• 1-800-526-8630U.S. (TOLL FREE)
  • 1-917-300-0470EAST COAST U.S.
  • +353-1-416-8900REST OF WORLD
Near Zero Emission Vehicles: Challenges and Opportunities Product Image

Near Zero Emission Vehicles: Challenges and Opportunities

  • ID: 2368750
  • January 2009
  • 461 Pages
  • ITB Group


  • 3M Automotive
  • Cataler
  • EMCON Technologies
  • Ishikawajima
  • Matay
  • Sango- Senior
  • MORE

Climate change concerns have led to new government regulations that limit vehicle emissions not only for traditional exhaust pollutants (hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and particulates), but also for significant changes to a vehicle’s fuel economy. Suppliers and OEMs have responded to these requirements with a great number of innovations that include: electric hybrid powertrains, cooled high and low pressure systems for exhaust gas recirculation and boost system improvements, both of which improve an engine’s combustion characteristics. These innovations emerged as the world entered a financial crisis and US voters elected a greener President. The automotive industry is at the epicenter of these developments. The ITB Group has completed a report that analyzes the legislative, market and technical changes related to the further reduction of vehicle emissions.

Highlights of this report include:

- Business Dynamics – New powertrain and exhaust system control technologies have led to the emergence of new suppliers in the exhaust system market. For example, the use of urea-based systems onboard the vehicle for nitrogen oxide reduction has resulted READ MORE >

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown


  • 3M Automotive
  • Cataler
  • EMCON Technologies
  • Ishikawajima
  • Matay
  • Sango- Senior
  • MORE


- Drivers to Near Zero Emission Vehicles
- Tier One Suppliers of Emission Reduction Components
- Supply Structure for Emission Reduction Components

- US Exhaust Emission Regulations
- European Exhaust Emission Regulations
- Summary of Global Emission Requirements

- Conventional Engine Trends
- Alternative Powertrains
- Powertrains – The Future?

- Overall Exhaust System Designs
- Aftertreatment Developments

- EGR System Design
- EGR Cooler Modules

- Drivers to Carbon Dioxide Reduction
- Legislation for Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions
- Technologies for Enabling Carbon Dioxide Emission Reduction

- Strategies for Reducing Nitrogen Oxide Emissions
- Nitrogen Oxide Traps
- Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)

- System Designs
- Diesel Particulate Filter Substrates


List of Figures:

Chapter 2
Environmental Policies – A Balance of Economics and the Environment
Drivers Impacting Technology Selection for Near Zero Emission Vehicles
Changes in Commodity Prices
North American Month-by-Month Vehicle Production Comparison
General Motors’ Financial Problems over the Last Three Years
Importance of Technology Change versus Cost for Key Exhaust Subsystems
Economic Performance of Product and Process Firms
Selected Supplier Participation in Exhaust System Related Components
Summary of Developments at the Major Exhaust System Product Suppliers
Forces Shaping the Turbocharging and Exhaust Gas Recirculation System Market
Forces Shaping the Catalyst and Diesel Particulate Filter Substrate Market
Forces Shaping the Catalyst Washcoat Market
Forces Shaping the Fabricated Metal Exhaust System Market
Estimated North American Hot-Side and Cold-Side Exhaust System Supplier Market Shares
Estimated European Hot-Side and Cold-Side Exhaust System Supplier Market Shares
Forces Shaping the Diesel Emission Fluid Component Market
Summary of Exhaust System Component Suppliers to the European And North American Markets

Chapter 3
Federal Exhaust Emission Test Procedures and Supplemental Test Procedure
Timeline of the Federal Emission Test Procedure
Tier 2 Light-Duty Full Useful Life Exhaust Emission Standards
LEV II Exhaust Emission Standards for LEV, ULEV and SULEV Categories
Placement of Certified Vehicles in California between 1994 and 2006
California 2009 ZEV Program Requirements
Proposed Sales Requirements for Large Volume Manufacturers by the California Air Resources Board
Projected Number of ZEV Vehicles Assuming the OEMs Use their Current Credits
California 2008 PZEV Credit Vehicles
Forecast PZEV Vehicle Production
Reduction of Allowable Nitrogen Oxide Limits According to Euro 4, 5 and 6 for different Vehicles
Driving Cycles for European Emission Tests
Euro 4, 5 and 6 Emission Limits for Diesel Vehicles
Euro 4, 5 and 6 Emission Limits for Gasoline Vehicles
Overview of Japan’s Exhaust Emission Limits for Gasoline-Based Passenger Cars

