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The Definitive Guide to 4G Technology and LTE Business Intelligence (2014 Edition) - Product Image

The Definitive Guide to 4G Technology and LTE Business Intelligence (2014 Edition)

  • Published: June 2014
  • Region: Global
  • 2165 Pages
  • Mind Commerce LLC

Fourth generation (4G) cellular technology represents a huge leap compared to previous generations. The Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard for 4G provides significant capacity gains as well as true end-to-end Internet Protocol (IP) connectivity including voice over IP (VoIP) via voice over LTE (VoLTE).

There are significant challenges, such as launching VoLTE, optimizing networks, and integrating operations. There are also significant opportunities, such as deploying value-added service (VAS) applications that rely upon LTE and offer mobile network operators an advantage against over-the-top (OTT) competition that uses 3G.

This is the most comprehensive research available focused on 4G technology and LTE business insights for deployment, operations, and maximizing investment value. The research includes critical analysis and forecasts for the following:

- LTE in Industry Verticals: Market Opportunities and Forecasts 2014 – 2019
- The Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) Market: Business Case, Market Analysis & Forecasts 2014 – 2019
- Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS): Market and Forecast 2014 – 2019
- Wireless Security in 3G and READ MORE >

LTE in Industry Verticals: Market Opportunities and Forecasts 2014 – 2019

1 Introduction 7
1.1 Executive Summary 7
1.2 Topics Covered 8
1.3 Key Questions Answered 9
1.4 Target Audience 10
1.5 Companies Mentioned 11
2 LTE Technology Overview 13
2.1 LTE RAN Technology (E-UTRAN) 14
2.2 EPC Technology 16
2.3 Interoperability with 2G/3G Systems 18
2.3.1 Mobile Data Only Service 18
2.3.2 LTE Data Service with 2G/3G Voice 18
2.3.3 Voice and Data Services over LTE 18
2.4 Interoperability with LMR Systems 19
2.5 LTE Advanced Support for Heterogeneous Commercial and LMR Networks 20
3 LTE Business Case in Vertical Industry Segments 25
3.1 Key Market Drivers 25
3.1.1 LTE vs. LMR 25
3.1.2 Security Features 27
3.1.3 Spectrum Flexibility 28
3.1.4 Economic Feasibility 29
3.1.5 Vendor Commitments 29
3.1.6 Support for Data Intensive and Low Latency Applications 31
3.1.7 Voice Interoperability 31
3.2 Key Barriers 31
3.2.1 Interoperability with Legacy Proprietary Solutions 31
3.2.2 The Private vs. Shared Commercial Network Debate 32
3.2.3 Device Challenges and Opportunities 33
3.3 The LTE in Industry Verticals Value Chain 39
4 Vertical Industry Segments 42
4.1 Manufacturing and Automation 42
4.1.1 IoT is the Driver for LTE Enterprise Growth 42
4.2 Oil and Gas 44
4.2.1 Critical Communication Needs in Remote Locations 44
4.2.2 Reliance on LMR Solutions 45
4.2.3 Data Applications and Economic Feasibility: Is LTE the Answer? 45
4.2.4 Texas Energy Network (TEN): An operational M2M LTE Network for the Oil and Gas Industry 46
4.3 Construction 47
4.3.1 Communication Needs of a Huge Market 47
4.3.2 Case Study: LTE Enables Pepper Construction 48
4.4 Agriculture 49
4.4.1 Fundamental Aspect to National Economies 49
4.4.2 The GSMA mAgri Initiative 49
4.4.3 LTE Based M2M Solutions 49
4.5 Mining 50
4.5.1 LTE in Mining: Communications and Remote Monitoring 50
4.5.2 Case Study: Rio Tinto LTE Network 50
4.6 Utilities 51
4.6.1 Complimenting LMR Narrowband Communications 51
4.6.2 Extending Prospects to M2M 51
4.6.3 Enabling Smart Grid and Smart Meter Applications 51
4.7 Transportation 53
4.7.1 Cellular M2M in the Transportation Industry 53
4.7.2 Enabling Content Services 53
4.7.3 New Opportunities: Adverting on Public Transport 54
4.8 Defense 54
4.8.1 Technology is No Longer Driven by Military Needs and Funding 54
4.8.2 Leveraging Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Communications Equipment 55
4.8.3 U.S. Army LTE Trial 55
4.8.4 Naval Task Force Connectivity: U.S. Navy Adopts LTE 56
4.9 Public Safety 57
4.9.1 Endorsement as the Next Generation Public Safety Communication Technology 57
4.9.2 Transforming the Next Generation Command Center 59
4.9.3 Qatar MOI: Leveraging LTE for Real-Time Video Monitoring 59
4.10 Education and Distance Learning 60
4.10.1 The Importance of Internet Connectivity in Education 60
4.10.2 Community-wide LTE Networks 60
4.10.3 Learning from WiMAX: Past Success Stories 60
4.11 Healthcare 61
4.11.1 Transforming the Healthcare Industry 61
4.11.2 LTE and Mobile Video: The Future of E-Healthcare 61
5 Key Trends in LTE and Industry Verticals 62
5.1 Critical Infrastructure 62
5.1.1 U.S Nationwide Private LTE Network: Synergies with Public Safety LTE 62
5.1.2 Private Deployments Targeting Critical Infrastructure 62
5.2 Municipal Networks 63
5.2.1 Prospects of Municipal LTE Networks 63
5.2.2 Case Study: Swindon Borough Council 63
5.3 M2M 64
5.3.1 2G/3G Market Penetration 64
5.3.2 The LTE Era for M2M 65
5.4 LMR vs. LTE: Complement or Replace 66
5.5 LTE in the Traditional Enterprise Segment 67
5.5.1 Serving the Needs of the Traditional Enterprise 67
5.5.2 Mobile Workforce 67
5.5.3 Improving In-Building Coverage: LTE Small Cells 68
5.6 Adoption Timeline by Vertical Industry Segment 68
5.6.1 Oil, Gas and Energy Production 68
5.6.2 Construction 68
5.6.3 Agriculture 69
5.6.4 Mining 69
5.6.5 Utilities 69
5.6.6 Transportation 69
5.6.7 Defense 69
5.6.8 Public Safety 69
5.6.9 Education 70
5.6.10 Healthcare 70
6 Market Analysis and Forecasts 71
6.1 The Global LTE Market: 2014 - 2019 71
6.1.1 Global LTE Subscriptions: 2014 - 2019 71
6.1.2 Global LTE Service Revenue: 2014 - 2019 72
6.1.3 Consumer and Enterprise LTE Subscriptions Compared: 2014 - 2019 73
6.1.4 Consumer and Enterprise LTE Service Revenue Compared: 2014 - 2019 74
6.1.5 Global LTE Subscriptions by Vertical Segment: 2014 - 2019 75
6.1.6 Global LTE Service Revenue by Vertical Segment: 2014 - 2019 76

List of Figures

Figure 1: LTE RAN Architecture 14
Figure 2: LTE EPC Architecture 17
Figure 3: HetNet Toplogy 21
Figure 4: Growth of Connected Devices 34
Figure 5: LTE Value Chain: Traditional Enterprise and Vertical Segments 39
Figure 6: LTE Applications in the Oil and Gas Industry 46
Figure 7: Cellular Network Integration in a Smart Grid Setup 52
Figure 8: Public Safety LTE Network 58
Figure 9: Global LTE Subscriptions: 2014 – 2019 (Millions) 71
Figure 10: Global LTE Service Revenues: 2014 – 2019 ($ Billion) 72
Figure 11: Consumer and Enterprise LTE Subscriptions Compared: 2014 – 2019 (Millions) 73
Figure 12: Consumer vs. Enterprise LTE Service Revenues 2014 – 2019 ($ Billion) 74
Figure 13: Global LTE Subscriptions by Vertical Industry 2014 – 2019 (Thousands) 75
Figure 14: Global LTE Service Revenue by Vertical Industry 2014 – 2019 ($ Billion) 76

The Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) Market: Business Case, Market Analysis & Forecasts 2014 - 2019

1 Introduction 7
1.1 Executive Summary 7
1.2 Topics Covered 8
1.3 Key Findings 9
1.4 Target Audience 10
1.5 Companies Mentioned 11
2 NFV Technology & Business Case 13
2.1 Defining NFV 13
2.2 Why the Confusion between NFV and SDN 15
2.3 Taxonomy for NFV 17
2.3.1 Commercial off the shelf (COTS) Hardware 17
2.3.2 Cloud Computing 18
2.4 Architecture: How to Define a “Network” in an NFV World? 19
2.5 Lessons from the Virtualized World: Meraki Case Study 19
2.6 Market Drivers 21
2.6.1 CapEx/OpEx Reduction 21
2.6.2 Improved Time to Market 21
2.6.3 Improved Scalability of Services & Network Topology 21
2.6.4 Energy Reduction and Improved Operational Efficiency 22
2.7 Market Barriers 24
2.7.1 Performance Trade-Off 24
2.7.2 Security Concerns 24
2.7.3 Integration & Network Stability Challenges 24
2.7.4 Driven by Standards (ETSI/ISG) and “Too Many Cooks”? 25
2.8 Case Study: If a Telco was run with the same economies as AWS, Azure or Google server farms, what is the benefit/value etc? 26
2.9 Technology: what is the real problem to be solved? 26
2.10 What is the role of the CloudNFV Group? 27
3 NFV Use Cases, Implementation Areas & Case Studies 29
3.1 Mobile Core & IMS 29
3.2 RAN & HetNets: Enabling Cloud RAN 31
3.3 Home Environment Virtualization 33
3.4 NFV based Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) 34
3.5 What are the other trajectories for the network and NFV should/could be aware of (they all matter)? 36
3.6 NFV Implementation Case Studies 37
3.6.1 BT 37
3.6.2 AT&T 38
4 NFV Vendor Landscape 39
4.1 Vendors are already lined up: who is doing what? 39
4.2 6WIND 39
4.3 Alcatel-Lucent 40
4.4 Amdocs 41
4.5 Cisco 42
4.6 Connectem 43
4.7 ConteXtream 44
4.8 Ericsson 45
4.9 F5 46
4.10 Huawei 47
4.11 Intel 48
4.12 Juniper 49
4.13 NEC 50
4.14 NSN 51
4.15 Openwave Mobility 52
4.16 Skyfire/Opera 53
4.17 Oracle 54
5 Key Issues in an NFV World 55
5.1 What are key elements from a cost/performance perspective? 55
5.2 Dimensioning and elasticity 56
5.3 Transition from now to new (i.e. fork-lift vs. selective implementation) 56
5.4 Does NFV help in Content Delivery? 57
5.5 Does NFV help in Contextual Communications? 57
5.6 Will NFV generate new revenues, services, & applications? 58
5.7 Money flows 59
5.7.1 Does the pie shrink, or is there more opportunity: does NFV open the industry for non-traditional telcos? 59
5.7.2 Could an enterprise integrate its Cloud/IT services with NFV and benefit? 59
5.8 Lessons Learned So Far 60
5.9 Ecosystem: Who are the Winners and Losers? 61
6 Forecasts 62
6.1 NFV Revenue: 2014 - 2019 62
6.2 NFV Revenue by Region 2014 - 2019 63
6.2.1 Asia Pacific 64
6.2.2 Eastern Europe 65
6.2.3 Latin & Central America 66
6.2.4 Middle East & Africa 67
6.2.5 North America 68
6.2.6 Western Europe 69

List of Figures

Figure 1: The ETSI Vision for NFV 14
Figure 2: Relationship between NFV and SDN 15
Figure 3: COTS Hardware in an NFV Setup 17
Figure 4: Energy Reduction in an NFV Setup 22
Figure 5: CloudNFV Open Framework 27
Figure 6: Mobile Core Virtualization 29
Figure 7: Mobile RAN Virtualization 31
Figure 8: CPE Virtualization 33
Figure 9: NFV IaaS Setup 34
Figure 10: NFV IaaS Revenue: 2014 – 2019 ($ Million) 35
Figure 11: NFV Solution Sales Revenue: 2014 – 2019 ($ Million) 62
Figure 12: NFV Solution Sales Revenue by Region: 2014 – 2019 ($ Million) 63
Figure 13: Asia Pacific NFV Solution Sales Revenue: 2014 – 2019 ($ Million) 64
Figure 14: Eastern Europe NFV Solution Sales Revenue: 2014 – 2019 ($ Million) 65
Figure 15: Latin & Central America NFV Solution Sales Revenue: 2014 – 2019 ($ Million) 66
Figure 16: Middle East & Africa NFV Solution Sales Revenue: 2014 – 2019 ($ Million) 67
Figure 17: North America NFV Solution Sales Revenue: 2013 – 2019 ($ Million) 68
Figure 18: Western Europe NFV Solution Sales Revenue: 2014 – 2019 ($ Million) 69

Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS): Market and Forecast 2014 – 2019

1 Introduction 5
1.1 Executive Summary 5
1.2 Topics Covered 6
1.3 Key Questions Answered 7
1.4 Target Audience 7
1.5 Companies Mentioned 8
2 DAS Technology Overview 9
2.1 DAS Overview 9
2.2 DAS Technology 11
2.2.1 Active and Passive DAS 16
2.2.2 DAS Signal Conditioners 17
2.2.3 Multi-Signal Combiner Systems 18
2.2.4 Characteristics of DAS Networks 19
3 DAS and Small Cell Technologies 21
3.1 Microcell Solutions 23
3.2 Pico/Metrocell solutions 25
3.3 Femtocell Solutions 27
3.4 Wi-Fi 29
3.5 Small cell Capacity 31
4 Case Study: Cost of Small Cells vs. DAS 33
5 DAS and Self Organizing Networks (SON) 36
5.1 Improved Coverage and Quality of Service 38
5.2 Future of SON and DAS in Optimized Networks 39
6 DAS Benefit to Carriers 40
6.1 Improved Coverage and Quality of Service 40
6.2 Increased Capacity 41
6.3 Capital Cost Reduction 41
6.4 Speed to Market for Service Providers 42
6.5 DAS Challenges 42
7 DAS Market 2014-2019 44
7.1 DAS Market Equipment 2014-2019 44
7.1.1 Carrier WiFi Revenues 2014-2019 44
7.2 Global Small Cell Market 2014-2019 48
7.2.1 FemtoCell Market 2014-2019 49
7.3 In-building DAS Market 2014-2019 52
7.4 Global Market 54
7.5 Regional Market 56
7.5.1 United States 56
7.5.2 Asia Pacific 57
7.5.3 Middle East and Africa 59
7.5.4 Europe 61
7.6 DAS Vendors Market 62
7.6.1 DAS Vendors Market Share 62

List of Figures

Figure 1: In-building Distributed Antenna System 13
Figure 2: Outdoor Distributed Antenna System 15
Figure 3: Standard DAS Signal Conditioners 18
Figure 4: DAS Network Topology 19
Figure 5: CPRI-connected Small Cells 22
Figure 6: Micro-cell Coverage 24
Figure 7: Femtocell/Pico-cell Network Architecture 26
Figure 8: Wi-Fi Network Architecture 30
Figure 9: DAS and Small Cells with Two Different Building Configurations 35
Figure 10: Carrier WiFi Revenue: 2014-2019 45
Figure 11: WiFi Access Point Unit Shipment 2014-2019 46
Figure 12: Carrier WiFi Access Point Unit Shipment Revenues 2014-2019 47
Figure 13: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments 2014-2019 48
Figure 14: Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenues 2014-2019 49
Figure 15: FemtoCell Annual Shipments 2014-2019 50
Figure 16: PicoCell Revenues 2014-2019 51
Figure 17: In-building DAS Market 2014-2019 53
Figure 18: Global DAS Market 2014-2019 55
Figure 19: United States DAS Market 2014-2019 57
Figure 20: Asia Pacific DAS Market 2014-2019 58
Figure 21: Middle East & Africa DAS Market 2014-2019 59
Figure 22: DAS Vendors Market Share 62

List of Tables

Table 1: SON Capabilities 37
Table 2: Business Drivers for SON 37
Table 3: SON Architectures 38

Wireless Security in 3G and LTE Networks: Market and Forecast 2014 – 2019

1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 11
2.0 INTRODUCTION 12
3.0 EVOLUTION OF LTE: GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE 15
3.1 TRANSITION FROM 2G TO 3G AND NOW LTE 15
3.2 LTE TO LTE ADVANCED 16
3.3 WIRELESS NETWORK: GLOBAL MARKET SCENARIO: 17
3.4 LTE: GLOBAL MARKET SCENARIO: 17
3.5 COMPARISON OF LTE USERS BY REGION 18
3.6 WORLDWIDE LTE DEPLOYMENT STATUS: 19
4.0 LTE MARKET PROJECTION 2014 - 2019 20
4.1 MOBILE PHONE SUBSCRIPTION AND MOBILE TECHNOLOGY SUBSCRIPTION 20
5.0 WIRELESS SECURITY COMPARISON: UTMS (3G) VS. LTE (4G) 22
5.1 INTRODUCTION TO WIRELESS SECURITY 22
5.2 SECURITY ARCHITECTURE: UTMS (3G) AND LTE (4G) 22
5.3 WHY WIRELESS SECURITY IS DIFFERENT IN LTE 24
5.4 WIRELESS SECURITY VULNERABILITY: A BURNING ISSUE FOR MOBILE DEVICES 25
5.5 SECURITY RISKS IN WIRELESS DEVICES: 26
5.6 FACTS ABOUT SECURITY ISSUES IN MOBILE ENVIRONMENT 27
5.7 DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM (DNS) AND LTE SECURITY 28
6.0 WIRELESS SECURITY THREATS ON MOBILE: LTE PATTERN 29
6.1 WIRELESS LTE CYBER THREAT LANDSCAPE 29
6.2 WEB SECURITY THREAT 30
6.3 SECURITY THREATS AND BUSINESS IMPACTS 30
6.4 CATEGORY POSED THREATS 32
6.5 PLATFORM POSED THREATS 33
6.6 LTE THREAT AGENTS TRENDS 33
7.0 WIRELESS LTE DEVICE MARKET PROJECTIONS 2014-2019 35
7.1 OVERALL WIRELESS DEVICE MARKET FORECAST: 35
7.2 REGIONAL WIRELESS DEVICE MARKET FORECAST 35
7.3 LTE SUBSCRIBED WIRELESS DEVICE USERS MARKET FORECAST: 36
8.0 MOBILE APPLICATION MARKET PROJECTION 2014-2019 37
8.1 MOBILE APPLICATION MARKET: INTRODUCTION 37
8.2 MOBILE APPLICATION MARKET FORECAST 2014 – 2019 38
9.0 MOBILE SECURITY IN IP ENVIRONMENT: LTE PERSPECTIVE 39
9.1 LTE – AN IP BASED NETWORK 39
9.2 TYPES OF MOBILE SECURITY THREATS 40
9.2.1 APPLICATION BASED THREATS 40
9.2.2 WEB BASED THREATS 41
9.2.3 NETWORK BASED THREATS 41
9.2.4 PHYSICAL THREATS 42
9.3 MALWARE: BIG THREATS FOR LTE 43
9.4 WIRELESS SECURITY: ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE OUTLOOK 44
9.5 SIGNALLING DERIVED THREATS: DIAMETER 45
9.6 THIRD PARTY SOURCED THREATS 45
9.7 RAN AND BACKHAUL: WEAK POINTS IN LTE FOR MOBILE “HACTIVISTS” 45
10.0 WIRELESS SECURITY ANALYSIS ON LTE PERSPECTIVE 47
10.1 ANALYSIS OF WIRELESS LTE THREATS 47
10.1.1 LTE NETWORKS: AN ACCESS POINT AND THREAT FOR APPLICATIONS 47
10.1.1 LTE NETWORKS: REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF MOBILE APPLICATION USERS 48
10.1.2 MOBILE USER AWARENESS OF WIRELESS SECURITY 2013 – 2019 48
10.2 WIRELESS LTE THREATS MARKET STATUS AND OUTLOOK 49
10.2.1 WIRELESS LTE THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES 49
10.2.2 OUTLOOK OF WIRELESS LTE NETWORKS THREATS 49
10.2.1 GLOBAL LTE CONNECTIONS 50
11.0 LTE WIRELESS NETWORK – COUNTRY-WISE ANALYSIS 51
11.1 LTE SECURITY AWARENESS 2014 - 2019 51
11.1.1 USA 51
11.1.2 UNITED KINGDOM 51
11.1.3 SOUTH KOREA 52
11.1.4 AFRICA 52
11.1.5 AUSTRALIA 53
11.1.6 BRAZIL 53
11.1.7 CANADA 54
11.1.8 BELGIUM 54
11.1.9 FRANCE 55
11.1.10 GERMANY 55
11.1.11 RUSSIA 56
11.1.12 MIDDLE EAST 56
11.1.13 JAPAN 57
11.1.14 CHINA 57
11.1.15 INDIA 58
11.2 LTE NETWORK PROVIDER MARKET SHARE 58
11.2.1 USA 58
11.2.2 UNITED KINGDOM 59
11.2.3 AFRICAN REGION 59
11.2.4 MIDDLE EAST REGION 60
11.2.5 SOUTH KOREA 60
11.2.6 JAPAN 61
11.2.7 RUSSIA 61
11.2.8 GERMANY 62
11.2.9 AUSTRALIA 62
11.2.10 HONGKONG 63
11.2.11 CHINA 63
11.2.12 INDIA 64
11.2.13 GLOBAL TOP 10 SERVICE PROVIDER OF LTE NETWORK SUBSCRIBER BASE 64
12.0 DISTINCTIVE INITIATIVE TO PREVENT WIRELESS INCIDENT 65
12.1 UNIQUE MOBILE SECURITY BY BRITISH FIRM 65
12.2 WIRELESS LTE THREAT IDENTIFICATION THROUGH PREVENTION APPLICATION 66
12.3 MOBILE SECURITY AGAINST ANTIVIRUS AND THEFT 66
13.0 LTE STAKEHOLDERS AND VENDOR MARKET SHARE 67
13.1 REGIONAL LTE DEPLOYMENT 2014 67
13.2 VULNERABILITY % SMARTPHONE VS. TABLET DEVICE 2014 - 2019 67
13.3 WIRELESS ANTIVIRUS VENDORS MARKET SHARE 2013 68
13.4 WIRELESS SECURITY COMPANY MARKET SHARE 2013 68
13.5 LTE INFRASTRUCTURE COMMERCIAL BY VENDORS 69
13.6 LTE SUPPORTING TABLET AND SMARTPHONE MANUFACTURERS 69
14.0 KEY OPINION LEADERS VIEW ON LTE SECURITY MARKET 71
14.1 LOWELL MCADAM, CEO, VERIZON 71
14.2 DAN HESSE, CEO, SPRINT 71
14.3 JOHN T CHAMBER, CEO, CISCO 71
14.4 VINCE STECKLER, CEO, AVAST 72
14.5 STEVE BENNET, CEO, SYMANTEC 72
15.0 CASE ANALYSIS 73
15.1 DROIDDREAM MALWARE: SPOILING YOUR DREAM 73
15.2 BAD NEWS: REAL BAD NEWS FOR MOBILE USERS 74
15.3 HACKING YOUR MONEY: BANKING FRAUDS OVER MOBILE 74
15.3.1 UK BANKS ATTACKED USING MALWARE: £1M FRAUD 74
15.3.2 EUROGRABBER ATTACK 75
15.4 THANKS GIVING: BIG DAY FOR HACKERS 75
15.4.1 INTRODUCTION: HACKERS TARGETING SHOPPERS' SMARTPHONES 75
15.4.2 HOW THE SMARTPHONE ATTACKED 76
15.4.3 RESEARCHERS OPINION AND CONCLUSION 76
15.5 WIRELESS THREAT IN CORPORATE ENVIRONMENT 77
15.5.1 INTRODUCTION 77
15.5.2 ATTACK IN CORPORATE ENVIRONMENT: 77
15.6 ONE SIMPLE TRICK COULD DISABLE A CITY’S LTE NETWORK 78
15.6.1 INTRODUCTION 78
15.6.2 FEMTOCELL IS A CONTRIBUTOR IN LTE ATTACKS 78
15.7 HIGH SPEED LTE IS A SOURCE OF ATTACK FOR TERRORIST 79
15.7.1 INTRODUCTION 79
15.7.2 RESEARCHERS QUOTE ON “LTE AS A SOURCE OF TERRORIST ATTACK” 79
15.8 CYBERCRIMINAL’S NETWORK ON MOBILE PAYMENTS 80
15.8.1 INTRODUCTION 80
15.9 MOBILE APPLICATION DOWNLOAD FOUNDATION OF VIRUS DOWNLOAD 81
15.9.1 INTRODUCTION 81
15.9.2 VIRUSES INFILTRATE BY APPLICATIONS DOWNLOADS 82
15.10 MOBILE WIFI HACKING 82
15.11 GAME APPLICATION HACKED SMARTPHONE AND TABLET 82
16.0 CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS 83
16.1 CONCLUSIONS 83
16.2 TRENDING WIRELESS LTE SECURITY ISSUES IN 2014 83
16.2.1 TARGETED ATTACKS 84
16.2.2 MORE HACTIVISM 84
16.2.3 CYBER ESPIONAGE AND WARFARE 84
16.2.4 BIG BROTHER WATCHING EVEN MORE 84
16.2.5 INCREASE IN MALWARE 85
16.2.6 PRIVACY RIGHTS ERODING 85
16.2.7 CYBER EXTORTION 85
16.2.8 APPLE UNDER ATTACK 86
16.2.9 ANDROID IS EVEN WORSE 86
16.2.10 UN-PATCHED EXPLOITS IN JAVA 86
16.3 VULNERABILITIES IN LTE 86
16.3.1 VULNERABILITY IN LTE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE 87
16.3.2 VULNERABILITY IN ACCESS AND HANDOVER PROCEDURES 87
16.3.3 VULNERABILITY IN IMS SECURITY AND HENB SECURITY 87
16.4 OTHER LTE SECURITY ISSUES 88
16.5 RECOMMENDATION 88
16.5.1 PROTECTING CORPORATE NETWORK 88
16.6 EXISTING SOLUTIONS FOR LTE SECURITY ISSUES 91
16.7 RECOMMENDATION FOR MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPERS 91
16.8 IOS RECOMMENDED SETTINGS FOR WI-FI ROUTERS AND ACCESS POINTS 92
16.9 RECOMMENDED SECURITY FOR MOBILE PAYMENT 92
16.9.1 DETECTING IF CARDHOLDER DATA IS BEING SKIMMED 92
16.9.2 IDENTIFYING AND PROTECTING WLAN FROM UNAUTHORIZED DEVICES 93
16.10 IP NETWORK SECURITY MEASURES: 93
17.0 ACRONYMS 94

