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Drugs of Abuse Testing Markets - Product Image

Drugs of Abuse Testing Markets

  • ID: 1843685
  • November 2013
  • Region: Global
  • 344 Pages
  • TriMark Publications

FEATURED COMPANIES

  • Abbott Laboratories
  • Beckman Coulter, Inc
  • CanAg Diagnostics
  • Eiken Chemical
  • Kyowa Medex
  • Siemens AG
  • MORE

This report describes the specific segment of the in vitro diagnostics (IVD) market known as drugs of abuse testing. In the current medical diagnostics market, drugs of abuse testing offers promise for significant growth and innovation.

Examined in this study are assays for alcohol, cannabinoids, cocaine, amphetamines, opiates and phencyclidine, as well as assays for addictive prescription drugs such as OxyContin. Moreover, special attention is paid to Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration (SAMHSA) requirements, which aims to prevent substance abuse in the U.S. and so requires that certain corporations comply with anti-drug policies and testing.

This review covers the leading market players, the competitive landscape, and the promising pipeline products in the drugs of abuse testing markets. Specifically, areas examined in this study include: available and developing technologies in the field, the U.S. and global market size for drugs of abuse tests, and the profiles of companies that are focusing on the drugs of abuse testing market. Detailed charts with sales forecasts and market share data for the U.S. and global drugs of abuse testing markets are included.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

FEATURED COMPANIES

  • Abbott Laboratories
  • Beckman Coulter, Inc
  • CanAg Diagnostics
  • Eiken Chemical
  • Kyowa Medex
  • Siemens AG
  • MORE

1. Overview
1.1 Statement of Report
1.2 About This Report
1.3 Scope of the Report
1.4 Objectives
1.5 Methodology
1.6 Executive Summary

2. Introduction to Drugs of Abuse Testing
2.1 Drugs of Abuse Overview
2.2 Initiation of Illicit Drug Use
2.3 Major Drugs of Abuse
2.3.1 Amphetamines
2.3.2 Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs)
2.3.3 Barbiturates
2.3.4 Benzodiazepines
2.3.5 Cannabinoids/Marijuana
2.3.6 Cocaine
2.3.7 Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)
2.3.8 Methadone
2.3.9 Methaqualone and Phencyclidine (PCP)
2.3.10 Opiates—Heroin and OxyContin
2.4 Alcohol Testing
2.5 Test Methodologies
2.6 Drug Panels by Toxidromes
2.7 Drugs of Abuse Home Use Test

3. Drugs of Abuse Testing Markets
3.1 IVD Global Clinical Diagnostic Testing Market
3.2 Drugs of Abuse Testing Market Analysis
3.2.1 Main Players in the Industry
3.2.1.1 Roche Diagnostics Market Analysis
3.2.1.2 Abbott Laboratories Market Analysis
3.2.1.3 Siemens Market Analysis
3.2.1.4 Thermo Fisher Market Analysis
3.2.1.5 Beckman Coulter Market Analysis
3.2.1.6 OraSure Market Analysis
3.2.1.7 Inverness Medical Innovations Market Analysis
3.3 Diagnostic Testing in the Future

4. Market Size and Analysis for Drugs of Abuse Testing
4.1 Global Drugs of Abuse Testing Analysis
4.2 U.S. Drugs of Abuse Testing Analysis
4.3 European Union Drugs of Abuse Testing Analysis
4.4 Rest of World Drugs of Abuse Testing Analysis
4.4.1 Global Drivers of Drugs of Abuse Testing
4.4.2 Global Outlook
4.4.3 U.S. Market
4.4.4 European Market
4.5 Market Drivers
4.6 Market Restraints
4.7 Market and Technology Trends
4.7.1 Market Trends
4.7.2 Technology Trends
4.8 Strategic Recommendations