Chapter 4
Diverse Requirements for Developing a New Engine
Comparison of Ford’s New 3.5L V-6 EcoBoost Engine with the 3.5L V-6 Duratec Engine
Evolution of BMW’s Diesel Engines
New BMW V-8 Gasoline Engine with “V” Packaged Twin Turbo System
General Motor’s 2010 Duramax Diesel 4.5L V-8 Turbocharged Engine
BorgWarner’s Two-Stage Turbocharger (R2S)
General Motors’ 2011 Turbocharged 1.4L Variable Valve Train Engine
Renault’s Turbocharged TCe 130 Four Cylinder Engine
Piezoelectric Gasoline Injector for a Direct Injection System
Potential Part Load Improvement in Fuel consumption Compared with Today’s Gasoline Engines
Daimler’s DiesOtto Engine
Sales of Hybrid Vehicles
Impact of Different Propulsion Technologies on a Vehicle’s Price
Hybrid Electric Vehicle Classifications
Daimler’s Classification of Hybrid Electric Vehicles
General Motor’s Hybrid and Conventional Ecotec 2.4L Engines
General Motors’ Dual-Mode Transmission
General Motors’ Cadillac Escalade Hybrid
Identified Plug-In Hybrid Electric and Electric Vehicles Powered by In-Wheel Motors
Average Weekday Daily Travel in the USA by State
Economic Attractiveness of a P-HEV Compared with a Traditional Hybrid Electric Vehicle
General Motors; Chevrolet Volt
Battery Operating Conditions for Conventional Hybrid Electric Vehicles, P-HEVs and Battery Electric Vehicles
Battery System Requirements for Different Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Battery Sizing and Power Density for Different P-HEV Driving Ranges
Characteristics of Various Battery Technologies for Vehicle Applications
Power Sources Available for Battery Electric Vehicles – Ragone Plot
Partial List of Identified Companies Involved in the Development and Commercialization of Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Batteries
Fuel Cell Operation
Partial List of Companies Involved in the Development of Fuel Cells
World Oil Balance 2003 to 2007
Energy Distribution – Typical Mid-Size Vehicle on the Federal Test Procedure Schedule Urban (highway)
Well-to-Wheels and Tank-to-Wheels Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Different Powertrain Technologies
Forecast Improvements in Fuel Consumption and Emissions by Different Propulsion Technologies in 2035
Forecast Increase in Retain Prices for Current and Future Propulsion Technologies

Chapter 5
Overall Exhaust System Layout
Complete Exhaust Systems on the Ford Escape and Toyota Yaris
Exhaust Systems on the Mercedes-Benz A-Class
Audi A3 Quattro Exhaust System
Exhaust System Used for Audi’s Diesel TDI Engine with SCR Technology
Cold-End Exhaust System for the Skoda Octavia and Superb VR6
Hot-End Exhaust System for the GM 1.4L Gasoline Engine Opel Tigra / Meriva / Corsa / Combo / Astra
Examples of Exhaust System Components Produced using Different Fabrication Processes
Key Exhaust System Performance Factors
Examples of a Fabricated Manifold from Tenneco
Examples of a Tubular Exhaust Manifold with Integrated Catalytic Converter
Integrated Exhaust Manifold and Catalytic Converter
Integrated Turbocharger and Exhaust Manifold
Fiat’s Turbocharger / Exhaust Manifold for its New 1.8L DI Turbo-Jet Engine
Production of the BMW 4.4L V8 Gasoline Exhaust System
Examples of Coupling Elements
Examples of Flexible Elements and Decouplers from BOA Group
Examples of Low Weight Approaches for Exhaust Systems
Chassis Packaging of the Ford Hybrid Escape
Packaging of the Audi Q7 with Diesel Emission Fluid and Diesel Tanks
Modern Day Catalytic Converter
Use of a Close-Coupled Converter
Examples of Emitec Metal Substrates