List of Figures

Figure 1: System Architecture of Wireless LTE 12
Figure 2: Wireless Technologies 13
Figure 3: LTE Evolution 14
Figure 4: LTE and Mobile Evolution 15
Figure 5: Wireless Network and comparison 16
Figure 6: Wireless Network Global Market Scenario 17
Figure 7: LTE Global Market Scenario 18
Figure 8: LTE by Region 18
Figure 9: LTE Worldwide Deployment Status 19
Figure 10: Mobile Phone and Technology Subscription 20
Figure 11: Global LTE User Projection 2014 – 2019 21
Figure 12: The UTRAN Architecture 23
Figure 13: The E-UTRAN Architecture 24
Figure 14: The LTE Security Architecture 25
Figure 15: Top 10 Mobile Malware Encounters 27
Figure 16: Wireless Security Threats 29
Figure 17: LTE Web Security Threats 30
Figure 18: Security Implications on Organizational Goals 31
Figure 19: Business Technology and Threats 32
Figure 20: Category Posed Threats 32
Figure 21: Platform Posed LTE Threats 33
Figure 22: Top Threats and Sources 34
Figure 23: Wireless Devices Market Projection 2014 – 2019 35
Figure 24: Regional Wireless Devices Market 2014 – 2019 35
Figure 25: LTE Subscription 2014 – 2019 36
Figure 26: Types of Mobile Applications 37
Figure 27: Free Apps vs. Paid Apps 2014 - 2019 38
Figure 28: Mobile Application Market 2014 - 2019 38
Figure 29: LTE Network Architecture 39
Figure 30: Functionalities of E-UTRAN and EPC 40
Figure 31: Web-based Threats 41
Figure 32: Worldwide Malware Infection Rate 43
Figure 33: Malware Infected Applications 44
Figure 34: Wireless Security Changes 44
Figure 35: RAN and Black-haul in LTE 46
Figure 36: Average Daily Subscribers for LTE and 3G 47
Figure 37: Regional Mobile Application LTE Users 48
Figure 38: Mobile User Awareness of Wireless Security 2014 – 2019 48
Figure 39: LTE Smartphone Sales Forecast 50
Figure 40: Global LTE Connections 50
Figure 41: USA: LTE Incident Awareness 2014 - 2019 51
Figure 42: UK: LTE Incident Awareness 2014 - 2019 51
Figure 43: South Korea: LTE Incident Awareness 2014 - 2019 52
Figure 44: Africa: LTE Incident Awareness 2014 - 2019 52
Figure 45: Australia: LTE Incident Awareness 2014 - 2019 53
Figure 46: Brazil: LTE Incident Awareness 2014 - 2019 53
Figure 47: Canada: LTE Incident Awareness 2014 - 2019 54
Figure 48: Belgium: LTE Incident Awareness 2014 - 2019 54
Figure 49: France: LTE Incident Awareness 2014 - 2019 55
Figure 50: Germany: LTE Incident Awareness 2014 - 2019 55
Figure 51: Russia: LTE Incident Awareness 2014 - 2019 56
Figure 52: Middle East: LTE Incident Awareness 2014 - 2019 56
Figure 53: Japan: LTE Incident Awareness 2014 - 2019 57
Figure 54: China: LTE Incident Awareness 2014 - 2019 57
Figure 55: India LTE incident Awareness 2014 - 2019 58
Figure 56: USA LTE Service Provider 58
Figure 57: UK LTE Service Provider 59
Figure 58: Africa LTE Service Provider 59
Figure 59: Middle East LTE Service Provider 60
Figure 60: South Korea LTE Service Provider 60
Figure 61: Japan LTE Service Provider 61
Figure 62: Russia LTE Service Provider 61
Figure 63: Germany LTE Service Provider 62
Figure 64: Australia LTE Service Provider 62
Figure 65: Hong Kong LTE Service Provider 63
Figure 66: China LTE Service Provider 63
Figure 67: India LTE Service Provider 64
Figure 68: Mobile Security Model 65
Figure 69: LTE threat identification application 66
Figure 70: Regional Percentage of LTE deployment 2014 67
Figure 71: Vulnerability % Smartphone vs. Tablet Devices 2014 - 2019 67
Figure 72: Wireless Antivirus Vendors Market Share 2013 68
Figure 73: Global Security Vendor Company Market Share 2013 68
Figure 74: Top LTE Infrastructure Commercial Vendors 2013 69
Figure 75: LTE Supporting Tablet and Smartphone Manufacturers 2013 69
Figure 76: BOWLTIME: DROIDDREAM Infected Application 73
Figure 77: BADNEWS infected Application 74
Figure 78: Attacker Targeting Smartphones and Tablets 76
Figure 79: Wireless Threats in Corporate Environment 77
Figure 71: Mobile Payment Attacks 80
Figure 72: Virus Spread through Application Download 81
Figure 73: Game Application on Smartphone 82

List of Tables

Table 1: Types of Application Based Threats 41
Table 2: Types of Wireless Attacks 42
Table 3: Top 10 Service Provider of LTE Network Worldwide 64
Table 4: Top Cellular and WiFi Threats in 2014 83

Content Delivery Networks (CDN) Analysis of Key Vendors, State of the Market, and Outlook 2014 – 2019

1 Introduction 7
1.1 Executive Summary 7
1.2 Topics Covered 9
1.3 Key Questions Answered 9
1.4 Target Audience 10
1.5 Companies Mentioned 10
2 Content Delivery Networks 12
2.1 Content Delivery Networks Overview 12
2.2 CDN Functionality 16
2.2.1 Domain Name System (DNS) 17
2.2.2 Accessing content 19
2.2.3 Apache Traffic Server 21
2.2.4 Cache Expiration 23
2.2.5 Content Service Protocols 23
2.3 Benefits of CDN 24
2.3.1 CDN is not for Content Alone 27
2.4 CDN Ecosystem 31
2.4.1 Carriers Role 32
3 CDN APPLICATIONS 35
3.1 Current Applications 35
3.1.1 Video Delivery Networks 35
3.1.2 Application Delivery Networks (AND) 36
3.1.3 Future Applications 36
3.1.4 Mobile CDN 37
3.2 Federated CDN 55
3.3 CDN in the Cloud 57
4 Key Vendor Analysis 64
4.1 Nokia Siemens Networks 65
4.1.1 Strengths 66
4.1.2 Weakness 67
4.1.3 Opportunities 67
4.1.4 Threats 67
4.2 Ericsson 67
4.2.1 Strengths 68
4.2.2 Weakness 68
4.2.3 Opportunities 68
4.2.4 Threats 69
4.3 Alcatel-Lucent (Velocix) 69
4.3.1 Strengths 69
4.3.2 Weakness 69
4.3.3 Opportunities 69
4.3.4 Threats 70
4.4 CloudFlare 70
4.4.1 Strengths 71
4.4.2 Weakness 71
4.4.3 Opportunities 71
4.4.4 Threats 72
4.5 Amazon CloudFront 72
4.5.1 Strengths 72
4.5.2 Weaknesses 73
4.5.3 Opportunities 73
4.5.4 Threats 73
4.6 EdgeCast 74
4.6.1 Strengths 74
4.6.2 Weaknesses 74
4.6.3 Opportunities 74
4.6.4 Threats 75
4.7 MaxCDN 75
4.7.1 Strengths 75
4.7.2 Weaknesses 75
4.7.3 Opportunities 76
4.7.4 Threats 76
4.8 CacheFly 76
4.8.1 Strengths 77
4.8.2 Weaknesses 77
4.8.3 Opportunities 77
4.8.4 Threats 77
4.9 Highwinds 78
4.9.1 Strengths 78
4.9.2 Weaknesses 78
4.9.3 Opportunities 78
4.9.4 Threats 78
4.10 Internap 79
4.10.1 Strengths 79
4.10.2 Weaknesses 80
4.10.3 Opportunities 80
4.10.4 Threats 80
4.11 Akamai 80
4.11.1 Strengths 81
4.11.2 Weaknesses 82
4.11.3 Opportunities 82
4.11.4 Threats 83
4.12 CDNetworks 83
4.12.1 Strengths 84
4.12.2 Weakness 84
4.12.3 Opportunities 85
4.12.4 Threats 85
4.13 Level 3 Communications Inc 85
4.13.1 Strengths 86
4.13.2 Weakness 86
4.13.3 Opportunities 86
4.13.4 Threats 87
4.14 Limelight Networks 87
4.14.1 Strengths 88
4.14.2 Weakness 88
4.14.3 Opportunities 88
4.14.4 Threats 89
4.15 Amazon and Google Threats to Current CDNs Providers 89
4.16 Overall Analysis 91
5 CDN Market Outlook and Forecasts 2014-2019 92
5.1 CDN Service Revenues: 2014 - 2019 ($ Million) 92
5.2 CDN Service Revenue by Region: 2014 - 2019 ($ Million) 94
5.3 CDN Video Service Revenue by Region: 2014 - 2019 ($ Million) 94
5.4 CDN Other Service Revenue by Region: 2014 - 2019 ($ Million) 95
5.5 CDN Service Revenue by Category: 2014 - 2019 ($ Million) 95

List of Figures

Figure 1: CDN Delivers Many Content Types to Many Device Types 13
Figure 2: Content Distribution Schemes 14
Figure 3: CDN Distributed Servers. 17
Figure 4: CDN Procedures to Retrieve Data. 20
Figure 5: Video Suggestions 25
Figure 6: CDN Revenues 2014-2019 93
Figure 7: CDN Overall Service Revenue by Region 2014-2019 94
Figure 8: CDN Video Service Revenue by Region 2014-2019 94
Figure 9: CDN Non-video Service Revenue by Region 2014-2019 95
Figure 10: CDN Video Service Revenue by Category 2014-2019 95

Public Safety LTE: A Global Assessment of Market Size, Technology, Vendor Trends and Spectrum Allocation 2014 – 2019

1.1 Executive Summary 8
1.2 Topics Covered 9
1.3 Key Findings 11
1.4 Target Audience 12
1.5 Companies Mentioned 13
2 Present Overview of the Public Safety LTE Market 15
2.1 The Business Case for Public Safety LTE 17
2.2 Commercial Availability of Public Safety LTE Devices 22
2.3 Public Safety LTE Deployments throughout the Globe 23
2.4 Public Safety LTE Market Size and Revenue Opportunities 26
2.4.1 Regional Segmentation and Market Share 27
2.4.2 Market Segmentation: Commercial vs Private Networks 28
2.4.3 Infrastructure Vendor Market Share & Revenue 31
2.4.4 Device Vendor Market Share & Revenue 33
3 Public Safety LTE Technology 36
3.1 LTE RAN Technology (E-UTRAN) 37
3.2 EPC Technology 38
3.3 Public Safety Specific Entities for LTE Networks 41
3.4 QoS for Public Safety LTE Systems: Global Requirements and Solutions 42
3.5 Interoperability between Commercial and Private LTE Networks 43
3.6 Interoperability with APCO 25 and TETRA Systems 44
3.7 LTE Advanced Support for Heterogeneous Commercial and LMR Networks 45
3.8 Tactical Deployment Solutions for Public Safety LTE 46
3.9 System in a Box 47
3.10 Small Cells and Relays 47
3.11 Aerial Cells 48
3.12 Integration with Military Communication Systems 49
4 Public Safety LTE Solutions, Devices and Applications 50
4.1 Public Safety LTE Devices & Vendor Roadmaps 50
4.2 Public Safety LTE Infrastructure Solutions & Vendor Roadmaps 53
4.3 Public Safety LTE Applications 54
5 Spectrum Regulation and Funding Implications for Public Safety LTE 56
5.1 Global Spectrum Allocation for LTE Deployments 56
5.2 Regional Segmentation for Public Safety LTE Deployments 58
5.2.1 North America 59
5.2.2 Western Europe 60
5.2.3 Eastern Europe 61
5.2.4 Middle East & Africa 62
5.2.5 Asia Pacific 63
5.2.6 Latin & Central America 64
6 Public Safety LTE Subscriptions and Market Size 2014 - 2019 65
6.1 Global Public Safety LTE Revenue and Market Share Forecasts 65
6.1.1 Global LTE Industry Revenues 65
6.1.2 Market Share by Industry Segment 67
6.1.3 Market Share by Region 69
6.1.4 Market Share by Vendor / Integrator / Service Provider 77
6.1.5 Global LTE Subscriptions 79
6.2 Regional Public Safety LTE Subscription Forecasts 81
6.2.1 North America 82
6.2.2 Western Europe 83
6.2.3 Eastern Europe 84
6.2.4 Middle East & Africa 85
6.2.5 Asia Pacific 86
6.2.6 Latin & Central America 87
7 Public Safety Broadband Subscriptions and Market Size 2014 - 2019 88
7.1 Global Public Safety Mobile Broadband Subscriptions by Technology 88
7.2 Global Public Safety Mobile Broadband Revenue by Technology 89

List of Tables

Table 1: Public Safety LTE Infrastructure Vendor Ranking Matrix 2014 - 2019 32
Table 2: Public Safety LTE Device Vendor Ranking Matrix 2014 - 2019 34
Table 3: Public Safety LTE Vendor / System Integrator Ranking Matrix 2014 - 2019 76

List of Figures

Figure 1: Public Safety LTE Market Size 2014 - 2019 (USD Millions) 26
Figure 2: Public Safety LTE Market Size by Region 2014 - 2019 (USD Millions) 28
Figure 3: Public Safety LTE Infrastructure Shipment Revenues 2014 - 2019: 32
Figure 4: Public Safety LTE Device Shipment Revenues 2014 - 2019: 34
Figure 5: LTE RAN Architecture 37
Figure 6: LTE EPC Architecture 40
Figure 7: Public Safety LTE Devices 51
Figure 8: Public Safety LTE Device Vendor Roadmap 52
Figure 9: Public Safety LTE Infrastructure Vendor Roadmap 53
Figure 10: Public Safety LTE Industry Revenues 2014 - 2019 (USD Millions) 66
Figure 11: Public Safety LTE Revenue by Service/Vendor Segment 2014 - 2019 Excluding Operator Service Revenue (USD Millions) 67
Figure 12: Public Safety LTE Operator Service Revenues 2014 - 2019 (USD Millions) 68
Figure 13: Public Safety LTE Regional Market Share 2012 69
Figure 14: Public Safety LTE Regional Market Share 2013 70
Figure 15: Public Safety LTE Regional Market Share 2014 71
Figure 16: Public Safety LTE Regional Market Share 2015 72
Figure 17: Public Safety LTE Regional Market Share 2016 73
Figure 18: Public Safety LTE Regional Market Share 2017 74
Figure 19: Public Safety LTE Regional Market Share 2018 75
Figure 19: Public Safety LTE Regional Market Share 2019 76
Figure 20: Public Safety LTE Vendor / System Integrator Market Dominance Projection 2014 - 2019 78
Figure 21: Commercial & Private Public Safety LTE Subscriptions 2011 - 2019 79
Figure 22: Traditional (Conventional & Trunked) LMR Subscriptions 2014 - 2019 80
Figure 23: Commercial & Private Public Safety LTE Subscriptions by Region 2014 - 2019 81
Figure 24: North America Commercial & Private Public Safety LTE Subscriptions 2014 - 2019 82
Figure 26: Western Europe Commercial & Private Public Safety LTE Subscriptions 2014 - 2019 83
Figure 28: Eastern Europe Commercial & Private Public Safety LTE Subscriptions 2014 - 2019 84
Figure 30: Middle East & Africa Commercial & Private Public Safety LTE Subscriptions 2014 - 2019 85
Figure 32: Asia Pacific Commercial & Private Public Safety LTE Subscriptions 2014 - 2019 86
Figure 34: Latin & Central America Commercial & Private Public Safety LTE Subscriptions 2014 - 2019 87
Figure 36: Public Safety Mobile Broadband Subscriptions by Technology (CDMA2000, WCDMA, LTE, WiMAX, Other) 2014 – 2019 (Millions) 88
Figure 37: Public Safety Mobile Broadband Service Revenue by Technology (CDMA2000, WCDMA, LTE, WiMAX, Other) 2014 – 2019 (USD Millions) 89

Global Broadband Traffic Management: Business Case, Market Analysis, Roadmap, and Forecast