5. Specific Market Sectors for Drugs of Abuse Testing
5.1 Workplace Drugs of Abuse Laboratory Testing Methods
5.1.1 Introduction
5.1.2 Major U.S. Companies that Drug Test Employees
5.1.3 Drugs of Abuse Testing—A Recovering Market
5.1.4 Rising Pre-Employment Testing
5.1.5 A Growth in Alternative Specimen and Instant Drugs of Abuse Testing
5.2 Prescription Drugs of Abuse Market
5.2.1 Prescription Drugs and the Pain Market
5.2.2 Economic Burden of Prescription Opioid Misuse and Abuse
5.2.3 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Clampdown on Prescription Drug Misuse
5.2.4 Narcotic Analgesic Prescription Trends
5.3 Human Sports Drugs of Abuse Testing Markets
5.3.1 Introduction to the Market
5.3.2 Internationally Accredited Anti-Doping Laboratories
5.3.3 World Anti-Doping Agency Statistics
5.3.4 Anti-Doping International Investment Promotes Test Market
5.3.5 World Anti-Doping Agency Scientific Research Program
5.3.6 Out-of-Competition Testing Promotes Market
5.3.7 Use of Drugs of Abuse International Markets

6. Company Specific Instrumentation and Test Kit Review
6.1 Biosite Diagnostics (Inverness, now called Alere)
6.2 Abbott Diagnostics
6.3 Roche Diagnostics
6.4 BioScan Screening Systems, Inc.
6.5 American Bio Medica Corp.
6.6 Phamatech, Inc.
6.7 First Check Medical Corp.
6.8 OraSure
6.9 Avitar, Inc.
6.10 Concateno
6.11 Pathtech
6.12 Alfa Scientific Designs, Inc.
6.13 TCPI, Inc.
6.14 Roche
6.15 Biophor Diagnostics
6.16 Alpha Scientific Designs
6.17 Princeton BioMeditech, Inc.
6.18 American BioMedica
6.19 Beckman Coulter
6.20 Bio-Rad
6.21 Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics
6.22 Thermo Fisher Scientific
6.23 Agilent Technologies
6.24 Randox
6.25 Awareness Technology
6.26 Carolina Chemistries
6.27 Horiba Medical
6.28 Ortho Clinical Diagnostics—Johnson & Johnson
6.29 Medica Corporation, Inc.
6.30 Tecan

7. In Vitro Diagnostic Technologies and Potential Applications
7.1 Performance Characteristics Required for Implementation of FDA-Approved/Cleared Tests
7.2 Immunoassays
7.3 Technology Principle
7.4 Enzyme Immunoassays
7.4.1 Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA)
7.4.2 Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique (EMIT)
7.4.3 Cloned Enzyme Donor Immunoassay (CEDIA)
7.4.4 Radio Immunoassay (RIA)
7.4.5 Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay (FPIA)
7.4.6 Lateral Flow Immunoassays
7.5 Future Trends of Immunoassays
7.6 Latex Agglutination
7.7 Immunoprecipitation (IP)
7.8 Flow-Injection Liposome Immunoanalysis (FIIA)
7.9 Clinical Immunoanalyzer Instrument Market by Sector
7.9.1 Market Analysis: Size, Growth, Share and Competitors
7.9.1.1 Large- and Mid-Volume Immunochemistry Analyzers
7.9.1.2 Abbott Diagnostics
7.9.1.3 Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics
7.9.1.4 Beckman Coulter, Inc.
7.9.1.5 Dade Behring (Acquired by Siemens)
7.9.1.6 Diagnostics Products Corporation (Acquired by Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics)
7.9.1.7 Olympus America, Inc. (now Beckman Coulter)
7.9.1.8 Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics
7.9.1.9 Roche Diagnostics Corp.
7.9.1.10 Tosoh Bioscience, Inc.
7.9.1.11 Batch-type Immunoassay Analyzers
7.9.1.12 Bio-Rad
7.9.1.13 Diamedix Corporation
7.9.1.14 Tosoh
7.9.2 Small- to Mid-Volume Immunoassay Analyzers
7.9.2.1 Awareness Technology, Inc.
7.9.2.2 Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Inc.
7.9.2.3 Beckman Coulter, Inc.
7.9.2.4 bioMérieux SA
7.9.2.5 Dade Behring (Acquired by Siemens)
7.9.2.6 Randox Laboratories Ltd.
7.9.2.7 Tosoh Corporation
7.9.3 Other Immunoassay Analyzers
7.9.3.1 Inverness Medical Professional Diagnostics
7.9.3.2 Hycor Biomedical (A Part of Agilent Technologies)
7.9.3.3 Phadia AB
7.9.3.4 Trinity Biotech Plc
7.9.3.5 DiaSorin
7.9.3.6 Grifols U.S.A., Inc.
7.9.3.7 Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc.
7.9.3.8 SFRI Diagnostics
7.9.3.9 Qualigen, Inc.
7.9.3.10 PerkinElmer, Inc.
7.9.3.11 Innotrac Diagnostics Oy
7.9.3.12 Tecan Group Ltd.