Chapter 6
Trade-off between Nitrogen Oxides and Particulate Matter for a Diesel Engine
Impact on Diesel combustion Efficiency with EGR and Air-Fuel Ratio Changes
Examples of EGR Tubes and Coolers
Examples of Intake Manifold and Charge Air Cooler Outlet Temperatures for Low and High Pressure EGR
Architecture for a Combines Low-Pressure and High-Pressure EGR System on a four Cylinder Engine
Thermodynamic Analysis of a High-Pressure and Low-Pressure EGR System and Its Effect on EGR Turbocharger Performance
EGR System on the Tier 2 Bin 5 Volkswagen 2.0L TDI Engine
Secondary Cooling Loop Used for Fiat’s Tests on its 2.o Jtd Engine
Renault’s EGR System for its V6 dCi Diesel Engine
Example of an Aluminum EGR Cooling Module Supplied by Pierburg
Examples of EGR Valves Supplied by Wahler
Mahle’s EGR Control Valve
Behr Thermot-tronik’s MTC EGR Valve
Examples of EGR Cooler Modules
Example of Components Used in an EGR Cooling Control Module
Mark IV and ENSA’s Concepts for an Air Intake / EGR System
Valeo’s Ultimate Cooling Air Intake Concept
Comparison of Valeo’s Cooling Intake Concept with a Conventional System

Chapter 7
Global Anthropogenic GHG Emissions
Estimated Changes in Atmospheric Concentrations of Key GHGs over the Last 10,000 Years
Changes in Temperature, Sea Level and Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover
Dramatic Melting of the Muir Glacier between 1941 and 2004
Fuel Economy and Select GHG Standards for Select Countries
Estimated 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions from European Vehicles
Forecast 2012 Carbon Dioxide Emissions from European Vehicles Compared with 2007 Levels
Overview of Carbon Dioxide Emission Taxes in Different EU Countries
ADAC’s Top Twenty Rated Ecotest Vehicles for 2008
Fleet Average Greenhouse Gas Exhaust Mass Emission Requirements
US New Model Fleet CAFE between 1978 and 2008
Japan’s Top Runner Standard – Passenger Vehicle Standard Energy Consumption Efficiency
Limits of Fuel Economy for Passenger Vehicles in China
Integrated Three-in-One Approach for Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Japan’s Road Transportation Sector
Changes Made by the German UBA on a Volkswagen Golf to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Changes to a Volkswagen Golf with the Resulting Impact on Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Technologies Developed by Valeo for Improving Fuel Consumption
Powertrain Technology Introductions that have Led to Reduced Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Risks to Drivers for Different Vehicle Categories

Chapter 8
Diesel Passenger Car Emission Targets
NxtGen’s Aftertreatment Control system with Syngas Generator
Trade-Off between NOx Reduction and Fuel Consumption
Comparison of NOx Storage Trap and a SCR System for Passenger Cars
Selection between the Use of a NOx Trap and a SCR System
NGK’s High Precision NOx Sensor
Operation of a NOx Trap Aftertreatment System for a Diesel Engine
Dodge Ram’s Aftertreatment System Used with the Cummins 6.7L Engine
Regeneration Cycles of the Particulate Filter and NOx Trap on the Clean Diesel Volkswagen Jetta
Renault’s Exhaust System with a NOx Trap for the 2.0 dCi Espace
Honda’s Clean Diesel i-DTEC Engine with Aftertreatment System
Set-Up of Urea Injector and SCR Catalyst in the Exhaust System
Kruse Bottle for DEF Applications
North American SCR Stake holders Group – Participating Organizations
Example Layout of the Diesel Emission Fluid Storage and Delivery System Onboard the Vehicle
Key Components in the Bosch Denoxtronic SCR System
Example of Inergy’s SCR System Components
Inergy’s Single Tank SCR System Layout for a Vehicle
Two Tank SCR System for the Audi Q7
Blow Molded DEF Tank Produced by Kautex Textron
Heated EPDM-Based DEF Hose Offered by ContiTech
Example of an SCR Line and Connector Construction Offered by Norma
Examples of SCR Products Offered by Voss
Durability of the DEF Doser Spray
Role of the Exhaust Mixer in Managing the DEF Spray
Sintering of Active Copper Sites after 120,000 Miles on an SCR Catalyst