1 Introduction 7
1.1 Executive Summary 7
1.2 Topics Covered 8
1.3 Key Findings 8
1.4 Key Questions Answered 9
1.5 Target Audience 10
1.6 Companies Mentioned 11
2 Carrier Broadband Traffic Management Technology 12
2.1 What is Traffic Management 12
2.2 The Broadband Development 13
2.2.1 2G Broadband 14
2.2.2 3G Broadband 17
2.2.3 LTE, 4G and Beyond Broadband 21
2.3 Case Study: Broadband Demands and Traffic Management 27
2.3.1 High Speed Data and Broadband Management 29
2.3.2 Bandwidth Management 30
2.3.3 Social Media Data Management 32
2.3.4 Peak Periods and Broadband Management 33
2.3.5 Peer-to-Peer Services and File Sharing Management 35
2.4 Understanding User’s Behavior in LTE Networks and its impact on the BBTM 36
2.4.1 Video over LTE 37
2.5 Broadband in LTE 42
2.5.1 Machine to Machine Communication (M2M) and Data Management 42
2.5.2 Internet of Things 45
2.5.3 Charging in LTE 46
2.5.4 IP Multimedia System (IMS) Charging 47
2.5.5 Multimedia Sessions 48
3 The Business Case for Carrier Broadband Management 51
3.1 Key Market Drivers 51
3.1.1 The Increasing Demand for Mobile Broadband 51
3.1.2 The Use of Real-time Charging 52
3.1.3 Real Time Charging for Cloud-operation 53
3.2 Carriers Methods to Control Peak Periods 57
3.2.1 Heavy Users Management 58
3.2.2 Giving Priority to Certain Applications 59
3.2.3 Fair-Usage Policies (FUP) 60
3.3 The Carrier Broadband Management Industry Roadmap 2014 - 2019 61
3.3.1 Global Market 2013-2014 61
3.3.2 2014 – 2017: LTE Era 61
3.3.3 2017 – 2019: Beyond LTE 62
3.4 Vendor Product Portfolio and Strategy 63
3.4.1 NIL 63
3.4.2 Qwilt 64
3.4.3 Airvana 65
3.4.4 Aptilo 65
3.4.5 Torres Networks 66
3.4.6 Alcatel-Lucent 67
3.4.7 Cisco 67
4 Market Analysis & Forecasts 68
4.1 The Global Carrier Broadband Management Market: 2014 – 2019 68
4.2 Carrier Broadband Traffic Management by Region: 2014 - 2019 71
4.2.1 Asia Pacific 71
4.2.2 America 72
4.2.3 Middle East & Africa 73
4.2.4 Europe 74
4.3 Global Broadband Usage and Smart Offloading 2014-2019 75
4.3.1 The Expansion of Broadband by 2020 77
4.3.2 Mobile Data Traffic Growth by Application 2014-2019 79
4.4 What Carrier Should focus on in Broadband Traffic Management in the next Five Years 82
4.4.1 Mobile Video 82
4.4.2 Charging Methods 84
4.4.3 Changes in BSS/OSS Models 88

List of Tables

Table 1 Asia Pacific Market 2014-2019 71
Table 2 US Market 2014-2019 72
Table 3 Middle East and Africa Market 2014-2019 73
Table 4 Europe Market 2014-2019 75

List of Figures

Figure 1 Normal user peak usage VS normal business Peak 33
Figure 2 Streaming media VS downloading media 34
Figure 3 Off-peak and peak time periods 35
Figure 4 Charging sessions 49
Figure 5 Fair Usage limits 60
Figure 6 Policy Management Software Market 2013-2019 68
Figure 7 Real-Time BSS Market Revenues 2013-2018 70
Figure 9 Asia Pacific Market 2014-2019 72
Figure 10 US Market 2014-2019 73
Figure 11 Middle East and Africa Market 2014-2019 74
Figure 12 Mobile Data Offloading via WiFi within a Carrier Network 76
Figure 8 Mobile Data Traffic Growth to 2020 78
Figure 13 Worldwide Mobile Data Usage 80

HetNet Deployment and Operational Strategies for 4G and Beyond

1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5
2.0 INTRODUCTION 7
3.0 TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW 10
3.1 HETNET ARCHITECTURE AND TOPOLOGIES 14
4.0 MARKET DRIVERS AND BUSINESS CASE 16
4.1 MARKET DRIVERS 16
4.2 BUSINESS CASE 18
5.0 GLOBAL SMALL CELL MARKET TRENDS & FORECASTS 21
5.1 GLOBAL SMALL CELL UNIT SHIPMENTS (OVERALL) 23
5.2 GLOBAL SMALL CELL REVENUE 23
5.3 GLOBAL SMALL CELL UNIT SHIPMENTS (BY TYPE) 24
5.4 GLOBAL SMALL CELL REVENUE (BY TYPE) 25
5.5 GLOBAL SMALL CELL UNIT SHIPMENTS (3G VS. 4G) 26
6.0 VENDOR SOLUTIONS & RESEARCH INITIATIVES 27
6.1 ALCATEL-LUCENT 27
6.2 CISCO 28
6.3 ERICSSON 31
6.4 INTEL 32
6.5 NOKIA SOLUTIONS & NETWORKS 32
6.6 QUALCOMM 34
6.7 RUCKUS WIRELESS 34
6.8 SAMSUNG 35
7.0 STRATEGIES FOR DEPLOYMENT & OPERATIONS 37
7.1 NETWORK PLANNING & DIMENSIONING 38
7.2 SMALL CELL AP TYPE 40
7.3 AUTO CONFIGURATION AND SON 40
7.4 INTERFERENCE MANAGEMENT 43
7.5 CARRIER AGGREGATION 44
7.6 SEAMLESS MOBILITY 46
7.7 AUTHENTICATION & SECURITY 48
7.8 BACKHAUL SOLUTION 49
7.9 UPGRADABILITY 53
7.10 TARGET SITE SELECTION 54
7.11 REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION & PROCUREMENT 56
7.12 CAPEX, OPEX, & TCO 57
8.0 STRATEGIES FOR DRIVING BUSINESS & REVENUE GENERATION 59
8.1 BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES 59
8.2 REVENUE GENERATION AND ROI ASSESSMENT 60
9.0 DEPLOYMENT MODES 62
9.1 UNCOORDINATED HETNET 63
9.2 COORDINATED HETNET 63
10.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 65
11.0 ABBREVIATIONS 67
12.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY 70

List of Figures

Figure 1: Simplified HetNet Ecosystem 14
Figure 2: Mobile Market Trends 17
Figure 3: Femtocell Appeal for Households versus Wi-Fi 22
Figure 4: Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2013 - 2018 23
Figure 5: Small Cell Revenues: 2013 - 2018 24
Figure 6: Small Cell Unit Shipments by Cell Type: 2013 - 2018 24
Figure 7: Small Cell Revenues by Cell Type: 2013 - 2018 25
Figure 8: Small Cell Unit Shipments by Technology: 2013 - 2018 26
Figure 9: Cisco SP Wi-Fi Small Cell Solution Architecture 29
Figure 10: Cisco Licensed Small Solution Architecture 30

List of Tables

Table 1: Small Cell Categories and Market Segments 10
Table 2: Strategy Focus Areas for Technical Aspects 38
Table 3: List of Fundamental SON Capabilities 41
Table 4: Strategic Requirements and Business Drivers for SON 41
Table 5: Types of SON Architectures 42
Table 6: SON Vendors, Products, and Solutions 43
Table 7: Different Types of Small Cell Interference 43
Table 8: Interference Management Capabilities for Small Cells 44
Table 9: Types of Carrier Aggregation 45
Table 10: Small Cell Mobility Feature Requirements 46
Table 11: Solutions to Consider for Seamless Mobility Support in Small Cells 47
Table 12: Vendor Solutions for Seamless Mobility 48
Table 13: Authentication and Security Requirement for Small Cells 48
Table 14: Security Solutions for Small Cell Networks 49
Table 15: Backhaul Feature Requirements 49
Table 16: Backhaul Solution Requirements and Options for Small Cell (53) 52
Table 17: Strategy Focus Areas for Business Aspects 54
Table 18: Strategy Steps for Selection of Target Site Location 55
Table 19: Key Areas of Focus for Requirements Specification and Procurement Plan 56
Table 20: VAS Solution Options for Small Cells 60
Table 21: Strategies for Revenue Generation and Positive ROI for Small Cells 60

Self-Organizing Networks (SON) Challenges and Market Opportunities for 3G, LTE, and Beyond, Fourth Edition

1 Introduction 9
1.1 Executive Summary 9
1.2 Topics Covered 11
1.3 Key Questions Answered 12
1.4 Target Audience 13
1.5 Companies Mentioned 14
2 SON Technology Overview 16
2.1 The Evolution towards Heterogeneous Networks 16
2.2 SON in 3GPP Release 11 18
2.2.1 Releases 8, 9 and 10 Standardization 18
2.2.2 3GPP Release 8 19
2.2.3 3GPP Release 9 19
2.2.4 3GPP release 10 20
2.2.5 3GPP Release 11 20
2.3 Self-Organizing Networks Overview 21
2.4 Self-Organizing Networks Benefits 26
2.4.1 Network Automation 27
2.4.2 Energy Saving 28
2.4.3 Lower Equipment Costs 28
2.4.4 Distributed/Self-organizing (DSO) 29
2.4.5 Cooperative Relaying (CR) in SON 30
2.4.6 Feedback Overhead in SON 31
2.4.7 Codebook-based Pre-coding SON 32
2.4.8 Feedback Delay in SON 32
3 SON Use Cases and Current Market Status 33
3.1 SON Applications 34
3.1.1 Self-Configuration 34
3.1.2 Self-Optimization 35
3.1.3 Self-Healing 36
3.1.4 Problems with Self-Healing 36
3.2 Installing Phases 37
3.2.1 Centralized SON 38
3.2.2 Distrusted SON 39
3.2.3 Localized SON 39
3.2.4 Hybrid SON 39
3.3 LTE SON Releases 42
3.4 Automatic Neighbor Relation (ANR) 44
3.4.1 Installing ANR 44
3.5 Load Balancing in SON 47
3.6 Mobility Robustness Optimization (MRO) 49
3.7 Distributed Clustering in SON 51
3.8 Operational Use Cases 56
3.8.1 ICIC Enhancement 57
3.9 Urban Self-Organizing Networks 57
3.9.1 Home/Residential Deployments: 58
3.9.2 Enterprise Deployments: 58
3.9.3 Metro and Public Space Deployments: 59
3.9.4 Rural Deployments: 59
3.9.5 SON based on Small Cell Deployments 59
4 Antenna Parameters and Antenna Tilt Cost Reduction 62
4.1 Electrical Tilt 66
4.2 Mechanical Tilt 68
4.3 SON vs. SON-related Technologies/Solutions 68
4.4 Installing Antenna Tilt and its Parameters 70
4.5 Features and ROI of the Antenna Tilts 71
4.5.1 Overcoming Performance Issues in a Specific DAS Coverage Area 71
4.5.2 Energy Saving 75
5 SON Business Value 77
5.1 NGMN Use Case 82
5.2 Operators Benefits 84
5.3 Values of the SON to Operators 87
5.3.1 Economic Benefits 87
5.3.2 SON Implementation Expenditures (IMPEX) 88
5.3.3 SON Capital Expenditures (CAPEX) 89
5.3.4 SON Operational Expenditures (OPEX) 89
5.3.5 Smarter Self Organizing Networks 89
5.4 Recommendations for Operators to Deploy LTE 90
6 SON Vendor Landscape 94
6.1 Auto Configuration and SON 97
6.2 Optimi Solutions 100
6.2.1 Clients’ feedback on the Solution 101
6.2.2 SWOT Analysis for Optimi 107
6.2.3 Optimi Multi-Technology Self-Organizing Networks (SON for the 3G) 108
6.3 Ericsson SON Solution 109
6.3.1 Advanced SON from Ericsson 111
6.4 Actix 113
6.4.1 SON by Actix 115
6.4.2 Actix SWOT 117
6.4.3 Client’s Feedback on Actix SON Solution 118
6.4.4 NEC and Actix SON 119
6.5 Motorola 120
6.5.1 Motorola SWOT 121
6.5.2 Motorola SON services 123
6.5.3 Features of Motorola SON 123
6.6 Huawei SON Solution 126
6.6.1 Phase one: Planning 131
6.6.2 Phase Two: Deployment 132
6.6.3 Phase Three: Optimization 133
6.6.4 Phase Four: Maintenance 134
6.6.5 Huawei SON Analysis 135
6.7 Nokia-Siemens Networks SON Solution 135
6.7.1 NSN SON Analysis 139
6.7.2 Intelligent Self Organizing Networks (iSON) from NSN 141
6.8 AirHop 141
6.8.1 Airhop SON Solution Analysis 142
6.8.2 Client’s Feedback on Airhop SON Solutions 143
6.9 Qualcomm UltraSON 143
6.9.1 Qualcomm UltraSON Solution Analysis 143
6.10 Cisco 146
6.10.1 Cisco Intucell SON Analysis 147
6.11 Xceed Technologies 148
6.11.1 Xceed Xynergy SON Analysis 149
6.12 AIRCOM 150
6.12.1 AIRCOM I-VIEW SON Solution 150
6.13 Celcite (Amdocs) 150
6.13.1 Celcite Value Proposition 151
7 SON Provider Comparative Analysis 152
7.1 Comparison between SON Providers by Clients Feedback 155
7.2 Comparison between SON Provider by Setup Cost 156
7.3 SON Start-ups 157
7.3.1 Who is Dominating the Market and Why 158
7.3.2 The Future of LTE, 5G and Beyond 161
7.4 Where Vendors will be in Five Years 162
7.5 RAN Optimization Vendors Analysis 163
8 SON and RAN Optimization Market 2014-2019 165
8.1 Factors Driving the SON Market 165
8.2 Key Market Trends 165
8.3 2014 Market Update 166
8.4 Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) and SON 167
8.5 Self-Organizing Networks and RAN Optimization Market 2014-2019 172
8.6 LTE RAN Equipment Market 2014-2019 173
9 Conclusions and Recommendations 176
9.1 Carrier SON Deployments 176
9.1.1 Mobile Optimization 177
9.1.2 Optimization Solutions 178
9.2 Leveraging SON for other Purposes 178
9.2.1 SON, Big Data, and Predictive Analytics 179
9.2.2 SON and the Two-sided Business Model (Asymmetric Business Model) 179
9.2.3 Wireless Carrier Offerings 180
10 APPENDIX 181
10.1 Long Term Evolution Market and Technology Overview 181
10.2 LTE Market Overview 181
10.2.1 Market Drivers 181
10.2.2 The Shift from Voice to Data Centric Services 181
10.2.3 The Demand for Higher Data ARPUs 182
10.2.4 Capacity Management and OPEX Reduction 183
10.2.5 Lack of Fixed Broadband in Low Density Areas 183
10.2.6 Vendor Commitments 184
10.3 Market Barriers 185
10.3.1 Spectrum Congestion 185
10.3.2 High Investments for Early Adopters 186
10.3.3 Consumer Device Challenges 187
10.3.4 Broadband Pricing and International Roaming 187
10.4 LTE Technology Overview 188
10.4.1 Technology Overview 189
10.4.2 Performance Metrics 190
10.4.3 LTE Advanced 190
10.4.4 Integration with Deployed Networks 191
10.5 Next Generation Network (NGN) OSS/BSS 192
10.5.1 NGN OSS Overview 192
10.5.2 Drivers of NGN 195
10.5.3 Telecom Operator and Vendor Interests 195
10.5.4 Improvement in Access Technologies 197
10.5.5 Reduced Vendor Dependency 198
10.5.6 Operational Challenges 199
10.5.7 Integration of Multiple Private Networks and Application into Public Networks 200
10.5.8 Quality of Service (QoS) 200
10.5.9 National Security and Competitive Policies 201
10.6 NGN OSS/BSS: Components, IMS Implications and Frameworks 203
10.6.1 Network Planning and Engineering 203
10.6.2 Fault Management 204
10.6.3 Performance Management 204
10.6.4 Provisioning and Service Activation 205
10.6.5 Inventory Management 206
10.6.6 Billing and Customer Care 206
10.6.7 Mediation 208
10.6.8 Revenue Assurance 209
10.6.9 Challenges for OSS and BSS 210
10.7 OSS Challenges 211
10.7.1 Stakeholder Apprehensions 211
10.7.2 Framework to Integrate Customization Demands 213
10.7.3 Smooth Transition from Existing OSS Frameworks 213
10.7.4 Multi-vendor Coordination 216
10.7.5 BSS Challenges 216

List of Figures

Figure 1: HetNet Network Topology 18
Figure 2: SON Use Cases 25
Figure 3: LTE SON Releases 43
Figure 4: Comparisons between Centralized, Distributed and Localized SON 46
Figure 5: SON Operational Use Cases 56
Figure 6: Self Organizing Networks (SON) Concept 60
Figure 7: Antenna Tilt 64
Figure 8: Electrical Tilt 67
Figure 9: Mechanical Tilt 69
Figure 10: Operational Efficiency for SON 84
Figure 11: Fundamental SON Capabilities 98
Figure 10: Strategic Requirements and Business Drivers for SON 99
Figure 11: Types of SON Architectures 99
Figure 14: Qualcomm UltraSON Solution 146
Figure 15: USA Frequency Allocation Chart 169
Figure 14: SON and CRN 171
Figure 17: Global SON and RAN Optimization Market 2014-2019 173
Figure 18: Global LTE RAN Equipment Spending 2014-2019 175

List of Tables

Table 1: SON Vendor Rankings 156
Table 2: SON Cost Comparison 156
Table 3: SON Optimization Market Revenue 2014 - 2019 172
Table 4: LTE RAN Equipment Market Revenue 2014 - 2019 174

LTE Strategy, Application Roadmap, and Future of 4G

1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7
2.0 LONG TERM EVOLUTION (LTE) 8
2.1 LTE STATUS UPDATE 9
2.2 LTE SUBSCRIPTIONS 11
2.3 LTE RELEASE 11 AND THE ROADMAP BEYOND 11
2.4 LTE DIRECT 13
2.5 LTE DIRECT APPLICATIONS 16
3.0 LTE APPLICATION STRATEGY 18
3.1 PREPARE FOR MUCH MORE DATA USAGE 18
3.1.1 BIGGEST FACTOR IN MOBILE DATA: MOBILE VIDEO 18
3.1.2 MOBILE VIDEO FORECAST 19
3.2 PREPARE FOR INCREASINGLY MORE SERVICES IN THE CLOUD 19
3.2.1 THE ROLE OF INCUMBENT NETWORK OPERATORS IN MOBILE CLOUD 20
3.2.2 MOBILE DATA IN THE CLOUD FORECAST 21
3.3 PREPARE FOR INCREASINGLY MARGINALIZED CORE SERVICES 21
3.3.1 MARGINALIZATION DRIVES THE NEED FOR VALUE-ADDED SERVICES 21
3.3.2 VALUED SERVICES INCLUDE COMMERCE, CONTENT AND APPS 22
3.4 PREPARE FOR DEPLOYMENT OF VALUE-ADDED SERVICES 26
3.4.1 WHAT IS A VALUE-ADDED SERVICE (VAS)? 26
3.4.2 RELATIONSHIP OF VAS TO OTHER SERVICES 27
3.4.3 WHY ARE VAS IMPORTANT? 27
3.4.4 THE VAS SUPPLY CHAIN 27
3.4.5 CARRIER PLANNING FOR VAS APPLICATIONS 27
4.0 LTE APPLICATION ROADMAP 29
4.1 VIDEO 29
4.1.1 MORE OF THE SAME: ONLY FASTER 30
4.1.2 VIDEO CALL 33
4.1.3 LTE VIDEO BROADCAST 34
4.1.4 MOBILE TV IN LTE 35
4.2 VOICE OVER LTE (VOLTE) 39
4.2.1 GSMA VOLTE INIATIVES 40
4.2.2 ALTERNATIVES TO VOLTE 41
4.3 RICH COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES (RCS) 42
4.3.1 GSMA RCS INITIATIVES 44
4.3.2 RICH CALLS 45
4.3.3 RICH MESSAGING 46
4.3.4 RCS AND VIDEO 47
4.3.5 DYNAMIC ADDRESS BOOK (DAB) 48
4.4 LTE DIRECT 49
4.4.1 DIRECT SERVICES 50
5.0 THE FUTURE OF 4G 53
5.1 DEVICES AND SUBSCRIBERS 53
5.1.1 SUBSCRIBER BEHAVIORS EVOLVE 54
5.1.2 CONSUMER ELECTRONICS AND LTE 55
5.1.3 THE GLOBAL MARKET FOR SMARTPHONES AND TABLETS 57
5.1.4 NEXT GENERATION DEVICES AND LTE 59
5.2 FUTURE NETWORK TOPOLOGY 60
5.2.1 CONTINUED SMALL CELL EXPANSION 60
5.2.2 HETEROGENEOUS NETWORKS (HETNETS) 61
5.2.3 LTE TOPOLOGY ROADMAP 63
5.3 FUTURE APPLICATIONS 64
5.3.1 LTE AND SOCIAL NETWORKS/MEDIA 65
5.3.2 LTE AND MOBILE MARKETING/ADVERTISING 66
5.3.3 LTE ENABLED MOBILE COMMERCE 67
5.3.4 CLOUD STORAGE/ACCESS 69
5.3.5 PEER-TO-PEER (P2P) COMMUNICATIONS 70
5.3.6 AUGMENTED REALITY (AR) 71
5.3.7 WEARABLE WIRELESS DRIVES NEW APPLICATIONS 75
5.3.8 THE ENTERPRISE/CORPORATE DASHBOARD 76
5.3.9 MACHINE-TO-MACHINE (M2M) AND THE INTERNET OF THINGS (IOT) 78
5.3.10 CONVERGENCE OF M2M, IOT, SOCIAL, AND BIG DATA = HUGE OPPORTUNITY 82
5.4 NEW LTE BUSINESS MODELS 83
5.4.1 MOBILE NETWORK API MODELS 83
5.4.2 WORKING WITH THE CARRIERS 84
5.4.3 DEALING WITH CARRIER CONCERNS IN NEW BUSINESS MODELS 86
5.4.4 THE EMERGENCE OF A STRUCTURED THIRD-PARTY ECOSYSTEM 88
6.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 91

List of Figures

Figure 1: LTE Direct Public Expression 14
Figure 2: Qualcomm Differentiated Apps/Services for Proximate Discover 16
Figure 3: Video Usage by Screen Type 18
Figure 4: Mobile Video Forecast to 2017 19
Figure 5: Mobile Data in the Cloud Forecast to 2017 21
Figure 6: Mobile Commerce Continuum 22
Figure 7: Pull and Push Content Models 25
Figure 8: Value-added Services vs. Core Services 26
Figure 9: Worldwide Mobile Data Usage 30
Figure 10: Mobile TV Ecosystem 36
Figure 11: VoLTE Call Continuity 39
Figure 12: RCS, APIs, and Applications 43
Figure 13: Enhanced Address Book Benefits 48
Figure 14: RCS Application Integration 49
Figure 15: LTE Market Drivers by Operational Improvement 54
Figure 16: Global Smartphone and Tablet Ownership by Country 57
Figure 17: Global Smartphone Market by Region 58
Figure 18: Global Tablet Market by Region 59
Figure 19: HetNets Topology 61
Figure 20: Carrier WiFi and Small Cells 62
Figure 21: Mobile Marketing Investment Growth by Type Forecast to 2015 66
Figure 22: Mobile Marketing Expenditures by Type Forecast to 2015 66
Figure 23: Augmented Reality 71
Figure 24: Enterprise Corporate Dashboard 77
Figure 25: Enterprise Corporate Dashboard: Employee Locator Application 78
Figure 26: Global M2M Growth by 2G/3G/4G Forecast to 2017 79
Figure 27: Global M2M Data Growth Forecast to 2017 80
Figure 28: Evolution of Carrier Business Models and Third Parties 89