8. Business Analysis of Drugs of Abuse Testing Market
8.1 Ultra-large Clinical Chemistry Analyzers
8.1.1 Beckman Coulter
8.1.2 Roche Diagnostics
8.1.3 Siemens Medical Solutions
8.1.4 Ortho Clinical Diagnostics
8.1.5 Abbott Diagnostics
8.1.6 Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics
8.1.7 JEOL Ltd.
8.1.8 Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics
8.2 Mid-Size Clinical Chemistry Analyzers
8.2.1 Abbott
8.2.2 Beckman Coulter, Inc.
8.2.3 Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, Inc.
8.2.4 Roche Diagnostics Corporation
8.2.5 Randox Laboratories
8.2.6 Siemens
8.2.7 Nova Biomedical Corporation
8.2.8 Clinical Data, Inc.
8.2.9 Polymedco, Inc.
8.2.10 Hitachi America Ltd.
8.2.11 Shimadzu Corp.
8.2.12 Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.
8.2.13 Carolina Liquid Chemistries
8.3 Small Volume Chemistry Analyzers
8.3.1 Clinical Data, Inc.
8.3.2 Nova Biomedical Corporation
8.3.3 Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics
8.3.4 BPC BioSed srl
8.3.5 Abbott Laboratories
8.3.6 Roche Diagnostics
8.3.7 Beckman Coulter
8.3.8 Vital Diagnostics
8.3.9 Nova Biomedical
8.3.10 Alfa Wassermann
8.3.11 Hitachi
8.3.12 Randox Laboratories
8.3.13 Abaxis
8.3.14 Siemens
8.3.15 Awareness Technology
8.3.16 Adaltis
8.3.17 Polymedco
8.3.18 Thermo Scientific
8.4 Advance of Technology Trends
8.4.1 Advancement of Genomics and the Pharmacogenetics of Drug Addiction
8.4.2 Challenges within Genetic Research of Drug Addiction
8.5 Ultra-Large Clinical Chemistry Analyzer Market Analysis
8.6 High Volume Clinical Chemistry Market
8.7 Mid-Size Clinical Chemistry Analyzers
8.8 Small-Volume Chemical Analyzer Market
8.9 Competitive Analysis

9. SWOT Analysis
9.1 Main Drivers of Drugs of Abuse Testing Market
9.2 Potential Threats and Restraints of the Drugs of Abuse Testing Market
9.3 Challenges of this Market Place Going Forward
9.4 Summary of Market Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats
9.5 Summary of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of Drugs of Abuse Test Market

10. Reimbursement Systems
10.1 Reimbursement for Laboratory Medicine
10.2 Public and Private Sector Payers
10.3 Components of Reimbursement Systems
10.4 Medicare Coverage Decisions
10.5 Medicaid Coverage Decisions
10.6 Private Sector Coverage Decisions
10.7 Payment Methodologies
10.8 Medicare Payment Methodologies
10.9 Prospective Payment Systems for Inpatient and Hospital Outpatient Care
10.10 Using Fee Schedules for Laboratory Tests and Services
10.11 Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule
10.12 Coding System Used for Qualitative Drug Tests

11. Government Regulation
11.1 U.S. Regulation
11.1.1 Medical Devices as Regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
11.1.2 Pre-Market Approval (PMA)
11.1.3 510(k) Clearance
11.1.4 Importing Medical Devices into the U.S.
11.1.5 Exporting Medical Devices from the U.S.
11.2 U.K. Regulation
11.3 E.U. Regulation
11.4 French Regulation
11.5 Japanese Regulation
11.6 Korean Regulation
11.7 Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)
11.8 Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act
11.9 Employer Drug and Alcohol Compliance
11.10 Regulations Governing Drug Abuse Testing
11.10.1 Specimen Collection and Management
11.10.2 Test Operations and Cut-off Values
11.10.3 Quality Control and Quality Assurance
11.10.4 Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process
11.10.5 Confidentiality and Release of Information
11.11 The U.S. Anti-Doping Agency
11.12 Drugs of Abuse Testing in the Criminal Justice System

