum dot safety issues
Fate of nanoparticles in the human body
Pulmonary effects of nanoparticles
Neuronanotoxicology
Nanoparticle deposits in the brain
Nanoparticles and neurodegeneration
Effect of nanoparticles on the heart
Blood compatibility of nanoparticles
Carbon nanoparticle-induced platelet aggregation
Compatibility of lipid-based nanoparticles with blood and blood cells
Transfer of nanoparticles from mother to fetus
Cytotoxicity of nanoparticles
Indirect DNA damage caused by nanoparticles across cellular barriers
Measures to reduce toxicity of nanoparticles
Reducing toxicity of carbon nanotubes
A screening strategy for the hazard identification of nanomaterials
Concluding remarks on safety issues of nanoparticles
Research into environmental effects of nanoparticles
Environmental safety of aerosols released from nanoparticle manufacture
Role of US government agencies in research on safety of nanoparticles
Work at NanoSafety Laboratories Inc UCLA
Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology
European NEST project for risk assessment of exposure to nanoparticles
Nanoparticles and food safety
Public perceptions of the safety of nanotechnology
Evaluation of consumer exposure to nanoscale materials
Safety of nanoparticle-based cosmetics
Regulations in the European Union
Nanotechnology-based sunscreens
Cosmetic industry’s white paper on nanoparticles in personal care
Skin penetration of nanoparticles used in sunscreens

18. Ethical and Regulatory Aspects of Nanomedicine
Introduction
Ethical and social implications of nanobiotechnology
Nanoethics
Nanotechnology patents
Quantum dot patents relevant to healthcare applications
Challenges and future prospects of nanobiotechnology patents
Legal aspects of nanobiotechnology
Nanotechnology standards
Preclinical testing of nanometerials for biological applications
FDA regulation of nanobiotechnology products
FDA and nanotechnology-based medical devices
FDA’s Nanotechnology Task Force
FDA collaboration with agencies/organizations relevant to nanotechnology
Regulation of nanotechnology in the European Union
Safety recommendations of the Royal Society of UK
European Commission and safety of nanocosmetics

19. Research and Future of Nanomedicine
Introduction
Nanobiotechnology research in the academic centers
Clinical trials of nanomedicines
Future potential of nanomedicine
US Federal funding for nanobiotechnology
Nanomedicine initiative of NIH
NIH Nanomedicine Center for Nucleoprotein Machines
NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer
Research in cancer nanotechnology sponsored by the NCI
Global Enterprise for Micro-Mechanics and Molecular Medicine
Nano2Life
European Technology Platform on NanoMedicine

20. Nanobiotechnology Markets
Introduction
Markets according to areas of applications
Markets for nanomedicine
Markets for nanodiagnostics
Markets for biochips/microarrays
Imaging agents
Pharmaceuticals
Role of nanobiotechnology in drug delivery market
Nanobiotechnology in life sciences research market
Markets according to technologies
Markets for nanomaterials
Markets for biomedical nanodevices
Markets for nanosensors
Markets for nanotools
Geographical distribution of markets
Nanobiotechnology in the US
Nanobiotechnology in the European Union
Nano2Life
European Technology Platform on NanoMedicine
Nanobiotechnology in Australia
Nanobiotechnology in Asia
Japan
South Korea
China
Taiwan
India
Nanobiotechnology in Russia
Nanobiotechnology in the developing world
Venture capital investment in nanotechnology
Big pharma and nanotechnology
Impact of nanobiotechnology on markets for current pharmaceuticals
Unmet needs in nanobiotechnology
Drivers for the development of nanobiotechnology markets
Strategies for developing markets for nanobiotechnology
Collaborations of industry with academic research centers
Collaborations of pharmaceutical and nanotechnology companies
Collaboration of chemical industry and the government
Cost-benefit of nanotechnology-based drug delivery
Education of healthcare professionals
Education of the public