List of Tables

Table 1: LTE Status 9
Table 2: LTE Subscriptions, by Region, Subscriptions Millions, 2013-2018 11
Table 3: Formal Status of LTE Release 10, 11, and 12 12

LTE Infrastructure Market: Vendors, Market Share, Key Trends & Forecasts

1 Introduction 4
1.1 Executive Summary 4
1.2 Acronyms, Abbreviations and Definitions 4
2 Global LTE Market Overview 6
2.1 The Increasing Demand for Capacity and 4G LTE Infrastructure 6
2.2 Spectrum Selection and Segmentation for LTE 6
2.3 LTE Deployments throughout the Globe 8
2.4 LTE Population Coverage 10
2.5 Availability of 4G Devices and Smartphones 10
2.6 Sizing the LTE Infrastructure Opportunity 12
3 LTE and LTE-Advanced Technology Overview 13
3.1 LTE Technology Overview 13
3.2 FDD LTE 14
3.3 TDD LTE (TD-LTE) 14
3.4 LTE Advanced 15
3.5 LTE Infrastructure Elements and Architecture Overview 17
3.6 LTE E-UTRAN Infrastructure Elements and Network Architecture 18
3.6.1 LTE Remote Radio Heads 18
3.6.2 LTE Base Station 19
3.6.3 LTE Femtocells 20
3.6.4 LTE Antenna Schemes 21
3.6.5 LTE RAN Infrastructure and Frequency Reuse 21
3.7 LTE EPC Infrastructure Elements and Network Architecture 22
3.7.1 Serving and Packet Gateway 23
3.7.2 Mobility Management Entity 24
3.7.3 Policy and Charging Rules Function 24
3.7.4 IP Multimedia Subsystem 24
3.7.5 EPC and Core Network Equipment Reuse in LTE 25
3.8 LTE Backhaul Solutions 26
3.8.1 LTE Backhaul Requirements 26
3.8.2 Carrier Ethernet 26
3.8.3 Fiber Backhauls 27
3.8.4 Microwave Backhauls 27
3.8.5 Impact of Femtocells on Backhaul 28
4 LTE Infrastructure Revenues and Base Station Shipments 2010 - 2015 29
4.1 Global LTE Infrastructure Revenues 29
4.1.1 Global LTE Combined Infrastructure Revenue 29
4.1.2 Global LTE RAN Infrastructure Revenues 31
4.1.3 Global LTE EPC Infrastructure Revenues 32
4.2 LTE Vendor Infrastructure Market Share 33
4.2.1 Infrastructure Vendor Selection Trends Among MNOs 33
4.2.2 Market Consolidation 34
4.2.3 LTE Infrastructure Revenue and Market Share by Vendor 34
4.2.4 LTE RAN Infrastructure Revenues and Market Share by Vendor 38
4.2.5 LTE EPC Infrastructure Revenues and Market Share by Vendor 41
4.3 LTE Regional Infrastructure Market Share 44
4.3.1 LTE Infrastructure Revenue and Market Share by Region 44
4.3.2 LTE RAN Infrastructure Revenues and Market Share by Region 47
4.3.3 LTE EPC Infrastructure Revenues and Market Share by Region 48
4.4 LTE Base Station Shipments 49
4.4.1 LTE Base Station Shipments by Technology: TDD and FDD 50
4.4.2 LTE Base Station Shipments by Region 52
5 LTE RAN and EPC Vendor Profiles 53
5.1 Ericsson 53
5.2 Alcatel-Lucent 54
5.3 Nokia Siemens Networks/Motorola 55
5.4 Huawei 56
5.5 ZTE 57
5.6 Cisco 58
5.7 Juniper 58
5.8 Samsung 59
5.9 Fujitsu 61
5.10 Hitachi 62
5.11 Bridgewater 63
5.12 NEC 64
5.13 Panasonic 65
5.14 Tekelec 66

LTE Network Operator Strategies: Key Drivers, Deployment Strategies, CAPEX, OPEX, Price Plans, ARPUs

1 Introduction 18
1.1 Executive Summary 18
1.2 Topics Covered 19
1.3 Key Findings 20
1.3.1 ARPUs and Operator Service Revenues 20
1.3.2 Deployment Strategies 20
1.3.3 CAPEX and OPEX Strategies 20
1.3.4 Pricing Strategies 20
1.4 Target Audience 21
1.5 Companies Mentioned 22
2 Present Overview of the LTE Market 31
2.1 Key Drivers for LTE Adoption 31
2.1.1 Skyrocketing Mobile Broadband Usage 31
2.1.2 Opportunities for Higher ARPUs 32
2.1.3 CAPEX Efficient Broadband Availability in Rural Areas 32
2.1.4 Spectral Efficiency and Reduction in RAN OPEX 33
2.1.5 Vendor Commitments 33
2.1.6 Maintaining Technology Leadership 34
2.2 50 + LTE Commercial Networks Worldwide 35
2.3 7+ Million Subscriptions Worldwide 36
2.4 300 + Commercial LTE Device Launches 37
2.5 Frequency Spectrum Selection & Fragmentation 39
3 Key Trends in LTE Deployments 41
3.1 MNO Technology Migration Paths for LTE 41
3.2 Rollout Strategies 42
3.3 Interoperability with 3G and 2G Systems 43
3.4 VoLTE & SMS over LTE Services 44
3.4.1 Circuit Switched Fall Back (CSFB) 44
3.4.2 VoLGA 45
3.4.3 VoIMS 46
3.4.4 The Threat of OTT Solutions 48
3.4.5 VoLTE Deployment Plans 48
3.4.5.1 MetroPCS (US) 48
3.4.5.2 Verizon Wireless (US) 48
3.4.5.3 AT&T Mobility (US) 49
3.4.5.4 LG U+ (Korea) 49
3.4.5.5 CSL (Hong Kong) 50
3.4.6 VoLTE Development Roadmap 50
3.5 Migration Towards LTE-Advanced 52
3.5.1 ITU Approval as the Official 4G Standard 52
3.5.2 Operator Commitments to LTE-Advanced 53
3.5.2.1 AT&T Mobility (US) 53
3.5.2.2 Sprint (US) 53
3.5.2.3 NTT DoCoMo (Japan) 53
3.5.2.4 SK Telecom (South Korea) 53
3.5.2.5 Korea Telecom (South Korea) 53
3.6 The FDD vs. TDD Debate 54
3.6.1 Interoperability b/w FDD and TD LTE 55
3.6.2 Heterogeneous TDD/WiMAX Networks 56
3.7 The Wholesale LTE Deployment Model 57
3.7.1 Growing Interest in the Wholesale Model 57
3.7.2 LightSquared (US) 57
3.7.3 Clearwire (US) 59
3.7.4 Dish Network (US) 60
3.7.5 UK Broadband (UK) 61
3.7.6 British Telecom Wholesale (UK) 62
3.7.7 Yota (Russia) 63
3.7.8 Aero2 (Poland) 64
3.7.9 MVS Comunicaciones (Mexico) 65
3.7.10 Kenyan Government 66
3.7.11 Net4Mobility (Sweden) 67
3.7.12 NBN (Australia) 68
3.8 LTE Traffic Management Strategies 69
3.9 Managing ROI with LTE Investments 72
4 LTE Service, Pricing & Marketing Strategies 73
4.1 Differentiating LTE from 3G Services 73
4.2 A Global Review of LTE Pricing Plans 73
4.2.1 North America 74
4.2.2 Asia Pacific 75
4.2.3 Europe 76
4.2.4 Middle East & Africa 76
4.2.5 Price Comparison: Average Cost per GB of Data 77
4.3 LTE Pricing & Marketing Strategies 78
4.3.1 Elimination of Unlimited Tariffs 78
4.3.2 Innovative Pricing for Traffic Off-loading to WiFi 78
4.3.3 Free LTE Service Trials 79
4.3.4 Capitalizing on the ‘4G’ Term 79
4.3.5 Setting LTE Support as Standard Requirement for all Smartphone Releases 80
5 LTE CAPEX & OPEX Strategies 81
5.1 Mobile Network CAPEX on the Rise 81
5.2 LTE CAPEX Model 81
5.2.1 LTE CAPEX Estimates for Typical Tier-1 MNOs 81
5.2.2 CAPEX Categorization 82
5.2.3 Cost of LTE Base Station and RAN Deployment 83
5.2.4 Base Station Upgrade Costs 85
5.2.5 Core Network Equipment Costs 87
5.2.6 Mobile Backhaul Cost Implications 88
5.3 CAPEX commitments by Major MNOs 90
5.3.1 Verizon Wireless (USA) 90
5.3.2 AT&T Mobility (USA) 91
5.3.3 T-Mobile (USA) 92
5.3.4 NTT DoCoMo (Japan) 93
5.3.5 KDDI (Japan) 94
5.3.6 Everything Everywhere (UK) 95
5.3.7 Etisalat (UAE) 96
5.3.8 Korea Telecom (Korea) 97
5.3.9 SK Telecom (Korea) 98
5.3.10 China Mobile (China) 99
5.3.11 MVS Comunicaciones (Mexico) 101
5.4 Network Sharing 102
5.4.1 Passive Network Sharing 103
5.4.2 Active Network Sharing 103
5.4.3 Management Independence 104
5.4.4 The LTE Advantage 104
5.4.5 Prominent LTE Network Sharing Deals 104
5.4.5.1 Tele2 and Telenor (Sweden) 104
5.4.5.2 Telus and Bell (Canada) 104
5.4.5.3 Telefónica O2 (Germany) 104
5.4.5.4 Telefónica Worldwide 105
5.4.5.5 MTS and VimpelCom (Russia) 105
5.4.5.6 T-Mobile and Orange (Poland) 105
5.4.5.7 Vodafone Worldwide 105
5.4.5.8 Qtel (Qatar) 106
5.5 The Potential of Self Organising Networks (SONs) to cut CAPEX & OPEX 107
5.6 Smallcells, HetNets & WiFi Offload: The Key to CAPEX & OPEX Reduction 109
5.6.1 The Answer to Coverage Limitation 109
5.6.2 Easing both CAPEX and OPEX Requirements 110
5.6.3 MNO Intentions for Femtocell & Small Cell Deployments 111
5.6.4 WiFi Offload to Remain a Permanent Solution 111
5.6.5 A Review of MNO Investments on LTE Off-load Equipment 112
5.6.5.1 SK Telecom’s Dual-Mode WiFi-LTE Femtocell 112
5.6.5.2 Korea Telecom’s: World’s First Smallcell LTE Deployment 113
5.6.5.3 AT&T Mobility: Planned LTE Femotocell Trial 114
5.6.5.4 Virgin Media UK LTE Femtocell Trial 115
6 LTE Operator Service Revenues, ARPU and Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 116
6.1 Global LTE Operator Service Revenues 116
6.1.1 Global LTE Operator Service Revenues and Subscriptions 2011 - 2016 116
6.1.2 Regional Distribution of Revenue Share 2011 - 2016 118
6.2 LTE Operator Subscriptions, ARPU & Service Revenues by Region 127
6.2.1 North America 127
6.2.1.1 Regional Subscriptions, ARPU & Service Revenues 2011 - 2016 127
6.2.1.2 Revenue Distribution by Country 2011 - 2016 129
6.2.1.3 USA 130
6.2.1.4 Canada 132
6.2.2 Western Europe 134
6.2.2.1 Regional Service Revenues 2011 - 2016 134
6.2.2.2 Revenue & Subscriptions Distribution by Country 2011 - 2016 136
6.2.2.3 Austria 137
6.2.2.4 Belgium 139
6.2.2.5 Denmark 141
6.2.2.6 Finland 143
6.2.2.7 France 145
6.2.2.8 Germany 147
6.2.2.9 Greece 149
6.2.2.10 Ireland 151
6.2.2.11 Italy 153
6.2.2.12 Luxembourg 155
6.2.2.13 Netherlands 157
6.2.2.14 Norway 159
6.2.2.15 Portugal 161
6.2.2.16 Spain 163
6.2.2.17 Sweden 165
6.2.2.18 Switzerland 167
6.2.2.19 Turkey 169
6.2.2.20 UK 171
6.2.2.21 Rest of Western Europe 173
6.2.2.22 Andorra 174
6.2.2.23 Cyprus 175
6.2.2.24 Gibraltar 176
6.2.2.25 Iceland 177
6.2.2.26 Isle of Man 178
6.2.2.27 Liechtenstein 179
6.2.2.28 Monaco 180
6.2.3 Asia Pacific 181
6.2.3.1 Regional Service Revenues 2011 - 2016 181
6.2.3.2 Revenue Distribution by Country 2011 - 2016 183
6.2.3.3 Australia 184
6.2.3.4 Bangladesh 186
6.2.3.5 China 188
6.2.3.6 Hong Kong 190
6.2.3.7 India 192
6.2.3.8 Indonesia 194
6.2.3.9 Japan 196
6.2.3.10 Malaysia 198
6.2.3.11 New Zealand 200
6.2.3.12 Pakistan 202
6.2.3.13 Philippines 204
6.2.3.14 Singapore 206
6.2.3.15 South Korea 208
6.2.3.16 Taiwan 210
6.2.3.17 Thailand 212
6.2.3.18 Vietnam 214
6.2.3.19 Rest of Asia Pacific 216
6.2.3.20 Bhutan 217
6.2.3.21 Brunei 218
6.2.3.22 Cambodia 219
6.2.3.23 Macau 220
6.2.3.24 Maldives 221
6.2.3.25 Nepal 222
6.2.3.26 Sri Lanka 223
6.2.4 Middle East 224
6.2.4.1 Regional Service Revenues 2011 - 2016 224
6.2.4.2 Revenue Distribution by Country 2011 - 2016 226
6.2.4.3 Iran 227
6.2.4.4 Iraq 229
6.2.4.5 Israel 231
6.2.4.6 Saudi Arabia 233
6.2.4.7 Rest of the Middle East 235
6.2.4.8 Bahrain 236
6.2.4.9 Jordan 237
6.2.4.10 Kuwait 238
6.2.4.11 Oman 239
6.2.4.12 Qatar 240
6.2.4.13 UAE 241
6.2.5 Eastern Europe 242
6.2.5.1 Regional Service Revenues 2011 - 2016 242
6.2.5.2 Revenue Distribution by Country 2011 - 2016 244
6.2.5.3 Albania 246
6.2.5.4 Belarus 248
6.2.5.5 Bosnia 250
6.2.5.6 Bulgaria 252
6.2.5.7 Croatia 254
6.2.5.8 Czech Republic 256
6.2.5.9 Estonia 258
6.2.5.10 Georgia 260
6.2.5.11 Hungary 262
6.2.5.12 Latvia 264
6.2.5.13 Lithuania 266
6.2.5.14 Macedonia 268
6.2.5.15 Moldova 270
6.2.5.16 Montenegro 272
6.2.5.17 Poland 274
6.2.5.18 Romania 276
6.2.5.19 Russia 278
6.2.5.20 Serbia 280
6.2.5.21 Slovakia 282
6.2.5.22 Slovenia 284
6.2.5.23 Ukraine 286
6.2.5.24 Uzbekistan 288
6.2.5.25 Rest of Eastern Europe 290
6.2.5.26 Armenia 291
6.2.5.27 Azerbaijan 292
6.2.5.28 Kazakhstan 293
6.2.5.29 Kirghizstan 294
6.2.5.30 Kosovo 295
6.2.5.31 Tadjikistan 296
6.2.6 Latin & Central America 297
6.2.6.1 Regional Service Revenues 2011 - 2016 297
6.2.6.2 Revenue Distribution by Country 2011 - 2016 299
6.2.6.3 Argentina 300
6.2.6.4 Bolivia 302
6.2.6.5 Brazil 304
6.2.6.6 Chile 306
6.2.6.7 Colombia 308
6.2.6.8 Ecuador 310
6.2.6.9 Mexico 312
6.2.6.10 Paraguay 314
6.2.6.11 Peru 316
6.2.6.12 Uruguay 318
6.2.6.13 Venezuela 320
6.2.6.14 Rest of Latin & Central America 322
6.2.6.15 Bahamas 323
6.2.6.16 Bermuda 324
6.2.6.17 Bolivia 325
6.2.6.18 Costa Rica 326
6.2.6.19 Jamaica 327
6.2.6.20 Netherlands Antilles 328
6.2.6.21 Nicaragua 329
6.2.6.22 Puerto Rico 330
6.2.7 Africa 331
6.2.7.1 Regional Service Revenues 2011 - 2016 331
6.2.7.2 Revenue Distribution by Country 2011 - 2016 333
6.2.7.3 Algeria 334
6.2.7.4 Egypt 336
6.2.7.5 Kenya 338
6.2.7.6 Morocco 340
6.2.7.7 Nigeria 342
6.2.7.8 South Africa 344
6.2.7.9 Sudan 346
6.2.7.10 Tanzania 348
6.2.7.11 Tunisia 350
6.2.7.12 Rest of Africa 352
6.2.7.13 Ghana 353
6.2.7.14 Namibia 354
6.2.7.15 Rwanda 355
6.2.7.16 Senegal 356
6.2.7.17 Uganda 357

List of Tables

Table 1: TCO for Mobile Broadband Technologies (2011 – 2016) 64
Table 2: LTE Price Plans in North America Q1’2012 (Selected MNOs) 66
Table 3: LTE Price Plans in Asia Pacific Q1’2012 (Selected MNOs) 67
Table 4: LTE Price Plans in Europe Q1’2012 (Selected MNOs) 68
Table 5: LTE Price Plans in the Middle East Q1’2012 (Selected MNOs) 68