12. Company Profiles
12.1 Abbott Laboratories
12.2 AdnaGen
12.3 Ambrilia Biopharma
12.4 Radient Pharmaceuticals (Formerly AMDL)
12.5 Beckman Coulter, Inc.
12.6 Biomedical Diagnostics (Belgium)
12.7 bioMérieux
12.8 Bio-Rad Laboratories
12.9 CanAg Diagnostics
12.10 Dako
12.11 DiaSorin
12.12 Eiken Chemical
12.13 Fujirebio
12.14 Instrumentation Laboratory
12.15 Johnson & Johnson
12.16 Kyowa Medex
12.17 Matritech
12.18 Roche
12.19 Siemens AG
12.20 Sysmex
12.21 Thermo Fisher Scientific
12.22 Tosoh
12.23 Trinity Biotech
12.24 Wako
12.25 Wallac

Index of Figures

Figure 2.1: Drug Classification According to Mean Harm Rating
Figure 2.2: Percentage of U.S. 12th Grade Students Reporting Past Month Use of Cigarettes and Marijuana, 1975-2010
Figure 2.3: Percentage of U.S. 12th Grade Students Reporting Daily Marijuana Use Verses Perceived Risk of Regular Marijuana Use, 1975-2010
Figure 2.4: Prevalence of Drug Abuse Occurring in 12th Grade Students, 2010
Figure 2.5: Past Month Illicit Drug Use Among Persons Aged 12 or Older, 2009
Figure 2.6: Past Month Use of Selected Illicit Drugs Among Persons Aged 12 or Older, 2002-2009
Figure 2.7: Past Month Non-Medical Use of Types of Psychotherapeutic Drugs Among Persons Aged 12 or Older, 2002-2009
Figure 2.8: Past Month Illicit Drug Use Among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age, 2008 and 2009
Figure 2.9: Past Month Illicit Drug Use Among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age, 2002-2009
Figure 2.10: Past Month Use of Selected Illicit Drugs Among Youths Aged 12 to 17, 2002-2009
Figure 2.11: Past Month Use of Selected Illicit Drugs Among Young Adults Aged 18 to 25, 2002-2009
Figure 2.12: Past Month Illicit Drug Use Among Adults Aged 50 to 59, 2002-2009
Figure 2.13: Past Month Marijuana Use Among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Gender, 2002-2009
Figure 2.14: Past Month Illicit Drug Use Among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Race/Ethnicity, 2009
Figure 2.15: Past Month Illicit Drug Use Among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Employment Status, 2008 and 2009
Figure 2.16: Past Month Illicit Drug Use Among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by County Type
Figure 2.17: Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use Among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age
Figure 2.18: Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use Among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Race/Ethnicity
Figure 2.19: Heavy Alcohol Use Among Adults Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment, 2002-2009
Figure 2.20: First Specific Drug Associated with Initiation of Illicit Drug Use Among Past Year Illicit Drug Initiates Aged 12 or Older
Figure 2.21: Past Year Initiates of Specific Illicit Drugs Among Persons Aged 12 or Older
Figure 2.22: Mean Age at First Use for Specific Illicit Drugs Among Past Year Initiates Aged 12 to 49
Figure 2.23: Past Year Marijuana Initiates Among Persons Aged 12 or Older and Mean Age at First Use of Marijuana Among Past Year Marijuana Initiates Aged 12 to 49, 2002-2009
Figure 2.24: Past Year Hallucinogen Initiates Among Persons Aged 12 or Older, 2002-2009
Figure 2.25: Past Year Methamphetamine Initiates Among Persons Aged 12 or Older and Mean Age at First Use of Methamphetamine Among Past Year Methamphetamine Initiates Aged 12 to 49, 2002-2009
Figure 2.26: Substance Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year Among Persons Aged 12 or Older, 2002-2009
Figure 2.27: Dependence on or Abuse of Specific Illicit Drugs in the Past Year Among Persons Aged 12 or Older
Figure 2.28: Substance Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year, by Age and Gender
Figure 2.29: Number of Abusers of Marijuana in the U.S., 2007-2009
Figure 2.30: Number of U.S. Abusers of Cocaine, 2006-2009
Figure 2.31: Number of U.S. Abusers of Psychotherapeutic Drugs, 2007-2009
Figure 2.32: Methamphetamine User Prevalence, 2006-2009
Figure 2.33: Chemical Structure of Amphetamine
Figure 2.34: Chemical Structure of Barbituates