Chapter 9
Examples of DPF Layouts
Wall Flow Diesel Particulate Filter
BMW’s Integrated Oxidation Catalyst and Diesel Particulate Filter on the 3.0 L In-Line Six Cylinder Engine
Emitec’s SCRi System
Toyota’s DPNR Aftertreatment System
Change in NOx Conversion with Increasing Back Pressure (Soot Loading) on an Integrated SCR / DPF
Illustration of Soot and Ash Distribution within a Diesel Particulate Filter
Effect of Ash Loading on Back Pressure for Different Soot Levels
Examples of Asymmetric Channels for DPF Filters
Dependency on Particle Size for Different Filtration Mechanisms
Illustration of a Silicon Carbide (Rear) and Cordierite DPF Substrates
Comparison of the Physical Properties of DPF Substrate Materials
TYK’s Sintering Process for the Production of Silicon Carbide DPF Substrates
Microstructure of Dow’s Advanced Mullite Ceramic Filter Substrate Material
Physical Properties of Dow’s Advanced Mullite Ceramic Filter Substrate Material
Pressure Drop Performance of Dow’s Advanced Mullite Ceramic Filter Substrate Material

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

- 3M Automotive
- ACS Industries
- Alphi Manufacturing
- Aristo
- BASF Catalysts
- Behr
- Benteler Automotive
- BorgWarner
- Bosal
- Bosch
- Boysen
- Calsonic Kansei
- Cataler
- Catalytic Solutions
- Ceram Catalysts
- Céramiques Techniques et Industrielles (CTI)
- ContiTech
- CooperStandard Automotive
- Corning
- Cummins Turbo Technologies
- DBK David+Baader
- Delphi
- Dow Automotive
- Dytech ENSA
- Eaton- Eberspächer
- Ecocat
- ELB-Form
- EMCON Technologies
- Emitec
- Faurecia
- Formeco
- Futaba Industrial
- Grundfos
- Hazen Powder Parts
- Hilite International
- Hitachi Metals
- HJS Fahrzeugtechnik
- Honeywell
- Ibiden
- Inergy Automotive Systems
- Ishikawajima
- Harima Heavy Industries (IHI)
- Johnson Matthey Catalysts
- Katcon
- Kautex Textron
- Keihin
- Kolbenschmidt Pierburg
- Lajous Industries
- LiqTech
- Magneti Marelli
- Mahle
- Mann+Hummel
- Mark IV Industries
- Martinrea International
- Matay
- Metaldyne
- Midwest Acoust-A-Fiber (MAI)
- Mikuni
- Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
- Modine
- Nitta Moore
- Norma Group
- Notox
- NTK Technologies
- Peasa
- Pirelli Eco Technology
- Rhodia Electronics and Catalysis
- Saint-Gobain
- Sakamoto Industry
- Salzgitter Hydroforming
- Sango- Senior
- T.Rad
- Tenneco
- Tokyo Roki
- Umicore Automotive Catalysts
- Unifrax
- Usui Kokusai Sangyo Kaisha
- Valeo
- Vallourec
- Visteon
- VOSS Automotive
- Wahler
- Wescast Industries
- Wevista
- Witzenmann
- Yutaka Giken

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown


Our Clients

TRW Automotive Johnson Controls, Inc. Valeo Volvo Car Corporation Lear Corporation General Motors Company