List of Figures

Figure 1: Map of Commercial LTE Deployments Worldwide 37
Figure 2: LTE Subscriptions by Country Q4’2011 38
Figure 3: LTE Subscriptions by Operator Q4’2011 39
Figure 4: LTE Devices Available Through Commercial MNOs 40
Figure 5: LTE Technology Migration Paths Survey Results 43
Figure 6: Reference Architecture for CS Fallback for UMTS/GSM 47
Figure 7: Voice over IMS in LTE 49
Figure 8: SRVCC Architecture for E-UTRAN to 3GPP UTRAN/GERAN 49
Figure 9: LightSquared LTE-Satellite Network Model 60
Figure 10: Service Diversity in LTE Networks 71
Figure 11: Policy Based Traffic Offloading 72
Figure 12: Savings Attained from Video Traffic Optimization 73
Figure 13: Average Cost per GB based on LTE Price Plans Worldwide 79
Figure 14: Percentage Estimates of Network CAPEX – Developed Markets 84
Figure 15: Percentage Estimates of Network CAPEX – Emerging Markets 84
Figure 16: Cost of LTE Base Station Deployment by Terrain (USD Thousands) 85
Figure 17: Cost of LTE Base Station Equipment 2009 – 2015 (USD) 86
Figure 18: LTE RAN Infrastructure Revenues 2010 - 2015 86
Figure 19: Cost of a Rural Site Upgrade 87
Figure 20: Cost of an Urban Site Upgrade 87
Figure 21: Cost of a New Rural Site Deployment 88
Figure 22: LTE Infrastructure Revenues by Equipment Type 2010 - 2015 89
Figure 23: Fiber vs. Microwave Mobile Backhaul Cost Comparison 91
Figure 24: Verizon Wireless LTE Coverage Map 92
Figure 25: AT&T Mobility (USA) LTE Coverage Map 93
Figure 26: NTT DoCoMo (Japan) LTE Device Portfolio 95
Figure 27: LTE Infrastructure Spending Market Share by Region (2015) 102
Figure 28: Illustration of Self Organizing Networks 109
Figure 29: Small Cell and Flexible Networking Concept Diagram 112
Figure 30: Global LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 118
Figure 31: Global LTE Operator Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 119
Figure 32: LTE Subscriber ARPU Projections by Region 2011 – 2016 (USD) 120
Figure 33: LTE Operator Service Revenues by Region 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 120
Figure 34: LTE Operator Subscriptions by Region 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 121
Figure 35: LTE Subscriber ARPU Projections by Region 2011 – 2016 (USD) 121
Figure 36: LTE End User Device Shipments by Region 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 122
Figure 37: LTE End User Device Shipments Revenues by Region 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 122
Figure 38: Global LTE Operator Service Revenue Market Share by Region (2011) 123
Figure 39: Global LTE Operator Subscriptions Market Share by Region (2011) 123
Figure 40: Global LTE Operator Service Revenue Market Share by Region (2012) 124
Figure 41: Global LTE Operator Subscriptions Market Share by Region (2012) 124
Figure 42: Global LTE Operator Service Revenue Market Share by Region (2013) 125
Figure 43: Global LTE Operator Subscriptions Market Share by Region (2013) 125
Figure 44: Global LTE Operator Service Revenue Market Share by Region (2014) 126
Figure 45: Global LTE Operator Subscriptions Market Share by Region (2014) 126
Figure 46: Global LTE Operator Service Revenue Market Share by Region (2015) 127
Figure 47: Global LTE Operator Subscriptions Market Share by Region (2015) 127
Figure 48: Global LTE Operator Service Revenue Market Share by Region (2016) 128
Figure 49: Global LTE Operator Subscriptions Market Share by Region (2016) 128
Figure 50: North America LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 129
Figure 51: North America LTE Operator Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 130
Figure 52: North America LTE ARPU Projections 2011 – 2016 (USD) 130
Figure 53: North America LTE Operator Service Revenues by Country 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 131
Figure 54: North America LTE Subscriptions by Country 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 131
Figure 55: USA LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 132
Figure 56: USA LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 132
Figure 57: USA LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 133
Figure 58: Canada LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 134
Figure 59: Canada LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 134
Figure 60: Canada LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 135
Figure 61: Western Europe LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 136
Figure 62: Western Europe LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 136
Figure 63: Western Europe LTE ARPU Projections 2011 – 2016 (USD) 137
Figure 64: Western Europe LTE Operator Service Revenues by Country 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 138
Figure 65: Western Europe LTE Subscriptions by Country 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 138
Figure 66: Austria LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 139
Figure 67: Austria LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 139
Figure 68: Austria LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 140
Figure 69: Belgium LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 141
Figure 70: Belgium LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 141
Figure 71: Belgium LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 142
Figure 72: Denmark LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 143
Figure 73: Denmark LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 143
Figure 74: Denmark LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 144
Figure 75: Finland LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 145
Figure 76: Finland LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 145
Figure 77: Finland LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 146
Figure 78: France LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 147
Figure 79: France LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 147
Figure 80: France LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 148
Figure 81: Germany LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 149
Figure 82: Germany LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 149
Figure 83: Germany LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 150
Figure 84: Greece LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 151
Figure 85: Greece LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 151
Figure 86: Greece LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 152
Figure 87: Ireland LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 153
Figure 88: Ireland LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 153
Figure 89: Ireland LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 154
Figure 90: Italy LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 155
Figure 91: Italy LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 155
Figure 92: Italy LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 156
Figure 93: Luxembourg LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 157
Figure 94: Luxembourg LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 157
Figure 95: Luxembourg LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 158
Figure 96: Netherlands LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 159
Figure 97: Netherlands LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 159
Figure 98: Netherlands LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 160
Figure 99: Norway LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 161
Figure 100: Norway LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 161
Figure 101: Norway LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 162
Figure 102: Portugal LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 163
Figure 103: Portugal LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 163
Figure 104: Portugal LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 164
Figure 105: Spain LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 165
Figure 106: Spain LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 165
Figure 107: Spain LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 166
Figure 108: Sweden LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 167
Figure 109: Sweden LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 167
Figure 110: Sweden LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 168
Figure 111: Switzerland LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 169
Figure 112: Switzerland LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 169
Figure 113: Switzerland LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 170
Figure 114: Turkey LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 171
Figure 115: Turkey LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 171
Figure 116: Turkey LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 172
Figure 117: UK LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 173
Figure 118: UK LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 173
Figure 119: UK LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 174
Figure 120: LTE Operator Service Revenues in the Rest of Western Europe 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 175
Figure 121: LTE Operator Subscriptions in the Rest of Western Europe 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 175
Figure 122: Andorra LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 176
Figure 123: Andorra LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 176
Figure 124: Cyprus LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 177
Figure 125: Cyprus LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 177
Figure 126: Gibraltar LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 178
Figure 127: Gibraltar LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 178
Figure 128: Iceland LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 179
Figure 129: Iceland LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 179
Figure 130: Isle of Man LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 180
Figure 131: Isle of Man LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 180
Figure 132: Liechtenstein LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 181
Figure 133: Liechtenstein LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 181
Figure 134: Monaco LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 182
Figure 135: Monaco LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 182
Figure 136: Asia Pacific LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 183
Figure 137: Asia Pacific LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 183
Figure 138: Asia Pacific LTE ARPU Projections 2011 – 2016 (USD) 184
Figure 139: Asia Pacific LTE Operator Service Revenues by Country 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 185
Figure 140: Asia Pacific LTE Subscriptions by Country 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 185
Figure 141: Australia LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 186
Figure 142: Australia LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 186
Figure 143: Australia LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 187
Figure 144: Bangladesh LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 188
Figure 145: Bangladesh LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 188
Figure 146: Bangladesh LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 189
Figure 147: China LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 190
Figure 148: China LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 190
Figure 149: China LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 191
Figure 150: Hong Kong LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 192
Figure 151: Hong Kong LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 192
Figure 152: Hong Kong LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 193
Figure 153: India LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 194
Figure 154: India LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 194
Figure 155: India LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 195
Figure 156: Indonesia LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 196
Figure 157: Indonesia LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 196
Figure 158: Indonesia LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 197
Figure 159: Japan LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 198
Figure 160: Japan LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 198
Figure 161: Japan LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 199
Figure 162: Malaysia LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 200
Figure 163: Malaysia LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 200
Figure 164: Malaysia LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 201
Figure 165: New Zealand LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 202
Figure 166: New Zealand LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 202
Figure 167: New Zealand LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 203
Figure 168: Pakistan LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 204
Figure 169: Pakistan LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 204
Figure 170: Pakistan LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 205
Figure 171: Philippines LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 206
Figure 172: Philippines LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 206
Figure 173: Philippines LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 207
Figure 174: Singapore LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 208
Figure 175: Singapore LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 208
Figure 176: Singapore LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 209
Figure 177: South Korea LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 210
Figure 178: South Korea LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 210
Figure 179: South Korea LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 211
Figure 180: Taiwan LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 212
Figure 181: Taiwan LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 213
Figure 182: Taiwan LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 213
Figure 183: Thailand LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 214
Figure 184: Thailand LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 214
Figure 185: Thailand LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 215
Figure 186: Vietnam LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 216
Figure 187: Vietnam LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 216
Figure 188: Vietnam LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 217
Figure 189: LTE Operator Service Revenues for the Rest of Asia Pacific 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 218
Figure 190: LTE Subscriptions in the Rest of Asia Pacific 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 218
Figure 191: Bhutan LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 219
Figure 192: Bhutan LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 219
Figure 193: Brunei LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 220
Figure 194: Brunei LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 220
Figure 195: Cambodia LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 221
Figure 196: Cambodia LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 222
Figure 197: Macau LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 222
Figure 198: Macau LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 223
Figure 199: Maldives LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 223
Figure 200: Maldives LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 224
Figure 201: Nepal LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 224
Figure 202: Nepal LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 225
Figure 203: Sri Lanka LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 225
Figure 204: Sri Lanka LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 226
Figure 205: Middle East LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 226
Figure 206: Middle East LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 227
Figure 207: Middle East LTE ARPU Projections 2011 – 2016 (USD) 227
Figure 208: Middle East LTE Operator Service Revenues by Country 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 228
Figure 209: Middle East LTE Subscriptions by Country 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 229
Figure 210: Iran LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 229
Figure 211 Iran LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 230
Figure 212 Iran LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 230
Figure 213: Iraq LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 231
Figure 214 Iraq LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 232
Figure 215 Iraq LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 232
Figure 216: Israel LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 233
Figure 217 Israel LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 234
Figure 218 Israel LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 234
Figure 219: Saudi Arabia LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 235
Figure 220 Saudi Arabia LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 236
Figure 221 Saudi Arabia LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 236
Figure 222: LTE Operator Service Revenues in the Rest of the Middle East 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 237
Figure 223: LTE Subscriptions in the Rest of the Middle East 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 238
Figure 224: Bahrain LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 238
Figure 225: Bahrain LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 239
Figure 226: Jordan LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 239
Figure 227: Jordan LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 240
Figure 228: Kuwait LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 240
Figure 229: Kuwait LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 241
Figure 230: Oman LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 241
Figure 231: Oman LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 242
Figure 232: Qatar LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 242
Figure 233: Qatar LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 243
Figure 234: UAE LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 243
Figure 235: UAE LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 244
Figure 236: Eastern Europe LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 244
Figure 237: Eastern Europe LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 245
Figure 238: Eastern Europe LTE ARPU Projections 2011 – 2016 (USD) 245
Figure 239: Eastern Europe LTE Operator Service Revenues by Country 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 246
Figure 240: Eastern Europe LTE Subscriptions by Country 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 247
Figure 241: Albania LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 248
Figure 242: Albania LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 248
Figure 243: Albania LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 249
Figure 244: Belarus LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 250
Figure 245: Belarus LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 250
Figure 246: Belarus LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 251
Figure 247: Bosnia LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 252
Figure 248: Bosnia LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 252
Figure 249: Bosnia LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 253
Figure 250: Bulgaria LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 254
Figure 251: Bulgaria LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 254
Figure 252: Bulgaria LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 255
Figure 253: Croatia LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 256
Figure 254: Croatia LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 256
Figure 255: Croatia LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 257
Figure 256: Czech Republic LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 258
Figure 257: Czech Republic LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 258
Figure 258: Czech Republic LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 259
Figure 259: Estonia LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 260
Figure 260: Estonia LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 260
Figure 261: Estonia LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 261
Figure 262: Georgia LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 262
Figure 263: Georgia LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 262
Figure 264: Georgia LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 263
Figure 265: Hungary LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 264
Figure 266: Hungary LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 264
Figure 267: Hungary LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 265
Figure 268: Latvia LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 266
Figure 269: Latvia LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 266
Figure 270: Latvia LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 267
Figure 271: Lithuania LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 268
Figure 272: Lithuania LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 268
Figure 273: Lithuania LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 269
Figure 274: Macedonia LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 270
Figure 275: Macedonia LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 270
Figure 276: Macedonia LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 271
Figure 277: Moldova LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 272
Figure 278: Moldova LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 272
Figure 279: Moldova LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 273
Figure 280: Montenegro LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 274
Figure 281: Montenegro LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 274
Figure 282: Montenegro LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 275
Figure 283: Poland LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 276
Figure 284: Poland LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 276
Figure 285: Poland LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 277
Figure 286: Romania LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 278
Figure 287: Romania LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 278
Figure 288: Romania LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 279
Figure 289: Russia LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 280
Figure 290: Russia LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 280
Figure 291: Russia LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 281
Figure 292: Serbia LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 282
Figure 293: Serbia LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 282
Figure 294: Serbia LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 283
Figure 295: Slovakia LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 284
Figure 296: Slovakia LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 284
Figure 297: Slovakia LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 285
Figure 298: Slovenia LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 286
Figure 299: Slovenia LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 286
Figure 300: Slovenia LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 287
Figure 301: Ukraine LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 288
Figure 302: Ukraine LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 288
Figure 303: Ukraine LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 289
Figure 304: Uzbekistan LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 290
Figure 305: Uzbekistan LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 290
Figure 306: Uzbekistan LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 291
Figure 307: LTE Operator Service Revenues in the Rest of Eastern Europe 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 292
Figure 308: LTE Subscriptions in the Rest of Eastern Europe 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 292
Figure 309: Armenia LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 293
Figure 310: Armenia LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 293
Figure 311: Azerbaijan LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 294
Figure 312: Azerbaijan LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 294
Figure 313: Kazakhstan LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 295
Figure 314: Kazakhstan LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 295
Figure 315: Kirghizstan LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 296
Figure 316: Kirghizstan LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 296
Figure 317: Kosovo LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 297
Figure 318: Kosovo LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 297
Figure 319: Tadjikistan LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 298
Figure 320: Tadjikistan LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 298
Figure 321: Latin & Central America LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 299
Figure 322: Latin & Central America LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 299
Figure 323: Latin & Central America LTE ARPU Projections 2011 – 2016 (USD) 300
Figure 324: Latin & Central America LTE Operator Service Revenues by Country 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 301
Figure 325: Latin & Central America LTE Subscriptions by Country 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 301
Figure 326: Argentina LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 302
Figure 327: Argentina LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 302
Figure 328: Argentina LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 303
Figure 329: Bolivia LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 304
Figure 330: Bolivia LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 304
Figure 331: Bolivia LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 305
Figure 332: Brazil LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 306
Figure 333: Brazil LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 306
Figure 334: Brazil LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 307
Figure 335: Chile LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 308
Figure 336: Chile LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 308
Figure 337: Chile LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 309
Figure 338: Colombia LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 310
Figure 339: Colombia LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 310
Figure 340: Colombia LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 311
Figure 341: Ecuador LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 312
Figure 342: Ecuador LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 312
Figure 343: Ecuador LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 313
Figure 344: Mexico LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 314
Figure 345: Mexico LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 314
Figure 346: Mexico LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 315
Figure 347: Paraguay LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 316
Figure 348: Paraguay LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 316
Figure 349: Paraguay LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 317
Figure 350: Peru LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 318
Figure 351: Peru LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 318
Figure 352: Peru LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 319
Figure 353: Uruguay LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 320
Figure 354: Uruguay LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 320
Figure 355: Uruguay LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 321
Figure 356: Venezuela LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 322
Figure 357: Venezuela LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 322
Figure 358: Venezuela LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 323
Figure 359: LTE Operator Service Revenues for the Rest of Latin & Central America 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 324
Figure 360: LTE Subscriptions in the Rest of Latin & Central America 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 324
Figure 361: Bahamas LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 325
Figure 362: Bahamas LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 325
Figure 363: Bermuda LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 326
Figure 364: Bermuda LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 326
Figure 365: Bolivia LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 327
Figure 366: Bolivia LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 327
Figure 367: Costa Rica LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 328
Figure 368: Costa Rica LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 328
Figure 369: Jamaica LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 329
Figure 370: Jamaica LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 329
Figure 371: Netherlands Antilles LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 330
Figure 372: Netherlands Antilles LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 330
Figure 373: Nicaragua Antilles LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 331
Figure 374: Nicaragua Antilles LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 331
Figure 375: Puerto Rico Antilles LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 332
Figure 376: Puerto Rico Antilles LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 332
Figure 377: Africa LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 333
Figure 378: Africa LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 333
Figure 379: Africa LTE ARPU Projections 2011 – 2016 (USD) 334
Figure 380: Africa LTE Operator Service Revenues by Country 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 335
Figure 381: Africa LTE Subscriptions by Country 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 335
Figure 382: Algeria LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 336
Figure 383: Algeria LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 336
Figure 384: Algeria LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 337
Figure 385: Egypt LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 338
Figure 386: Egypt LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 338
Figure 387: Egypt LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 339
Figure 388: Kenya LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 340
Figure 389: Kenya LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 340
Figure 390: Kenya LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 341
Figure 391: Morocco LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 342
Figure 392: Morocco LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 342
Figure 393: Morocco LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 343
Figure 394: Nigeria LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 344
Figure 395: Nigeria LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 344
Figure 396: Nigeria LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 345
Figure 397: South Africa LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 346
Figure 398: South Africa LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 346
Figure 399: South Africa LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 347
Figure 400: Sudan LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 348
Figure 401: Sudan LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 348
Figure 402: Sudan LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 349
Figure 403: Tanzania LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 350
Figure 404: Tanzania LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 350
Figure 405: Tanzania LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 351
Figure 406: Tunisia LTE Operator Service Revenues 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 352
Figure 407: Tunisia LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 352
Figure 408: Tunisia LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 353
Figure 409: LTE Operator Service Revenues for the Rest of Africa 2011 – 2016 (USD Billions) 354
Figure 410: LTE Subscriptions in the Rest of Africa 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 354
Figure 411: Ghana LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 355
Figure 412: Ghana LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 355
Figure 413: Namibia LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 356
Figure 414: Namibia LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 356
Figure 415: Rwanda LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 357
Figure 416: Rwanda LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 357
Figure 417: Senegal LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 358
Figure 418: Senegal LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 358
Figure 419: Uganda LTE Subscriptions 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 359
Figure 420: Uganda LTE Subscriptions by Operator 2011 – 2016 (Millions) 359

LTE Device Marketplace: Ecosystem, Roadmap, Key Trends, Shipments/Market Share, and Global Forecast by Vendor

1 Introduction 4
1.1 Executive Summary 4
1.2 Acronyms, Abbreviations and Definitions 4
2 Global LTE Market Overview 6
2.1 The Increasing Demand for Capacity and 4G LTE Mobile Broadband 6
2.2 Spectrum Selection and Segmentation for LTE 6
2.3 LTE Deployments throughout the Globe 7
2.4 LTE Population Coverage 9
2.5 Availability of 4G Devices and Smartphones 9
3 LTE and LTE-Advanced Technology Overview 10
3.1 LTE Technology Overview 10
3.2 FDD LTE 11
3.3 TDD LTE (TD-LTE) 11
3.4 LTE Advanced 12
3.5 LTE Infrastructure Elements and Architecture Overview 13
3.6 LTE E-UTRAN Infrastructure Elements and Network Architecture 14
3.6.1 LTE Remote Radio Heads 14
3.6.2 LTE Base Station 15
3.6.3 LTE Femtocells 15
3.6.4 LTE Antenna Schemes 16
3.6.5 LTE RAN Infrastructure and Frequency Reuse 17
3.7 LTE EPC Infrastructure Elements and Network Architecture 17
3.7.1 Serving and Packet Gateway 18
3.7.2 Mobility Management Entity 19
3.7.3 Policy and Charging Rules Function 19
3.7.4 IP Multimedia Subsystem 19
3.7.5 EPC and Core Network Equipment Reuse in LTE 20
3.8 LTE Backhaul Solutions 21
3.8.1 LTE Backhaul Requirements 21
3.8.2 Carrier Ethernet 21
3.8.3 Fiber Backhauls 21
3.8.4 Microwave Backhauls 22
3.8.5 Impact of Femtocells on Backhaul 22
3.9 LTE End-User Devices 23
3.9.1 LTE Smartphones 23
3.9.2 LTE PC Cards, Embedded Devices & Routers 24
3.9.3 Technological Challenges for LTE Device Manufacturers 25
3.9.4 Integration and Fallback with Other Technologies 25
4 LTE Devices Ecosystem: A Market Overview of Key Trends and Developments 26
4.1 LTE Device Market Outlook 26
4.2 LTE Chipset Market Outlook 28
4.3 Patent Wars: The Rise of Patent Pools 29
4.4 Device Cost Implications to support LTE 30
4.5 Operator Strategies 31
4.5.1 Aggressive Pricing and Form Factor Diversity 31
4.5.2 Verizon’s Commitment to LTE for all Future Smartphones 32
4.6 Vendor Strategies 33
4.6.1 Capitalizing on LTE for Success 33
4.6.2 Shortening LTE Device Lifecycles 34
4.6.3 LTE Enabled Tablets as a Differentiated Marketing Strategy 35
4.7 Emerging Markets: LTE M2M Modules and LTE Enabled Gaming Devices 36
4.8 TD-LTE Devices: The Market for of Multimode WiMAX/TD-LTE Devices 37
4.9 Declining Pricing Improving Embedded LTE Device Adoption 38
5 LTE Device Revenues and Shipments 2011 - 2016 39
5.1 Global LTE Device Shipments and Sales Revenues 39
5.1.1 Global LTE Device Shipments 39
5.1.2 Global LTE Combined Device Sales Revenue 40
5.1.3 Comparison between LTE Smartphone and PC Based LTE Device Revenues 41
5.2 LTE Device Vendor Revenues and Market Share 43
5.2.1 LTE Smartphone Revenue and Market Share by Vendor 43
5.2.2 LTE PC Cards/Embedded Devices/Routers Revenue and Market Share by Vendor 44
5.3 LTE Device Shipments and Market Share by Region 45
5.3.1 LTE Device Shipments and Market Share by Region 45
5.3.2 LTE Device Shipments and Market Share in North America 46
5.3.3 LTE Device Shipments and Market Share in Western Europe 47
5.3.4 LTE Device Shipments and Market Share in Eastern Europe 48
5.3.5 LTE Device Shipments and Market Share in Asia Pacific 49
5.3.6 LTE Device Shipments and Market Share in Middle East and Africa 50
5.3.7 LTE Device Shipments and Market Share in Latin & Central America 51
6 LTE Device and Chipset Vendor Profiles and Roadmaps 52
6.1 LTE Device Manufacturers 52
6.1.1 HTC 52
6.1.2 Samsung 53
6.1.3 Motorola Mobility 54
6.1.4 Apple 55
6.1.5 ZTE 56
6.1.6 Huawei 57
6.1.7 LG Electronics 58
6.2 LTE Chipset Manufacturers 59
6.2.1 Qualcomm 59
6.2.2 ST-Ericsson 60
6.2.3 Icera (NVIDIA) 61
6.2.4 Infineon (Intel) 62

Mobile Data & Applications: State of the Industry, Market Prospects, and Forecast 2013 – 2018