Figure 2.35: Chemical Structure of Benzodiazepines
Figure 2.36: Chemical Structure of Cannabinoid/Marijuana
Figure 2.37: Chemical Structure of Cocaine
Figure 2.38: Chemical Structure of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)
Figure 2.39: Chemical Structure of Methadone
Figure 2.40: Chemical Structure of Methaqualone
Figure 2.41: Chemical Structure of Phenylcyclidine
Figure 2.42: Chemical Structure of Heroin
Figure 2.43: Chemical Structure of OxyContin
Figure 3.1: Roche Diagnostics Sales Volume, 2008-2010
Figure 3.2: Roche Diagnostics Core Operating Profit, 2008-2010
Figure 3.3: Roche Diagnostics Sales by Global Region, 2010
Figure 3.4: Abbott Laboratories Global Annual Sales, 2007-2010
Figure 3.5: Abbott Laboratories Operating Cash Flow, 2007-2010
Figure 3.6: Abbott Laboratories Net Sales—Diagnostics Division, 2008-2010
Figure 3.7: Siemens Market Share by Geographic Region, 2010
Figure 3.8: Thermo Fisher Revenue Generated by Geographic Region, 2010
Figure 3.9: Beckman Coulter Revenue by Geographic Region, 2009
Figure 3.10: Beckman Coulter Division of Sales, 2009
Figure 3.11: Revenue Generated by OraSure’s Oral Fluid Collection Devices, 2008-2010
Figure 4.1: Global Revenue of Drugs of Abuse Testing Market Forecast, 2007-2015
Figure 4.2: U.S. Revenue of Drugs of Abuse Testing Market Forecast, 2007-2015
Figure 4.3: E.U. Revenue of Drugs of Abuse Testing Market Forecast, 2007-2015
Figure 4.4: Rest of World Revenue of Drugs of Abuse Testing Market Forecast, 2007-2015
Figure 4.5: Global In-Vitro Diagnostic Market Revenue Forecast, 2010-2016
Figure 5.1: Percentage of U.S. Workforce Testing Positive for Drugs of Abuse, 1988-2010
Figure 5.2: Total U.S. Prescription Market Revenue, 2006-2010
Figure 5.3: Total Spending on Prescription Narcotic Analgesics in the U.S., 2006-2010
Figure 5.4: Total Number of Narcotic Analgesic Prescriptions in the U.S., 2006-2010
Figure 5.5: Number of U.S. Prescriptions for Hydrocodone/Acetaminophen, 2006-2010
Figure 5.6: Number of U.S. Prescriptions for Oxycodone/Acetaminophen, 2006-2010
Figure 5.7: Total OxyContin Sales in the U.S., 2006-2010
Figure 5.8: Total Market Share of Prescription Drugs in the Global Market, 2010
Figure 5.9: Projected Annual Peak Sales of Selected Pain Drugs Including Opioids
Figure 5.10: Comparison of Total Annual Healthcare Cost of U.S. Opioid Abuser and Demographically-matched Comparison Non-Abuser
Figure 5.11: Direct All-Cause U.S. Healthcare Costs Per Person Associated with Opioid Abuse
Figure 5.12: Anti-Doping Organization Activity Summary as Reported by Code Signatory Anti-Doping Organizations
Figure 5.13: World Anti-Doping Agency Positive Statistics for Urine Testing
Figure 5.14: World Anti-Doping Agency Positive Statistics for EPO Testing
Figure 5.15: World Anti-Doping Agency Positive Statistics for Blood Testing
Figure 5.16: International Funds Received by UNESCO for the International Convention Against Doping in Sport Voluntary Fund
Figure 5.17: International Funds Granted By UNESCO for the International Convention Against Doping in Sport Voluntary Fund
Figure 7.1: Principles of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA)
Figure 7.2: Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique (EMIT)
Figure 8.1: U.S. Market Share for Ultra-Large Clinical Chemistry Analyzers
Figure 8.2: Non-U.S. Market Share for Ultra-Large Clinical Chemistry Analyzers
Figure 8.3: Global Sales of Chemical Analyzers from Roche Diagnostics, 2010
Figure 10.1: Fiscal Year 2010 Federal Outlays
Figure 10.2: Rise in the Number of Medicare Beneficiaries, 1966-2010
Figure 10.3: Clinical Laboratory Revenue Payment Breakdown
Figure 10.4: Hospital Insurance Medicare Benefit Payments, 2010
Figure 10.5: Supplementary Medical Insurance Medicare Benefit Payments, 2010
Figure 10.6: Coding Strategy for Qualitative Drug Tests, 2010
Figure 10.7: Coding Strategy for Qualitative Drug Tests, 2011
Figure 10.8: Specific Coding for Qualtitative Drug Tests
Figure 11.1: Prevalence of U.S. Adults in Prison, Jail, or on Parole or Probation, 1980-2009