21. References

Tables

Table 1-1: Dimensions of various objects in nanoscale
Table 1-2: Historical landmarks in the evolution of nanomedicine
Table 1-3: Nanomedicine in the 21st century
Table 2-1: Classification of basic nanomaterials and nanobiotechnologies
Table 2-2: Applications of S-layers in nanobiotechnology
Table 2-3: Potential applications of dendrimers in nanomedicine
Table 2-4: Nanomaterials for biolabeling
Table 2-5: Applications of cantilever technology
Table 2-6: Applications of optical nanoscopy
Table 3-1: Nanomaterials for the study of mitochondria
Table 4-1: Nanotechnologies with potential applications in molecular diagnostics
Table 4-2: Nanobiotechnologies for single molecule detection
Table 4-3: Clinical trials of nanodiagnostics
Table 5-1: Basic nanobiotechnologies relevant to drug discovery
Table 5-2: Nanomaterials used for drug delivery
Table 5-3: Liposome-nanoparticle hybrid systems
Table 6-1: Examples of application of nanoparticles for gene therapy
Table 8-1: Classification of nanobiotechnology approaches to drug delivery in cancer
Table 8-2: Approved anticancer drugs using nanocarriers
Table 9-1: Role of nanobiotechnology in regeneration and repair following CNS trauma
Table 13-1: Nanoparticles used for drug delivery in ophthalmology
Table 15-1: Applications of nanotechnologies in food and nutrition sciences
Table 18-1: FDA-approved nanotechnology based drugs
Table 19-1: Academic institutes/laboratories involved in nanobiotechnology
Table 19-2: Clinical trials of nanotechnology-based therapies
Table 20-1: Nanobiotechnology markets according to areas of application 2013-
Table 20-2: Markets for nanobiotechnology according to technologies 2013-
Table 20-3: Geographical distribution of nanobiotechnology markets 2013-
Table 20-4: Drivers for the development of nanobiotechnology markets
Table 20-5: Strategies for developing markets for nanobiotechnology
Table 20-6: Cost-benefit of nanotechnology-based drug delivery

Figures

Figure 1-1: Sizes of biologically entities relevant to the brain
Figure 2-1: The core, branching and surface molecules of dendrimers
Figure 2-2: Schematic representation of Dip Pen Nanolithography (DPN)
Figure 2-3: Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology
Figure 3-1: Concept of nanopore-based sequencing
Figure 3-2: Nanopore-based sequence-specific detection of DNA
Figure 4-1: Scheme of bio-barcode assay
Figure 4-2: Scheme of an optical mRNA biosensor
Figure 5-1: Application of nanobiotechnology at various stages of drug discovery
Figure 5-2: Bacteria plus nanoparticles for drug delivery into cells
Figure 5-3: Schematic image of a lipid nanoparticle
Figure 6-1: Nucleic acid delivery with lipid nanoparticle (LPN) technology
Figure 6-2: Nanocochleate-mediated drug delivery
Figure 8-1: Use of micelles for drug delivery
Figure 9-1: Nanodiagnostics for neurological disorders
Figure 9-2: A concept of targeted drug delivery to GBM across the BBB
Figure 10-1: Magnetic nanoparticle-coated stent
Figure 14-1: Schematic representation of NanoViricide attacking a virus particle
Figure 16-1: Relationship of nanobiotechnology to personalized medicine
Figure 16-2: Role of nanobiotechnology in personalized management of cancer
Figure 20-1: Components of the $1 trillion market for nanotechnologies in
Figure 20-2: Nanobiotechnology markets according to applications 2013-
Figure 20-3: Geographical distribution of nanobiotechnology markets 2013-
Figure 20-4: Unmet needs in nanobiotechnology applications

Part II

22. Nanobiotech Companies
Introduction
Classification of companies
Profiles of companies
Collaborations

Tables
Table 22-1: Companies with nanoarray and nanofluidic technologies
Table 22-2: Companies that provide microscopes for nanobiotechnology
Table 22-3: Companies providing services and products for nanobiotechnology industry
Table 22-4: Companies that provide nanotechnologies for life sciences research
Table 22-5: Companies developing nanomolecular diagnostics
Table 22-6: Companies involved in nanobiotechnology-based drug discovery and development
Table 22-7: Companies involved in nanobiotechnology-based drug delivery
Table 22-8: Companies using nanotechnology-based antiinfective agents
Table 22-9: Companies using nanotechnology for healthcare and therapeutics
Table 22-10: Collaborations of companies in nanobiotechnology

Professor K. K. Jain is a neurologist/neurosurgeon by training and has been working in the biotechnology/biopharmaceuticals industry for several years. He received graduate training in both Europe and USA, has held academic positions in several countries and is a Fellow of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Medicine of the Royal Colleges of UK. Currently he is a consultant at Jain PharmaBiotech. Prof. Jain is the author of 415 publications including 16 books (2 as editor) and 48 special reports, which have covered important areas in biotechnology, gene therapy and biopharmaceuticals.

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