1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 8
2.0 INTRODUCTION 9
2.1 OVERVIEW 9
2.2 MOBILE DATA: STATE OF THE INDUSTRY 16
2.2.1 Additional Mobile Data Related Milestones: 17
2.2.2 Mobile Data Related Projections: 17
2.2.3 Mobile Video a Significant Driver of Mobile Data 18
2.3 MOBILE APP HOPES AND REALITIES 19
2.4 TARGET AUDIENCE ANALYSIS 21
2.5 RISE OF THE MEGA SDK VENDORS IN MOBILE 23
2.6 BRING YOUR OWN DEVICE (BYOD) 27
2.7 EVENT LOGGING, ANALYTICS AND REPORTING 27
3.0 MOBILE APP SUCCESS FACTORS 28
3.1 APP MARKETING SERVICES 28
3.2 ACCESSIBILITY 30
3.3 THE PERSONAL TOUCH 30
3.4 HIGH DEGREE OF PUBLICITY 30
3.5 STRENGTH IN NUMBERS 30
3.6 LONG-LASTING RELATIONSHIP 31
3.7 THE SPIRIT OF PARTICIPATION 31
3.8 HIGHLY TARGETED MARKETING 31
3.9 REAL-TIME PERFORMANCE 31
3.10 ENTERPRISE MOBILE SERVICES 32
4.0 IMPLEMENTATION AND OPERATION CONSIDERATIONS 34
4.1 LAUNCHING AND OPERATING MOBILE APPS 34
4.1.1 Mobile Application testing 34
4.1.2 Google Android Emulator 35
4.1.3 Official Android SDK Emulator 35
4.1.4 MobiOne 35
4.1.5 Test iPhone 35
4.1.6 IPhone 35
4.1.7 BlackBerry Simulator 35
4.1.8 ZAP-fix for Mobile Application Testing 36
4.1.9 See Test from Experitest 36
4.2 ADVANTAGES OF A MOBILE WEBSITE VS. NATIVE APPS 36
4.2.1 Immediacy – Mobile Websites Are Instantly Available 36
4.2.2 Compatibility – Mobile Websites are Compatible across Devices 36
4.2.3 Upgradability – Mobile Websites Can Be Updated Instantly 37
4.2.4 Fundability – Mobile Websites Can be found easily 37
4.2.5 Share ability – Mobile Websites Can be Shared Easily by Publishers, and Between Users 37
4.2.6 Reach – Mobile Websites Have Broader Reach 37
4.2.7 Lifecycle – Mobile Websites can’t be deleted 37
4.2.8 Mobile Website can is an App! 38
4.2.9 Time and Cost – Mobile Websites are Easier and Less Expensive 38
4.2.10 Support and Sustainability 38
5.0 MOBILE APPS IN OPERATION 41
5.1 APPLICATIONS 41
5.2 APP REVIEW: IBANK MOBILE 41
5.3 ACCOUNTS 42
5.4 TRANSACTIONS 42
5.5 SYNCHRONIZATION 43
5.6 MOBILE DATA NETWORKS 44
5.7 DATA SERVICE PLANS 44
5.7.1 Pay-per-use 44
5.7.2 Metered Use 45
5.7.3 Unlimited Use 45
5.7.4 Prepaid 45
6.0 NATIVE APPS VS. HTML5 47
6.1 THE FUTURE OF MOBILE APP DEVELOPMENT: NATIVE VS. HTML5 47
6.2 BENEFITS OF HTML5 47
6.3 WHY DEVELOPERS LOVE HTML5 47
6.4 WHO CREATED HTML5 AND WHY? 47
6.5 WHAT ARE HTML5 APPS? 48
6.6 MOBILE WEB BROWSER MARKET SHARE 48
6.7 THE FUTURE OF HTML5 48
6.8 THE PROBLEM WITH MARKETING HTML5 APPS 48
6.9 THE NATIVE APP STORE ECONOMY 49
6.10 THE FUTURE OF MOBILE APP DEVELOPMENT 49
7.0 MOBILE APPLICATION METRICS 50
7.1 MOBILE APP USAGE 50
7.2 SMARTPHONE APP USAGE VS.MOBILE WEB AND SMS 51
7.3 MOBILE APPS VS. MOBILE WEB PREFERENCES 53
7.4 MOBILE APPLICATION VOLUME 53
7.5 MOBILE APPS ARE DOWNLOADS PER YEAR 53
7.6 ANDROID-FIRST STRATEGY 53
7.7 APP REVENUE GENERATION 54
7.7.1 Mobile Apps Winners 54
7.7.2 Mobile App Losers 55
7.8 MAKING MONEY WITH APPS 56
7.9 APP STORE EXPANSION 58
7.9.1 Largest App Stores 59
7.9.2 Best App Stores 59
7.10 MOST POPULAR APPS 60
7.11 MOST USED APPS 61
7.12 FAILED APP DEPLOYMENTS 62
7.13 MOBILE APP SUBSTITUTION FOR MOBILE WEBSITE 62
7.14 BBUSINESSES USE OF ENTERPRISE (PRIVATE) APP STORES 63
8.0 MOBILE APPLICATION FORECASTS 2013 - 2018 64
8.1 GLOBAL MOBILE APP REVENUE BY APP STORE 2013 - 2018 64
8.2 GLOBAL MOBILE APP REVENUE BY BUSINESS MODEL 2013 - 2018 66
9.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 68
10.0 APPENDICES 71
10.1 LTE TECHNOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE 71
10.1.1 LTE Technology 71
10.1.1.1 FDD LTE 73
10.1.1.2 TDD LTE (TD-LTE) 73
10.1.2 LTE Advanced 74
10.1.3 LTE Infrastructure Elements and Architecture 75
10.1.3.1 LTE E-UTRAN 76
10.1.3.2 LTE Remote Radio Heads 77
10.1.3.3 LTE Base Station 77
10.1.3.4 LTE Femtocells 78
10.1.3.5 LTE Antenna Schemes 80
10.1.3.6 LTE RAN Infrastructure and Frequency Reuse 81
10.1.3.7 LTE EPC Infrastructure Elements 81
10.1.3.8 Serving and Packet Gateway 82
10.1.3.9 Mobility Management Entity 84
10.1.3.10 Policy and Charging Rules Function 84
10.1.3.11 IP Multimedia Subsystem 85
10.1.3.12 EPC and Core Network Equipment Reuse in LTE 85
10.2 LTE ARCHITECTURE DETAILS 86
10.2.1 Service Architecture 87
10.2.2 Layer 2 of LTE 88
10.2.3 Downlink Logical 89
10.2.4 Uplink Logical 90
10.2.5 Mobility Across eNBs 91
10.3 IP MULTIMEDIA SUBSYSTEM (IMS 93
10.3.1 IMS Planes 93
10.3.2 IMS Network Elements 94
10.4 SERVICE CENTRALIZED AND CONTINUITY APPLICATION SERVER (SCC) 96

List of Figures

FIGURE 1 - MOBILE SOPHISTICATION 12
FIGURE 2 - DESCRIPTION ABOUT THE MOBILE DATA APPLICATIONS AND USERS 13
FIGURE 3 - AREA WISE SPEED NETWORK OF MOBILE INTERNET CONNECTION 13
FIGURE 4 - MEDICAL REQUIREMENTS 15
FIGURE 5 - TOP COUNTRIES USING MOBILE TRAVEL APPLICATIONS 15
FIGURE 7 - OUTLOOK FOR MOBILE APPLICATIONS 25
FIGURE 8 - SMARTPHONE DATA LEGEND 40
FIGURE 8 – GLOBAL MOBILE APP REVENUE BY APP STORE 65
FIGURE 9 – GLOBAL MOBILE APP REVENUE BY BUSINESS MODEL 67
FIGURE 10: LTE E-UTRAN INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK ELEMENTS 76
FIGURE 11: LTE EPC INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK ELEMENTS 82
FIGURE 12: UNDERSTANDING LTE NETWORK ELEMENTS AND CHANNELS 88
FIGURE 13: IMS PLANES 93
FIGURE 14: IMS MODEL 95
FIGURE 15: SERVICE CENTRALIZED AND CONTINUITY APPLICATION SERVER 96

List of Tables

TABLE 1 - USERS OF MOBILE APPS GLOBALLY BY REGION 2012-2017 51
TABLE 2 - ACTIVITIES PERFORMED BY SMARTPHONE USERS 52
TABLE 3 - NUMBER OF APPS RESPONSIBLE FOR SIGNIFICANT REVENUE AT APPLE APP STORE AND GOOGLE PLAY 55
TABLE 4 - REVENUE DISTRIBUTION BY PLATFORM 56
TABLE 5 - DOWNLOADS OF MOBILE APPS FROM ALL STORES GLOBALLY, 2010-2016 58
TABLE 6 - NUMBER OF APPS DOWNLOADED AND USED ONLY ONCE 62
TABLE 7 - GLOBAL MOBILE APP REVENUE BY APP STORE 2013 - 2018 66
TABLE 8 - GLOBAL MOBILE APP REVENUE BY BUSINESS MODEL 2013 - 2018 67

LTE Strategies 2013 – 2018: Strategies for Deploying, Operating, and Optimizing LTE Services, Applications and Business Operations

1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 11
2.0 INTRODUCTION 12
2.1 EVOLUTION OF THE WIRELESS MARKETPLACE 12
2.1.1 KEY EVOLUTIONARY TRENDS 12
2.1.2 KEY SUPPORTING TECHNOLOGIES 15
2.2 BROADBAND WIRELESS EVOLUTION 16
2.2.1 FIRST GENERATION (1G) 16
2.2.2 SECOND GENERATION (2G) 17
2.2.3 THIRD GENERATION (3G) 17
2.2.4 FOURTH GENERATION (4G) 17
2.2.1 FIFTH GENERATION (5G) 22
3.0 LTE GLOBAL STATUS 24
3.1 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY 24
3.2 GLOBAL LTE SUBSCRIBERS AND PENETRATION BY COUNTRY 24
3.3 GLOBAL DEPLOYMENT: LTE BY REGION, COUNTRY AND CARRIER 36
3.4 GLOBAL OVERALL (2G, 3G, AND 4G) MOBILE PENETRATION 46
3.5 GLOBAL LTE INDUSTRY VERTICALS 47
3.5.1 OIL AND GAS 47
3.5.2 CONSTRUCTION 48
3.5.3 AGRICULTURE 48
3.5.4 MINING 48
3.5.5 UTILITIES 49
3.5.6 TRANSPORTATION 49
3.5.7 MILITARY/DEFENSE 50
3.5.8 PUBLIC SAFETY 51
3.5.9 EDUCATION AND DISTANCE LEARNING 52
3.6 GLOBAL LTE DEVICES 53
3.7 GLOBAL MOBILE DATA USAGE 54
3.8 GLOBAL MOBILE INTERNET AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL INTERNET 55
3.9 GLOBAL MOBILE BROADBAND SNAPSHOT: 1Q 2013 56
3.10 SPECTRUM CURRENTLY UTILIZED FOR LTE 57
3.10.1 THE KEY SPECTRUM SUB-BAND: 1755-1780 MHZ 58
3.10.2 NATIONAL BROADBAND PLAN 58
3.10.3 LTE INDUSTRY SPECTRUM CHALLENGE: FRAGMENTATION 59
3.10.4 LTE INDUSTRY SPECTRUM SOLUTION: ADAPTIVE AND COGNITIVE RADIO 59
3.11 PAST AND PROJECTED CELLULAR NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE SPENDING 60
3.11.1 MACRO CELL INFRASTRUCTURE SPENDING BY REGION 65
3.11.2 CARRIER WIFI INFRASTRUCTURE SPENDING 73
4.0 LTE REGIONAL STATUS 74
4.1 OVERALL REGIONAL ANALYSIS 74
4.1.1 MOBILE USAGE DURING THE LAST TWENTY YEARS BY REPRESENTATIVE COUNTRY 74
4.1.2 GLOBAL LTE SUBSCRIBERS BY REGION 75
4.1.3 TOP DATA USAGE BY COUNTRY FOR 3G AND LTE 75
4.1.4 COMS, COMMERCE, AND APP USAGE PATTERNS IN REPRESENTATIVE COUNTRIES 76
4.2 AMERICAS 77
4.2.1 LTE IN USA 79
4.2.2 LTE IN LATIN AMERICA 80
4.3 EUROPE 82
4.3.1 FRANCE 84
4.3.2 GERMANY 84
4.3.3 ITALY 84
4.3.4 SPAIN 85
4.3.5 UNITED KINGDOM 85
4.4 MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 85
4.4.1 MIDDLE EAST 86
4.4.2 AFRICA 87
4.5 ASIA PACIFIC 89
4.5.1 AUSTRALIA 89
4.5.1 CHINA 90
4.5.2 INDIA 90
4.5.1 JAPAN 92
4.5.2 SOUTH KOREA 93
5.0 LTE PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION 95
5.1 CONSIDERATION OF KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF TECHNOLOGIES 95
5.2 STRATEGY FOR GROWTH OF LTE DEPENDENT ON CAPACITY NEEDS 100
5.2.1 GLOBAL MOBILE DATA HISTORICAL GROWTH AND FORECASTS 100
5.2.2 GLOBAL GROWTH FORECAST PER WIRELESS DEVICE TYPE 101
5.2.3 GLOBAL MOBILE DATA FORECAST GROWTH PER REGION 104
5.3 MIGRATION FROM CURRENT NETWORKS TO LTE 104
6.0 LTE OSS IMPROVEMENTS 106
6.1 DRIVERS FOR OSS IMPROVEMENTS 106
6.2 SELF-OPTIMIZING NETWORKS (SON) 106
6.2.1 WHY SON FOR LTE? 106
6.2.2 SON CATEGORIES AND USE CASES 109
6.2.3 SON IMPLEMENTATION 111
7.0 CARRIER CHALLENGES 115
7.1 SPECTRUM AVAILABILITY 115
7.2 CAPEX BUDGETS 115
7.3 IS MORE CAPACITY BETTER? 115
7.3.1 ADVANTAGES 115
7.3.2 DISADVANTAGES 115
7.4 THE FIGHT AGAINST OTT PLAYERS 116
7.4.1 OTT VOICE 116
7.4.2 OTT MESSAGING 116
7.4.3 CARRIERS TO FIGHT BACK 118
7.5 THE DRIVERS FOR NEW APPLICATIONS 120
8.0 LTE APPLICATION STRATEGY 122
8.1 PREPARE FOR MUCH MORE DATA USAGE 122
8.1.1 BIGGEST FACTOR IN MOBILE DATA: MOBILE VIDEO 122
8.1.2 MOBILE VIDEO FORECAST 123
8.2 PREPARE FOR INCREASINGLY MORE SERVICES IN THE CLOUD 123
8.2.1 THE ROLE OF INCUMBENT NETWORK OPERATORS IN MOBILE CLOUD 124
8.2.2 MOBILE DATA IN THE CLOUD FORECAST 125
8.3 PREPARE FOR INCREASINGLY MARGINALIZED CORE SERVICES 125
8.3.1 MARGINALIZATION DRIVES THE NEED FOR VALUE-ADDED SERVICES 125
8.3.2 VALUED SERVICES INCLUDE COMMERCE, CONTENT AND APPS 126
8.4 PREPARE FOR DEPLOYMENT OF VALUE-ADDED SERVICES 130
8.4.1 WHAT IS A VALUE-ADDED SERVICE (VAS)? 130
8.4.2 RELATIONSHIP OF VAS TO OTHER SERVICES 131
8.4.3 WHY ARE VAS IMPORTANT? 131
8.4.4 THE VAS SUPPLY CHAIN 131
8.4.5 CARRIER PLANNING FOR VAS APPLICATIONS 131
9.0 LTE APPLICATION ROADMAP 133
9.1 VIDEO 133
9.1.1 MORE OF THE SAME: ONLY FASTER 134
9.1.2 VIDEO CALL 137
9.1.3 LTE VIDEO BROADCAST 138
9.1.4 MOBILE TV IN LTE 139
9.2 VOICE OVER LTE (VOLTE) 143
9.2.1 GSMA VOLTE INIATIVES 144
9.2.2 ALTERNATIVES TO VOLTE 145
9.3 RICH COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES (RCS) 146
9.3.1 GSMA RCS INITIATIVES 148
9.3.2 RICH CALLS 149
9.3.3 RICH MESSAGING 150
9.3.4 RCS AND VIDEO 151
9.3.5 DYNAMIC ADDRESS BOOK (DAB) 151
9.4 LTE DIRECT 153
9.4.1 DIRECT SERVICES 154
10.0 LTE FORECASTS 157
10.1 GLOBAL LTE FORECASTS 157
10.1.1 GLOBAL SUBSCRIPTIONS 2013 - 2018 157
10.1.2 GLOBAL REVENUE 2013 – 2018 157
10.2 GLOBAL CONSUMER VS. ENTERPRISE FORECASTS 158
10.2.1 GLOBAL CONSUMER VS. ENTERPRISE SUBSCRIPTIONS 2013 - 2018 158
10.2.2 GLOBAL CONSUMER VS. ENTERPRISE REVENUE 2013 - 2018 158
10.3 LTE MARKET SEGMENTS 159
10.3.1 LTE IN INDUSTRY VERTICALS 159
10.3.2 GLOBAL LTE SUBSCRIPTIONS BY MAJOR INDUSTRY SEGMENT 2013 – 2018 163
10.4 GLOBAL LTE DEVICE FORECAST 2013 - 2018 164
10.5 GLOBAL MOBILE DATA TRAFFIC 2012-2017 165
10.5.1 BY CATEGORY 165
10.5.2 BY DEVICE TYPE 165
10.5.3 BY REGION 166
10.6 PROJECTED MOBILE CONNECTION SPEEDS BY REGION 2012 – 2017 166
11.0 THE FUTURE OF LTE 168
11.1 DEVICES AND SUBSCRIBERS 168
11.1.1 SUBSCRIBER BEHAVIORS EVOLVE 169
11.1.2 CONSUMER ELECTRONICS AND LTE 170
11.1.3 THE GLOBAL MARKET FOR SMARTPHONES AND TABLETS 172
11.1.4 NEXT GENERATION DEVICES AND LTE 174
11.2 FUTURE NETWORK TOPOLOGY 175
11.2.1 CONTINUED SMALL CELL EXPANSION 175
11.2.2 HETEROGENEOUS NETWORKS (HETNETS) 176
11.2.3 LTE TOPOLOGY ROADMAP 177
11.3 FUTURE APPLICATIONS 178
11.3.1 LTE AND SOCIAL NETWORKS/MEDIA 179
11.3.2 LTE AND MOBILE MARKETING/ADVERTISING 180
11.3.3 LTE ENABLED MOBILE COMMERCE 181
11.3.4 CLOUD STORAGE/ACCESS 183
11.3.5 PEER-TO-PEER (P2P) COMMUNICATIONS 183
11.3.6 AUGMENTED REALITY (AR) 185
11.3.7 WEARABLE WIRELESS DRIVES NEW APPLICATIONS 189
11.3.8 THE ENTERPRISE/CORPORATE DASHBOARD 190
11.3.9 MACHINE-TO-MACHINE (M2M) AND THE INTERNET OF THINGS (IOT) 192
11.3.10 CONVERGENCE OF M2M, IOT, SOCIAL, AND BIG DATA = HUGE OPPORTUNITY 196
11.4 NEW LTE BUSINESS MODELS 197
11.4.1 MOBILE NETWORK API MODELS 197
11.4.2 WORKING WITH THE CARRIERS 198
11.4.3 DEALING WITH CARRIER CONCERNS IN NEW BUSINESS MODELS 200
11.4.4 THE EMERGENCE OF A STRUCTURED THIRD-PARTY ECOSYSTEM 202
12.0 BEYOND 4G/LTE 205
12.1 THE VISION FOR 5G 205
12.1.1 EVOLUTION FROM 4G TO 5G 206
12.2 FLAT AND DE-CENTRALIZED IP ARCHITECTURE 206
12.3 5G CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES 206
12.4 CURRENT 5G DEVELOPMENTS 207
12.4.1 UNITED KINGDOM: GOVERNMENT 207
12.4.2 KOREA: SAMSUNG 208
13.0 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS 209
13.1 CARRIERS 209
13.2 CONTENT PROVIDERS 211
13.3 APPLICATION DEVELOPERS 212
13.3.1 CONSUMER MARKET 212
13.3.2 ENTERPRISE MARKET 213
13.3.3 INDEPENDENTS 214
13.4 INFRASTRUCTURE PROVIDERS 217
13.4.1 ERICSSON 218
13.4.2 HUAWEI 218
13.4.3 NOKIA SIEMENS NETWORKS 219
13.4.4 ALCATEL-LUCENT 219
13.4.5 ZTE 219
13.5 WIRELESS DEVICE PROVIDERS 222
13.5.1 OVERVIEW 222
13.5.2 LTE HANDSET ISSUES 224
14.0 APPENDIX 227
14.1.1 HISTORY OF NGN AND LTE 227
14.1.2 LTE KEY TECHNOLOGIES 228
14.2 LTE TECHNOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE 230
14.2.1 LTE TECHNOLOGY 231
14.2.2 LTE ADVANCED 233
14.2.3 LTE INFRASTRUCTURE ELEMENTS AND ARCHITECTURE 235
14.3 LTE ARCHITECTURE DETAILS 244
14.3.1 SERVICE ARCHITECTURE 245
14.3.2 LAYER 2 OF LTE 246
14.3.3 DOWNLINK LOGICAL 247
14.3.4 UPLINK LOGICAL 248
14.3.5 MOBILITY ACROSS ENBS 249
14.4 IP MULTIMEDIA SUBSYSTEM AND SERVICE DELIVER 250
14.4.1 SDP ARCHITECTURE 250
14.4.2 SDP AND OSS/BSS 252
14.4.3 IP MULTIMEDIA SUBSYSTEM (IMS) 253
14.4.4 TECHNOLOGIES SUPPORTING IMS 257
14.4.5 IMS AND SIP 257
14.5 OTHER LTE NETWORK AND APPLICATION ENABLERS 262
14.5.1 PRESENCE 262
14.5.2 IDENTITY, PERSONAL DATA, AND PREFERENCE MANAGEMENT 266
14.5.3 TELECOM API AND MANAGEMENT 268