Index of Tables

Table 2.1: Primary Site of Action and Neurotransmitters Involved in Drugs of Abuse Mechanism of Action
Table 2.2: Level of Drug Abuse in Britain and Average Cost of Agent
Table 2.3: Trends in Prevalence of Various Drugs for 8th-Graders, 10th-Graders and 12th-Graders, 2007-2010
Table 2.4: Trends in Prevalence of Various Drugs for 8th-Graders, 10th-Graders and 12th-Graders, 2003-2006
Table 2.5: Trends in Prevalence of Various Drugs for 8th-Graders, 10th-Graders and 12th-Graders, 1999-2002
Table 2.6: Trends in Prevalence of Various Drugs for 8th-Graders, 10th-Graders and 12th-Graders, 1995-1998
Table 2.7: Short Term Effects of Amphetamine Abuse
Table 2.8: Long Term Effects of Amphetamine Abuse
Table 2.9: Short Term Effects of Barbiturates
Table 2.10: Long Term Effects of Barbiturates
Table 2.11: Barbiturates Under International Control
Table 2.12: Common Benzodiazepines on Prescription in the U.S.
Table 2.13: Sedative/Hypnotic Benzodiazepines Under International Control
Table 2.14: Anxiolytic Benzodiazepines Under International Control
Table 2.15: Short Term Effects of Benzodiazepines
Table 2.16: Long Term Effects of Benzodiazepines
Table 2.17: Short Term Effects of Cannabinoid/Marijuana Use
Table 2.18: Long Term Effects of Cannabinoid/Marijuana use
Table 2.19: Short Term Effects of Cocaine
Table 2.20: Long Term Effects of Cocaine
Table 2.21: Physical Short Term Effects of LSD
Table 2.22: Psychedelic Short Term Effects of LSD
Table 2.23: Adverse Side Effects of LSD
Table 2.24: Long Term Effects of LSD
Table 2.25: Short Term Effects of Methadone
Table 2.26: Short Term Effects of Phenylcyclidine
Table 2.27: Adverse Effects of Phencyclidine
Table 2.28: Long Term Effects of Phencyclidine
Table 2.29: Short Term Effects of Heroin Use
Table 2.30: Long Term Effects of Heroin Use
Table 2.31: Side Effects of OxyContin
Table 2.32: Device Specifications for POCT Breath Alcohol Analysis
Table 2.33: Reasons Why U.S. Employers Comply with SAMHSA Guidelines
Table 2.34: “SAMHSA -5”—Basic Drug Categories to be Tested
Table 2.35: Extended Drugs of Abuse Panel
Table 2.36: Accredited Laboratories for SAMHSA Drug Testing
Table 2.37: Comparison of Blood, Urine, Hair, Saliva and Sweat Patch Testing for SAMHSA-5 Test (Marijuana, Cocaine, Amphetamines, Opiates and PCP)
Table 2.38: Immunoassay and Gas Chromatography Cut-off levels for SAMHSA-5 Drugs of Abuse
Table 2.39: Detection Periods of SAMHSA-5 Drugs in Blood, Saliva, Sweat, Urine and Hair
Table 2.40: Drugs of Abuse Test
Table 2.41: Commonly Used Product Codes for Drugs of Abuse Tests
Table 3.1: Worldwide Geographic Distribution of IVD Testing, 2010
Table 3.2: Global Clinical Diagnostics Testing Market: Market Drivers Ranked in Order of Impact
Table 3.3: Global Clinical Diagnostics Market: Market Restraints Ranked in Order of Impact