List of Figures

Figure 1: Evolution of Wireless 12
Figure 2: Landline/Fixed Losses Forecast 14
Figure 3: Migration from Landline to VoIP Forecast 14
Figure 4: Evolution of Broadband Wireless 16
Figure 5: 3G vs. 4G 19
Figure 6: 4G Evolution 21
Figure 7: LTE vs. LTE Advanced 22
Figure 8: Market Share by Wireless Technology 24
Figure 9: Global LTE Subscription/Penetration by Country 36
Figure 10: Global LTE Subscriptions 46
Figure 11: Overall Mobile Penetration by Region 47
Figure 12: Public Safety LTE Network 51
Figure 13: Global LTE Devices by Type 53
Figure 14: Global LTE Devices by FDD/TDD 54
Figure 15: Global Mobile Data Usage 55
Figure 16: Mobile Internet vs. Total Internet 56
Figure 17: Mobile Broadband Market by Technology 56
Figure 18: LTE Spectrum Usage 58
Figure 19: Global Infrastructure Spending: 2010 – 2017 (USD Millions) 60
Figure 20: Global Spending on Infrastructure by Tech 2010 – 2017 (USD Millions) 60
Figure 21: Global Spending on Infrastructure by Tech Generation: 2010 – 2017 (USD Millions) 61
Figure 22: Global RAN and Core Network Infrastructure Spending Compared: 2010 – 2017 (USD Millions) 61
Figure 23: Wireless Network Infrastructure Spending by Region: 2010 – 2017 (USD Millions) 62
Figure 24: Global Macro Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 – 2017 (Thousands) 62
Figure 25: Global Macro Cell Unit Shipments Revenue: 2010 – 2017 (USD Millions) 63
Figure 26: Global Macro Cell Unit Shipments by Technology (GSM, W-CDMA/HSPA, TD-SCDMA, CDMA-2000/EV-DO, LTE, WiMAX): 2010 – 2017 (Thousands) 63
Figure 27: Global Macro Cell Unit Shipments Revenue by Technology (GSM, W-CDMA/HSPA, TD-SCDMA, CDMA-2000/EV-DO, LTE, WiMAX): 2010 – 2017 (USD Millions) 64
Figure 28: Global Macro Cell Unit Shipments by Technology Generation (2G, 3G, 4G): 2010 – 2017 (Thousands) 64
Figure 29: Global Macro Cell Unit Shipments Revenue by Technology Generation (2G, 3G, 4G): 2010 – 2017 (USD Millions) 64
Figure 30: Macro Cell Unit Shipments by Region: 2010 – 2017 (Thousands) 65
Figure 31: Macro Cell Unit Shipments Revenue by Region: 2010 – 2017 (USD Millions) 65
Figure 32: Infrastructure Spending in Asia Pacific: 2010 - 2017 (USD Millions) 66
Figure 33: Macro Cell Unit Shipments in Asia Pacific: 2010 – 2017 (Thousands) 66
Figure 34: Macro Cell Unit Shipments Revenue in Asia Pacific: 2010 – 2017 (USD Millions) 67
Figure 35: Infrastructure Spending in Eastern Europe: 2010 - 2017 (USD Millions) 67
Figure 36: Macro Cell Unit Shipments in Europe: 2010 – 2017 (Thousands) 68
Figure 37: Macro Cell Unit Shipments Revenue in Europe: 2010 – 2017 (USD Millions) 68
Figure 38: Infrastructure Spending in Latin & Central America: 2010 - 2017 (USD Millions) 69
Figure 39: Macro Cell Unit Shipments in Latin & Central America: 2010 – 2017 (Thousands) 69
Figure 40: Macro Cell Unit Shipments Revenue in Latin & Central America: 2010 – 2017 (USD Millions) 69
Figure 41: Infrastructure Spending in the Middle East & Africa: 2010 - 2017 (USD Millions) 70
Figure 42: Macro Cell Unit Shipments in the Middle East & Africa: 2010 – 2017 (Thousands) 70
Figure 43: Macro Cell Unit Shipments Revenue in the Middle East & Africa: 2010 – 2017 (USD Millions) 70
Figure 44: Wireless Network Infrastructure Spending in North America: 2010 - 2017 (USD Millions) 71
Figure 45: Macro Cell Unit Shipments in North America: 2010 – 2017 (Thousands) 71
Figure 46: Macro Cell Unit Shipments Revenue in North America: 2010 – 2017 (USD Millions) 71
Figure 47: Infrastructure Spending in Western Europe: 2010 - 2017 (USD Millions) 72
Figure 48: Macro Cell Unit Shipments in Western Europe: 2010 – 2017 (Thousands) 72
Figure 49: Macro Cell Unit Shipments Rev Western Europe: 2010 – 2017 (USD Millions) 72
Figure 50: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments: 2010 - 2017 (Thousands of Units) 73
Figure 51: Mobile Usage in Last Two Decades 74
Figure 52: Global LTE Subscribers by Region 75
Figure 53: Data Traffic in Largest LTE Countries/Operators 75
Figure 54: Usage Patterns in Representative Countries 76
Figure 55: Mobile Data Traffic by Region 77
Figure 56: Wireless Spectrum Demand Projections 78
Figure 57: LTE in United States 79
Figure 58: LTE in Latin America 80
Figure 59: Top MNO’s in Latin America 81
Figure 60: LTE Launches in Europe by Operator 83
Figure 61: Middle East LTE Carrier Services Revenue 86
Figure 62: Africa LTE Market 88
Figure 63: LTE Key Characteristics : 96
Figure 64: Anticipated Wireless Capacity Growth 100
Figure 65: Mobile Data Usage Growth Forecast 101
Figure 66: Global Growth Forecast for Devices and Data Usage 101
Figure 67: Data Usage by Device Type 102
Figure 68: Per-Device Usage Growth to 2017 103
Figure 69: Device Growth and Mobile Data Usage Growth to 2017 103
Figure 70: Global Mobile Data Forecast by Region to 2017 104
Figure 71: Migration from Existing Networks to 4G 105
Figure 72: Self Organizing Network Use Cases 109
Figure 73: Average Texting by User Segment 116
Figure 74: Video Usage by Screen Type 122
Figure 75: Mobile Video Forecast to 2017 123
Figure 76: Mobile Data in the Cloud Forecast to 2017 125
Figure 77: Mobile Commerce Continuum 126
Figure 78: Pull and Push Content Models 129
Figure 79: Value-added Services vs. Core Services 130
Figure 80: Worldwide Mobile Data Usage 134
Figure 81: Mobile TV Ecosystem 140
Figure 82: VoLTE Call Continuity 143
Figure 83: RCS, APIs, and Applications 147
Figure 84: Enhanced Address Book Benefits 152
Figure 85: RCS Application Integration 153
Figure 86: Global LTE Subscriptions: 2013 – 2018 (Millions) 157
Figure 87: Global LTE Service Revenues: 2013 – 2018 ($ Billion) 157
Figure 88: Consumer and Enterprise LTE Subs: 2013 – 2018 (Millions) 158
Figure 89: Consumer and Enterprise LTE Service Rev: 2013 – 2018 ($ Billion) 159
Figure 90: Networked Business Framework 160
Figure 91: Disruptive Potential of Connectivity 161
Figure 92: LTE Value Chain: Traditional Enterprise and Vertical Segments 163
Figure 93: Global LTE Subscriptions by Industry: 2013 – 2018 (Thousands) 163
Figure 94: Global LTE Devices in 2013 164
Figure 95: Global LTE Device Forecast to 2018 164
Figure 96: Industry LTE Device Trends to 2030 164
Figure 97: Global Mobile Data by Category Forecast to 2017 165
Figure 98: Global Mobile Data by Device Forecast to 2017 165
Figure 99: Global Mobile Data by Region Forecast to 2017 166
Figure 100: Connection Speeds by Region Forecast to 2017 167
Figure 101: LTE Market Drivers by Operational Improvement 169
Figure 102: Global Smartphone and Tablet Ownership by Country 172
Figure 103: Global Smartphone Market by Region 173
Figure 104: Global Tablet Market by Region 174
Figure 105: HetNets Topology 176
Figure 106: Carrier WiFi and Small Cells 177
Figure 107: Mobile Marketing Investment Growth by Type Forecast to 2015 180
Figure 108: Mobile Marketing Expenditures by Type Forecast to 2015 180
Figure 109: Augmented Reality 185
Figure 110: Enterprise Corporate Dashboard 191
Figure 111: Enterprise Corporate Dashboard: Employee Locator Application 192
Figure 112: Global M2M Growth by 2G/3G/4G Forecast to 2017 193
Figure 113: Global M2M Data Growth Forecast to 2017 194
Figure 114: Evolution of Carrier Business Models and Third Parties 203
Figure 115: Wireless Network Infrastructure RAN Vendor Ranking Matrix 2012 220
Figure 116: Core Network Vendor Ranking Matrix 2012 221
Figure 117: 4G Handset Technical Issues 226
Figure 118: LTE E-UTRAN Infrastructure Network Elements 236
Figure 119: LTE EPC Infrastructure Network Elements 241
Figure 120: Understanding LTE Network Elements and Channels 246
Figure 121: IMS Planes 254
Figure 122: IMS Model 256
Figure 123: SIP Configuration and Protocols 259
Figure 124: Presence in Telecom Networks 262
Figure 125: NGN Presence Architecture 263
Figure 126: Dynamic Address Book (DAM) 266
Figure 127: Wireless Carrier Assets 268
Figure 128: SDM Industry Roadmap: 2012 - 2017 270

Mobile Value-added Services (VAS) in 4G: Market Analysis and Forecasts for LTE-based VAS 2013 – 2018

1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 8
2.0 INTRODUCTION 10
3.0 LONG TERM EVOLUTION (LTE) 11
3.1 LTE 2013 STATUS UPDATE 11
3.2 LTE SUBSCRIPTIONS 13
3.3 LTE RELEASE 11 AND THE ROADMAP BEYOND 14
3.4 LTE DIRECT 16
3.5 LTE DIRECT APPLICATIONS 18
4.0 LTE VALUE-ADDED SERVICES (VAS) 21
4.1 ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT MOBILE SUBSCRIPTIONS AND MOBILE DATA 21
4.2 MOBILE DATA 23
4.3 MOBILE ADVERTISING 23
4.4 API-BASED APPS DOWNLOADS 28
4.5 SOCIAL NETWORKING/MATCHING 29
4.6 COUPONS, LOYALTY AND VENUE-BASED SERVICES 32
4.7 GEO-LOCATION BASED SERVICES 34
4.8 MOBILE GAMING 37
4.9 MOBILE VIRTUAL GOODS 39
4.10 VIDEO, TV, PAY-TV AND SECOND-SCREEN 39
4.11 MOBILE HEALTH 41
4.12 MUSIC SERVICES (INCLUDING RINGBACK AND RINGTONES) 42
4.13 MACHINE-TO-MACHINE (M2M) 43
4.14 CONNECTED VEHICLES 44
4.15 PUBLIC SAFETY LTE 45
4.16 MESSAGING, TEXTING, AND SMS (NOT RELATED TO RCS) 47
4.17 SMALL CELL TARGETED ADVERTISING 47
4.18 MISCELLANEOUS SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES 49
4.19 LTE VAS ROLL-UP 49
5.0 THE MOST ACTIVELY ANTICIPATED VAS: VOLTE 51
5.1 HOW VOLTE WORKS 51
5.2 WHY VOLTE IS IN THE BEST INTERESTS OF MOBILE OPERATORS 52
5.2.1 MANAGEMENT OF MACRO SPECTRUM 52
5.2.2 GREATER EFFICIENCY OF MICRO SPECTRUM 53
5.2.3 IMPROVED QOS 53
5.2.4 LESS HARDWARE AND COTS EQUIPMENT 53
5.2.5 ROAMING WILL BE DRAMATICALLY EASIER 53
5.2.6 LESS EXPENSIVE PER BIT BACKHAUL 54
5.2.7 COMPARABLE DEVICE PERFORM BETTER ON LTE THAN ON 3G NETWORKS 54
5.3 FACTORS THAT COULD SLOW THE GROWTH OF VOLTE 54
5.3.1 SPECTRUM ISSUES INCLUDING THE LACK OF GLOBALLY HARMONIZED SPECTRUM 55
5.3.2 LACK OF SPECTRUM COHERENCY IN THE UNITED STATES 55
5.3.3 DEVICE MANUFACTURERS ARE RETICENT TO SUPPORT VOLTE 56
5.3.4 TECHNICAL CHALLENGES IN THE NETWORK 57
5.3.5 RELAXED RULES ON NETWORK SHARING IN THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION 58
5.3.6 THE GLOBAL RECESSION CONTINUES 58
5.4 THE STATUS OF CURRENT VOLTE MOBILE OPERATORS 58
6.0 RICH COMMUNICATIONS SUITE (RCS) 60
6.1 RCS/JOYN® 60
6.2 RELEASE STANDARDS, SUITES AND PROFILES IN THE JOYN® PLATFORM 61
6.3 RCS/JOYN® AS OF TODAY 63
6.4 RCS/JOYN® AND THE ELEPHANT IN THE ROOM 64
6.5 RCS APPROACHES NOT INVOLVING JOYN® 64
6.6 OTT SERVICE PROVIDERS 65
6.7 MOBILE OPERATORS VERSUS OVER-THE-TOP SERVICE PROVIDERS 67
6.8 MOBILE OPERATORS AND OTT PROVIDERS: COEXISTENCE? 68
6.9 RCS/JOYN REVENUES 69
7.0 PROSPECTS FOR VOLTE AND RCS DEPLOYMENTS BY REGION 72
7.1 ASIA PACIFIC 73
7.1.1 AUSTRALIA 74
7.1.2 CHINA 75
7.1.3 HONG KONG 76
7.1.4 INDIA 77
7.1.5 JAPAN 78
7.1.6 SOUTH KOREA 80
7.1.7 REST OF ASIA PACIFIC 81
7.1.8 FORECAST ASIA PACIFIC VOLTE 82
7.2 CALA 83
7.2.1 ARGENTINA 84
7.2.2 BRAZIL 85
7.2.3 CHILE 86
7.2.4 COLOMBIA 87
7.2.5 MEXICO 87
7.2.6 PUERTO RICO 88
7.2.7 REST OF CALA 88
7.2.8 FORECAST CALA VOLTE 89
7.3 EASTERN EUROPE 90
7.3.1 HUNGARY 91
7.3.2 POLAND 92
7.3.3 ROMANIA 92
7.3.4 RUSSIA 93
7.3.5 REST OF EASTERN EUROPE 95
7.3.6 FORECAST EASTERN EUROPE VOLTE 96
7.4 MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 96
7.4.1 CONTINENTAL AFRICA 97
7.4.2 SAUDI ARABIA 97
7.4.3 SOUTH AFRICA 99
7.4.4 REST OF MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 100
7.4.5 FORECAST MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA VOLTE 101
7.5 NORTH AMERICA 101
7.5.1 TIMELINE OF ACTIVITIES IN THE NORTH AMERICAN MARKET 102
7.5.2 AT&T 104
7.5.3 BELL MOBILITY 105
7.5.4 CLEARWIRE 106
7.5.5 ROGERS WIRELESS 107
7.5.6 SPRINT 107
7.5.7 TELUS MOBILITY 108
7.5.8 T-MOBILE/METROPCS 109
7.5.9 VERIZON WIRELESS 110
7.5.10 REST OF REGION NORTH AMERICA 111
7.5.11 FORECAST NORTH AMERICA VOLTE 112
7.6 WESTERN EUROPE 112
7.6.1 STRATEGIES OF THE PAN-EUROPEAN MOBILE CARRIERS 113
7.6.2 FRANCE 116
7.6.3 GERMANY 117
7.6.4 ITALY 118
7.6.5 SPAIN 119
7.6.6 SWEDEN 120
7.6.7 UNITED KINGDOM 120
7.6.8 REST OF WESTERN EUROPE 121
7.6.9 FORECAST WESTERN EUROPE VOLTE 123
7.7 ROLL-UP FORECAST GLOBAL VOLTE 124
8.0 VENDOR ANALYSIS 125
8.1 EMPIRIX 125
8.2 OPENCLOUD 126
8.3 OPENMIND NETWORKS 128
8.4 SAMSUNG 129
8.5 TROPO 130
9.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 133
9.1 CARRIERS 133
9.2 CONTENT PROVIDERS 135
9.3 APPLICATION DEVELOPERS 136
9.3.1 CONSUMER MARKET 137
9.3.2 ENTERPRISE MARKET 138
9.3.3 INDEPENDENTS 138
9.4 INFRASTRUCTURE PROVIDERS 141
9.4.1 ERICSSON 142
9.4.2 HUAWEI 142
9.4.3 NOKIA SIEMENS NETWORKS 143
9.4.4 ALCATEL-LUCENT 143
9.4.5 ZTE 143
9.5 WIRELESS DEVICE PROVIDERS 146
9.5.1 OVERVIEW 146
9.5.2 LTE HANDSET ISSUES 148
10.0 GLOSSARY 151
11.0 APPENDICES 155
11.1 LTE TECHNOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE 155
11.1.1 LTE TECHNOLOGY 155
11.1.2 LTE ADVANCED 158
11.1.3 LTE INFRASTRUCTURE ELEMENTS AND ARCHITECTURE 159
11.2 LTE ARCHITECTURE DETAILS 168
11.2.1 SERVICE ARCHITECTURE 169
11.2.2 LAYER 2 OF LTE 170
11.2.3 DOWNLINK LOGICAL 171
11.2.4 UPLINK LOGICAL 172
11.2.5 MOBILITY ACROSS ENBS 173
11.3 IP MULTIMEDIA SUBSYSTEM (IMS) 174
11.4 SERVICE CENTRALIZED AND CONTINUITY APPLICATION SERVER (SCC) 177

List of Figures

Figure 1. Depiction of LTE Direct Public Expression 16
Figure 2. Qualcomm Differentiated Apps/Services for Proximate Discover 18
Figure 3. Evolution of Mobile Advertising 24
Figure 4. VoLTE Commitments and Deployments, GSA May 2013 59
Figure 5. Legacy Services, RCS-e, and RCS5 62
Figure 6. OTT Service Providers vs. Mobile Operators 68
Figure 7: Dynamic Address Book (DAM) 135
Figure 8: Wireless Network Infrastructure RAN Vendor Ranking Matrix 2012 144
Figure 9: Core Network Vendor Ranking Matrix 2012 145
Figure 10: 4G Handset Technical Issues 150
Figure 11: LTE E-UTRAN Infrastructure Network Elements 160
Figure 12: LTE EPC Infrastructure Network Elements 165
Figure 13: Understanding LTE Network Elements and Channels 170
Figure 14: IMS Planes 175
Figure 15: IMS Model 176
Figure 16: Service Centralized and Continuity Application Server 177

List of Tables

Table 1. Global Value of All LTE VAS, $US Millions, 2013- 2018 8
Table 2. LTE in 2013 12
Table 3. LTE Subscriptions, by Region, Subscriptions Millions, 2013-2018 14
Table 4. Formal Status of LTE Release 10, 11, and 12 15
Table 5. Mobile Subscriptions by 2G/3G and LTE, Subscriptions Millions, 2013-2018 21
Table 6. Mobile Data Consumption per Mobile Subscription, by 2G/3G and LTE, Subscriptions Millions, PB, 2013-2018 22
Table 7. Estimate Revenues Made by Mobile Operators. From Data Usage Plans, % of Which Comes From LTE, $US Millions, 2013-2018 23
Table 8. Mobile Advertising Revenues by Type and by Device, all Mobile, $US Millions, 2013-2018 26
Table 9. Mobile Advertising Revenues Derived from LTE VAS, by Type and by Device, $US Millions, 2013-2018 26
Table 10. Size of Mobile Apps Market (less Embedded Advertising), Revenues from LTE, $US Millions, 2013-2018 28
Table 11. Financial Milestones in Social Media 29
Table 12. Metrics, Tendencies, and Nuances in Mobile Social Networking 30
Table 13. Estimated LTE VAS Revenues from Social Networking Sites (Memberships and Ad Revenues), $US Millions, 2013-2018 32
Table 14. Value of Mobile Coupon Redemptions, LTE, $US Millions, 2013-2018 34
Table 15. Value of Mobile Coupons, Loyalty-Based, and Venue Based Services, All Mobile and LTE, $US Millions, 2013-2018 34
Table 16. Acquisitions of Location-Based Services Companies or Technical Collaborations 36
Table 17. Global Market Size of Location-Based Services (LBS) and Ad Revenues from LBS, $US Millions, 2013-2018 36
Table 18. LTE Global Market Size of Location-Based Services (LBS) and Ad Revenues from LBS, $US Millions, 2013-2018 37
Table 19. Revenues from Global Gaming Apps Market and From Ads from the Mobile Gaming Market, $US Millions, 2013-2018 37
Table 20. Revenues from Global LTE Gaming Apps Market, LTE Mobile Ads, and LTE Gaming Subscription Services, $US Millions, 2013-2018 38
Table 21. Approximate Value of LTE Data for Video, Web Browsing and Internet, and used to Play Mobile Games, $US Millions, 2013- 2018 38
Table 22. Revenues from Mobile Virtual Goods and from LTE Virtual Goods, US$ Millions, 2013-2018 39
Table 23. Revenues from Multiscreen, Streaming TV Services and Pay TV, VOD, Revenues from LTE, $US Millions, 2013-2018 41
Table 24. Revenues from Mobile Health Services, Revenues from LTE, $US Millions, 2013-2018 42
Table 25. Revenues from Music Subscriptions Services, Songs Downloads, Music Videos, Ringtones, and Ring-backs, Revenues from LTE, $US Millions, 2013-2018 43
Table 26. M2M Cellular Connections and Revenues, LTE Connections and Revenues, Subs Millions, $US Millions, 2013-2018 44
Table 27. Connected Automobile and Revenues from Automotive VAS, Connections that are LTE and Revenues, $US Millions, 2013-2018 45
Table 28. Points of Interest about the US Public Safety Including FirstNet 45
Table 29. Revenues from LTE Public Safety, $US Millions, 2013-2018 47
Table 30. Revenues Derived by Mobile Operators from LTE Texting (Discrete Service), $US Millions, 2013-2018 47
Table 31. Global Ad Revenues from Small Cells, US$ Millions, 2013-2018 48
Table 32. Revenues from Miscellaneous LTE VAS, $US Millions, 2013-2018 49
Table 33. LTE Value-added Services, Type of Service, $US Millions, 2013-2018 50
Table 34. Major OTT Communication Service Providers 66
Table 35. RCS/joyn® Subscribers, LTE Subs, by Region, Subs Millions, 2013-2018 69
Table 36. RCS/joyn® Subscriber Revenues, Revenues from LTE, by Region, $US Millions, 2013-2018 70
Table 37. RCS/joyn® Mobile Ad Revenues, Revenues from LTE, by Region, $US Millions, 2013-2018 71
Table 38. Asia Pacific VoLTE Subscribers, VoLTE Revenue and VoLTE POP, Revenues US$Millions, Subscribers and POP in Thousands, 2013-2018 83
Table 39. Brazil Mobile Subscriptions (as of May 2013), Subscriptions in Millions, % of Overall Market 85
Table 40. CALA VoLTE Subscribers, VoLTE Revenue and VoLTE POP, Revenues US$Millions, Subscribers and POP in Thousands, 2013-2018 89
Table 41. Local Eastern European Mobile Operators Owned by pan-European Operators, Subscribers in Millions, Ownership by Operator 90
Table 42. Eastern Europe VoLTE Subscribers, VoLTE Revenue and VoLTE POP, Revenues US$Millions, Subscribers and POP in Thousands, 2013-2018 96
Table 43. Middle East and Africa VoLTE Subscribers, VoLTE Revenue and VoLTE POP, Revenues US$Millions, Subscribers and POP in Thousands, 2013-2018 101
Table 44. Long-term Objectives of Sprint Network Vision 107
Table 45. North America VoLTE Subscribers, VoLTE Revenue and VoLTE POP, Revenues US$Millions, Subscribers and POP in Thousands, 2013-2018 112
Table 46. European Countries where pan-European Carriers have National Markets 113
Table 47. Vodafone LTE and RCS/joyn® Presence in Europe 114
Table 48. Western Europe VoLTE Subscribers, VoLTE Revenue and VoLTE POP, Revenues US$Millions, Subscribers and POP in Thousands, 2013-2018 123
Table 49. Global VoLTE Subscribers, VoLTE Revenue and VoLTE POP, Revenues US$Millions, Subscribers and POP in Thousands, 2013-2018 124

Voice over LTE (VoLTE) Market Opportunities and Forecast 2013 – 2018

1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 9
2.0 CURRENT STATUS, OUTLOOK, AND FORECASTS FOR MOBILE DATA 10
2.1 LTE 2013 STATUS UPDATE 10
2.1.1 STRUCTURAL ISSUES 12
2.1.2 STANDARDIZATION: LTE RELEASE 11 AND THE ROADMAP BEYOND 12
2.2 MOBILE DATA SUBSCRIPTIONS AND MOBILE DATA USAGE 14
2.3 LTE SUBSCRIPTIONS 16
2.4 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY 17
2.5 GLOBAL MOBILE DATA REVENUE: OVERALL AND LTE SHARE 18
3.0 VOICE OVER LTE (VOLTE) 19
3.1 VOLTE OPERATION 19
3.1.1 VOLTE, RCS, AND IMS 19
3.1.2 ALTERNATIVES TO VOLTE 20
3.2 VOLTE CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR MOBILE OPERATORS 21
3.2.1 MANAGEMENT OF MACRO SPECTRUM 21
3.2.2 GREATER EFFICIENCY OF MICRO SPECTRUM 21
3.2.3 IMPROVED QOS 21
3.2.4 LESS HARDWARE AND COTS EQUIPMENT 22
3.2.5 ROAMING WILL BE DRAMATICALLY EASIER 22
3.2.6 LESS EXPENSIVE PER BIT BACKHAUL 22
3.2.7 COMPARABLE DEVICE PERFORM BETTER ON LTE THAN ON 3G NETWORKS 22
3.3 FACTORS THAT COULD SLOW THE GROWTH OF VOLTE 23
3.3.1 SPECTRUM ISSUES INCLUDING THE LACK OF GLOBALLY HARMONIZED SPECTRUM 23
3.3.2 LACK OF SPECTRUM COHERENCY IN THE UNITED STATES 24
3.3.3 DEVICE MANUFACTURERS ARE RETICENT TO SUPPORT VOLTE 25
3.3.4 TECHNICAL CHALLENGES IN THE NETWORK 25
3.3.5 RELAXED RULES ON NETWORK SHARING IN THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION 26
3.3.6 THE GLOBAL RECESSION CONTINUES 27
3.4 THE STATUS OF CURRENT VOLTE MOBILE OPERATORS 27
4.0 VOLTE OUTLOOK BY INDUSTRY VERTICALS 29
4.1.1 OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY 29
4.1.2 CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY 29
4.1.3 AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY 30
4.1.4 MINING AND EXTRACTION INDUSTRY 30
4.1.5 UTILITIES AND SMARTGRID 31
4.1.6 TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRY 31
4.1.7 MILITARY/DEFENSE 32
4.1.8 PUBLIC SAFETY 33
4.1.9 EDUCATION AND DISTANCE LEARNING 34
4.1.10 HEALTHCARE INDUSTRY 34
5.0 GLOBAL VOLTE OUTLOOK AND FORECASTS BY REGION 35
5.1 ASIA PACIFIC 36
5.1.1 AUSTRALIA 37
5.1.2 CHINA 38
5.1.3 HONG KONG 39
5.1.4 INDIA 40
5.1.5 JAPAN 41
5.1.6 SOUTH KOREA 43
5.1.7 REST OF ASIA PACIFIC 44
5.1.8 FORECAST ASIA PACIFIC VOLTE 45
5.2 CALA 46
5.2.1 ARGENTINA 47
5.2.2 BRAZIL 48
5.2.3 CHILE 49
5.2.4 COLOMBIA 50
5.2.5 MEXICO 50
5.2.6 PUERTO RICO 51
5.2.7 REST OF CALA 52
5.2.8 FORECAST CALA VOLTE 52
5.3 EASTERN EUROPE 53
5.3.1 HUNGARY 54
5.3.2 POLAND 55
5.3.3 ROMANIA 55
5.3.4 RUSSIA 56
5.3.5 REST OF EASTERN EUROPE 58
5.3.6 FORECAST EASTERN EUROPE VOLTE 59
5.4 MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 59
5.4.1 CONTINENTAL AFRICA 60
5.4.2 SAUDI ARABIA 60
5.4.3 SOUTH AFRICA 62
5.4.4 REST OF MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 63
5.4.5 FORECAST MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA VOLTE 64
5.5 NORTH AMERICA 64
5.5.1 TIMELINE OF ACTIVITIES IN THE NORTH AMERICAN MARKET 65
5.5.2 AT&T 67
5.5.3 BELL MOBILITY 68
5.5.4 CLEARWIRE 69
5.5.5 ROGERS WIRELESS 70
5.5.6 SPRINT 70
5.5.7 TELUS MOBILITY 71
5.5.8 T-MOBILE/METROPCS 72
5.5.9 VERIZON WIRELESS 73
5.5.10 REST OF REGION NORTH AMERICA 74
5.5.11 FORECAST NORTH AMERICA VOLTE 75
5.6 WESTERN EUROPE 75
5.6.1 STRATEGIES OF THE PAN-EUROPEAN MOBILE CARRIERS 76
5.6.2 FRANCE 79
5.6.3 GERMANY 80
5.6.4 ITALY 81
5.6.5 SPAIN 82
5.6.6 SWEDEN 83
5.6.7 UNITED KINGDOM 83
5.6.8 REST OF WESTERN EUROPE 84
5.6.9 FORECAST WESTERN EUROPE VOLTE 86
5.7 ROLL-UP FORECAST GLOBAL VOLTE 87
6.0 VENDOR ANALYSIS 88
6.1 EMPIRIX 88
6.2 OPENCLOUD 89
6.3 OPENMIND NETWORKS 91
6.4 SAMSUNG 92
6.5 TROPO 93
7.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 96
8.0 APPENDICES 97
8.1 LTE TECHNOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE 97
8.1.1 LTE TECHNOLOGY 97
8.1.2 LTE ADVANCED 100
8.1.3 LTE INFRASTRUCTURE ELEMENTS AND ARCHITECTURE 101
8.2 LTE ARCHITECTURE DETAILS 110
8.2.1 SERVICE ARCHITECTURE 111
8.2.2 LAYER 2 OF LTE 112
8.2.3 DOWNLINK LOGICAL 113
8.2.4 UPLINK LOGICAL 114
8.2.5 MOBILITY ACROSS ENBS 115
8.3 IP MULTIMEDIA SUBSYSTEM (IMS 116
8.3.1 IMS PLANES 116
8.3.2 IMS NETWORK ELEMENTS 117
8.4 SERVICE CENTRALIZED AND CONTINUITY APPLICATION SERVER (SCC) 119

List of Figures

Figure 1: Market Share by Wireless Technology 17
Figure 2: VoLTE Commitments and Deployments, GSA May 2013 28
Figure 3: Public Safety LTE Network 33
Figure 4: LTE E-UTRAN Infrastructure Network Elements 102
Figure 5: LTE EPC Infrastructure Network Elements 107
Figure 6: Understanding LTE Network Elements and Channels 112
Figure 7: IMS Planes 117
Figure 8: IMS Model 118
Figure 9: Service Centralized and Continuity Application Server 119

List of Tables

Table 1: LTE in 2013 11
Table 2: Formal Status of LTE Release 10, 11, and 12 13
Table 3: Mobile Data Subscriber Forecast 2G/3G and LTE (M) 2013-2018 15
Table 4: Mobile Data Usage per Subscriber for 2G/3G and LTE (M) 2013-2018 15
Table 5: LTE Subscriptions, by Region, Subscriptions Millions, 2013-2018 17
Table 6: Global Mobile Operator Revenue from Data ($M) and % of LTE 2013-2018 18
Table 7: Asia Pacific VoLTE Subscribers, VoLTE Revenue and VoLTE POP, Revenues (US$ M) Subscribers and POP in Thousands, 2013-2018 46
Table 8: Brazil Mobile Subscriptions (as of May 2013), Subscriptions in Millions, % of Overall Market 48
Table 9: CALA VoLTE Subscribers, VoLTE Revenue and VoLTE POP, Revenues (US$ M) Subscribers and POP in Thousands, 2013-2018 53
Table 10: Local Eastern European Mobile Operators Owned by pan-European Operators, Subscribers in Millions, Ownership by Operator 53
Table 11: Eastern Europe VoLTE Subscribers, VoLTE Revenue and VoLTE POP, Revenues (US$ M) Subscribers and POP in Thousands, 2013-2018 59
Table 12: Middle East and Africa VoLTE Subscribers, VoLTE Revenue and VoLTE POP, Revenues (US$ M) Subscribers and POP in Thousands, 2013-2018 64
Table 13: Long-term Objectives of Sprint Network Vision 70
Table 14: North America VoLTE Subscribers, VoLTE Revenue and VoLTE POP, Revenues (US$ M) Subscribers and POP in Thousands, 2013-2018 75
Table 15: European Countries where pan-European Carriers have National Markets 76
Table 16: Vodafone LTE and RCS/joyn® Presence in Europe 77
Table 17: Western Europe VoLTE Subscribers, VoLTE Revenue and VoLTE POP, Revenues (US$ M) Subscribers and POP in Thousands, 2013-2018 86
Table 18: Global VoLTE Subscribers, VoLTE Revenue and VoLTE POP, Revenues US$Millions, Subscribers and POP in Thousands, 2013-2018 87

Carrier WiFi and Small Cells in LTE & Beyond: Market Opportunities and Forecasts 2013 – 2018

1 Chapter 1: Introduction 10
1.1 Executive Summary 10
1.2 Topics Covered 11
1.3 Key Findings 12
1.4 Key Questions Answered 13
1.5 Target Audience 14
1.6 Companies Mentioned 15
2 Chapter 2: An Overview of Carrier WiFi and Small Cell Technology 20
2.1 The Evolution Towards Heterogeneous Networks 20
2.2 What is Carrier WiFi 22
2.2.1 Open Access vs. Mobile Data Offload Carrier WiFi 22
2.2.2 Convergence with Small Cell Solutions 24
2.3 What are Small Cells 25
2.3.1 Femtocells 26
2.3.2 Picocells 27
2.3.3 Microcells 27
2.3.4 Metrocells 27
2.4 Towards a Convergent Small Cell Architecture 28
2.5 Small Cell Deployment Scenarios 29
2.5.1 Home/Residential Deployments: 29
2.5.2 Enterprise Deployments: 29
2.5.3 Metro and Public Space Deployments: 30
2.5.4 Rural Deployments: 30
2.6 Carrier WiFi and Small Cell Standardization Initiatives 31
2.6.1 The Small Cell Forum 31
2.6.2 Hotspot 2.0 Task Group 33
2.6.3 Next Generation Hotspot 35
3 Chapter 3: The Business Case for the Carrier WiFi and Small Cells Market 36
3.1 Key Market Drivers 36
3.1.1 The Increasing Demand for Mobile Broadband 36
3.1.2 CapEX and OpEX Reduction 37
3.1.3 Higher Throughput per Cell 38
3.1.4 Energy Savings: Towards a Greener Network Environment 38
3.2 Market Barriers & Challenges 39
3.2.1 Coverage and Performance Uncertainty 39
3.2.2 Security Considerations 39
3.2.3 Interference Management 40
3.2.4 Mobility Management 40
3.2.5 Self Organisation 41
3.2.6 Backhaul Challenges 41
3.2.7 Alternative Solutions 42
3.3 The Carrier WiFi and Small Cells Value Chain 44
3.4 The Carrier WiFi and Small Cell Industry Roadmap 2013 - 2018 46
3.4.1 2010 – 2012: Commercialization of Femtocells 46
3.4.2 2013 – 2014: Managed WiFi Data Offloading 47
3.4.3 2015 – 2018: The HetNets Era – Large Scale Integration of Macrocells, Cloud RAN Small Cells and Carrier WiFi 47
3.5 Carrier WiFi and Small Cells in LTE & Beyond: Key Trends 48
3.5.1 Integration of DAS 48
3.5.2 Small Cells as a Service (SCaaS) and Femtocells as a Service (FaaS) 49
3.5.3 Self Organizing Networks (SON) 50
3.5.4 Cloud RAN and its Impact on the Small Cell Industry 51
3.5.5 Proliferation of WiFi Technology in Small Cells 52
4 Chapter 4: Major Carrier WiFi and Small Cell Deployments 53
4.1 AT&T Mobility 58
4.2 Eircom 58
4.3 KDDI 59
4.4 Korea Telecom 61
4.5 SK Telecom 61
4.6 Optus Australia 62
4.7 SFR France 62
4.8 Sprint 63
4.9 Reliance Communications 64
4.10 Softbank Japan 64
4.11 Telefonica O2 UK 65
4.12 T-Mobile 65
4.13 Tim Brasil 66
4.14 U.S Cellular 67
4.15 Verizon Wireless 67
4.16 Vodafone 67
4.17 Zain Bahrain 68
4.18 Zain Saudi Arabia 68
5 Chapter 5: Vendor Landscape 69
5.1 Vendor Ranking Matrix 69
5.2 Vendor Product Portfolio and Strategy 73
5.2.1 ADTRAN 73
5.2.2 Argela 74
5.2.3 Airvana 75
5.2.4 Aptilo Networks 75
5.2.5 Aruba Networks 76
5.2.6 Alcatel-Lucent 77
5.2.7 Cisco 78
5.2.8 Contela 79
5.2.9 Devicescape 80
5.2.10 Ericsson 81
5.2.11 Huawei 82
5.2.12 Ip.access 83
5.2.13 Juniper Networks 84
5.2.14 Kineto Wireless 85
5.2.15 Motorola Solutions 86
5.2.16 NEC 87
5.2.17 Nokia Siemens Networks 88
5.2.18 Ruckus Wireless 89
5.2.19 Samsung 90
5.2.20 Ubee-AirWalk 91
5.2.21 Ubiquisys 92
6 Chapter 6: Market Analysis & Forecasts 93
6.1 The Global Carrier WiFi Market: 2013 - 2018 93
6.1.1 Global Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments and Revenue: 2013 - 2018 93
6.1.2 Global Carrier WiFi Access Point and Controller Unit Shipments: 2013 - 2018 95
6.1.3 WiFi Offload vs. Standard WiFi Access Points: 2013 - 2018 97
6.1.4 Regional Outlook of the Market: 2013 - 2018 101
6.2 Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments and Revenues by Region: 2013 - 2018 103
6.2.1 Asia Pacific 103
6.2.2 Eastern Europe 105
6.2.3 Latin & Central America 107
6.2.4 Middle East & Africa 109
6.2.5 North America 111
6.2.6 Western Europe 113
6.3 The Global Small Cell Market: 2013 - 2018 115
6.3.1 Global Small Cell Unit Shipments and Revenue: 2013 - 2018 115
6.3.2 Global Small Cell Unit Shipments and Revenue by Cell Type: 2013 - 2018 117
6.3.3 Global Femtocell Unit Shipments and Revenue: 2013 - 2018 119
6.3.4 Global Picocell Unit Shipments and Revenue: 2013 - 2018 120
6.3.5 Global Microcell Unit Shipments and Revenue: 2013 - 2018 121
6.3.6 Global Small Cell Unit Shipments and Revenue by Technology: 2013 - 2018 122
6.3.7 Regional Outlook of the Market: 2013 - 2018 124
6.4 Small Cell Unit Shipments and Revenues by Region: 2013 - 2018 126
6.4.1 Asia Pacific 126
6.4.2 Eastern Europe 128
6.4.3 Latin & Central America 130
6.4.4 Middle East & Africa 132
6.4.5 North America 134
6.4.6 Western Europe 136

List of Tables

Table 1: Carrier WiFi Vendor Ranking Matrix 2013 70
Table 2: Small Cells Vendor Ranking Matrix 2013 72

List of Figures

Figure 1: The HetNets Concept 21
Figure 2: Mobile Data Offloading via WiFi within a Carrier Network 23
Figure 3: Illustration of Small Cell Deployments within a Carrier Network 25
Figure 4: Small Cell Deployments in Home, Enterprise, Urban and Rural Scenarios 28
Figure 5: Small Cell Forum’s Scope of Work 33
Figure 6: The Carrier WiFi and Small Cells Value Chain 44
Figure 7: The Carrier WiFi and Small Cells Industry Roadmap: 2013 - 2018 46
Figure 8: The Self Organizing Networks (SON) Concept 50
Figure 9: KDDI’s 3M Strategy Vision 60
Figure 10: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments: 2013 – 2018 (Thousands of Units) 93
Figure 11: Carrier WiFi Revenues: 2013 – 2018 (USD Millions) 94
Figure 12: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments by Category: 2013 – 2018 (Thousands of Units) 95
Figure 13: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenues by Category: 2013 – 2018 (USD Millions) 96
Figure 14: WiFi Offload vs. Standard WiFi Access Point Unit Shipments: 2013 – 2018 (Thousands of Units) 97
Figure 15: Carrier WiFi Offload Access Point Unit Shipments: 2013 – 2018 (Thousands of Units) 98
Figure 16: Standard Carrier WiFi Access Point Unit Shipments: 2013 – 2018 (Thousands of Units) 98
Figure 17: WiFi Offload vs. Standard WiFi Access Point Unit Shipment Revenues: 2013 – 2018 (USD Millions) 99
Figure 18: Carrier WiFi Offload Access Point Unit Shipment Revenues: 2013 – 2018 (USD Millions) 100
Figure 19: Standard Carrier WiFi Access Point Unit Shipment Revenues: 2013 – 2018 (USD Millions) 100
Figure 20: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments by Region: 2013 – 2018 (Thousands of Units) 101
Figure 21: Carrier WiFi Revenues by Region: 2013 - 2018 (USD Millions) 102
Figure 22: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Asia Pacific: 2013 - 2018 (Thousands of Units) 103
Figure 23: Carrier WiFi Revenues in Asia Pacific: 2013 - 2018 (USD Millions) 104
Figure 24: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Eastern Europe: 2013 - 2018 (Thousands of Units) 105
Figure 25: Carrier WiFi Revenues in Eastern Europe: 2013 - 2018 (USD Millions) 106
Figure 26: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Latin & Central America: 2013 - 2018 (Thousands of Units) 107
Figure 27: Carrier WiFi Revenues in Latin & Central America: 2013 - 2018 (USD Millions) 108
Figure 28: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Middle East & Africa: 2013 - 2018 (Thousands of Units) 109
Figure 29: Carrier WiFi Revenues in Middle East & Africa: 2013 - 2018 (USD Millions) 110
Figure 30: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in North America: 2013 - 2018 (Thousands of Units) 111
Figure 31: Carrier WiFi Revenues in North America: 2013 - 2018 (USD Millions) 112
Figure 32: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Western Europe: 2013 - 2018 (Thousands of Units) 113
Figure 33: Carrier WiFi Revenues in Western Europe: 2013 - 2018 (USD Millions) 114
Figure 34: Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2013 - 2018 (Thousands of Units) 115
Figure 35: Small Cell Revenues: 2013 - 2018 (USD Millions) 116
Figure 36: Small Cell Unit Shipments by Cell Type: 2013 - 2018 (Thousands of Units) 117
Figure 37: Small Cell Revenues by Cell Type: 2013 - 2018 (USD Millions) 118
Figure 38: Femtocell Unit Shipments: 2013 - 2018 (Thousands of Units) 119
Figure 39: Femtocell Revenues: 2013 - 2018 (USD Millions) 119
Figure 40: Picocell Unit Shipments: 2013 - 2018 (Thousands of Units) 120
Figure 41: Picocell Revenues: 2013 - 2018 (USD Millions) 120
Figure 42: Microcell Unit Shipments: 2013 - 2018 (Thousands of Units) 121
Figure 43: Microcell Revenues: 2013 - 2018 (USD Millions) 121
Figure 44: Small Cell Unit Shipments by Technology: 2013 - 2018 (Thousands of Units) 122
Figure 45: Small Cell Revenues by Technology: 2013 - 2018 (USD Millions) 123
Figure 46: Small Cell Unit Shipments by Region: 2013 - 2018 (Thousands of Units) 124
Figure 47: Small Cell Revenues by Region: 2013 - 2018 (USD Millions) 125
Figure 48: Small Cell Unit Shipments in Asia Pacific: 2013 - 2018 (Thousands of Units) 126
Figure 49: Small Cell Revenues in Asia Pacific: 2013 - 2018 (USD Millions) 127
Figure 50: Small Cell Unit Shipments in Eastern Europe: 2013 - 2018 (Thousands of Units) 128
Figure 51: Small Cell Revenues in Eastern Europe: 2013 - 2018 (USD Millions) 129
Figure 52: Small Cell Unit Shipments in Latin & Central America: 2013 - 2018 (Thousands of Units) 130
Figure 53: Small Cell Revenues in Latin & Central America: 2013 - 2018 (USD Millions) 131
Figure 54: Small Cell Unit Shipments in Middle East & Africa: 2013 - 2018 (Thousands of Units) 132
Figure 55: Small Cell Revenues in Middle East & Africa: 2013 - 2018 (USD Millions) 133
Figure 56: Small Cell Unit Shipments in North America: 2013 - 2018 (Thousands of Units) 134
Figure 57: Small Cell Revenues in North America: 2013 - 2018 (USD Millions) 135
Figure 58: Small Cell Unit Shipments in Western Europe: 2013 - 2018 (Thousands of Units) 136
Figure 59: Small Cell Revenues in Western Europe: 2013 - 2018 (USD Millions) 137

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