Table 3.4: Key Diagnostic Companies for Drugs of Abuse Testing
Table 4.1: Global Revenue from Drugs of Abuse Testing, 2007-2015
Table 4.2: U.S. Revenue from Drugs of Abuse Testing, 2007-2015
Table 4.3: E.U. Revenue from Drugs of Abuse Testing, 2007-2015
Table 4.4: Rest of World Revenue from Drugs of Abuse Testing, 2007-2015
Table 4.5: Worldwide Distribution of Drug Abuse Testing, 2010
Table 4.6: U.S. Clinical Laboratory Diagnostic Test Retail Value Market Segments, 2008
Table 4.7: Drugs of Abuse Testing Market: Market Drivers Ranked in Order of Impact
Table 4.8: Drugs of Abuse Testing Market: Market Restraints Ranked in Order of Impact
Table 5.1: Drugs of Abuse Tested for and Cut-off Values for Employees
Table 5.2: U.S. Workforce Testing Positive for Opiates using Oral Fluid Drug Tests, 2007-2010
Table 5.3: U.S. Workforce Annual Positivity Rates using Urine Drug Tests, 1988-2010
Table 5.4: U.S. Workforce Positivity Rates by Testing Category using Urine Drug Tests, 2006-2010
Table 5.5: U.S. DOA Positivity Rates by Testing Reason Using Urine Drug Tests for Federally Mandated, Safety-Sensitive Workforce, 2006-2010
Table 5.6: U.S. DOA Positivity Rates by Testing Reason Using Urine Drug Tests for General U.S. Workforce, 2006-2010
Table 5.7: Positivity Rates by Drug Category Using Urine Drug Tests for Federally Mandated, Safety-Sensitive Workforce, 2006-2010
Table 5.8: Positivity Rates by Drug Category Using Urine Drug Tests for General U.S. Workforce, 2006-2010
Table 5.9: Comparison of Saliva and Urine for Use in Drugs of Abuse Testing
Table 5.10: Main Devices for Saliva Collection on the Market
Table 5.11: Selected Mass Spectrometric Methods used to Quantify Common Drugs in Oral Fluid
Table 5.12: Top Ten Most-Prescribed Drugs in the U.S., 2010
Table 5.13: Top Ten Most-Prescribed Drugs by Sales in the U.S., 2010
Table 5.14: Prescription Dispensing Location by Spending in the U.S., 2006-2010
Table 5.15: Comprehensive Steroid Panel in Drugs of Abuse Testing
Table 5.16: Comprehensive Diuretic Panel in Drugs of Abuse Testing
Table 5.17: Comprehensive Stimulant Panel in Drugs of Abuse Testing
Table 5.18: World Anti-Doping Agency Accredited Laboratories
Table 5.19: Laboratory Criteria Required for World Anti-Doping Agency Accreditation
Table 5.20: Relevant Provisions of International Standard for Laboratories, as Applied to the Process and Requirements for WADA Approval
Table 5.21: Anti-Doping Organization Activity Summary as Reported by Code Signatory Anti-Doping Organizations
Table 5.22: World Anti-Doping Agency Testing Statistics
Table 5.23: UNESCO International Convention Against Doping in Sport Voluntary Fund Guidelines
Table 6.1: Major Competitors in the Drugs of Abuse Oral Testing Market Segment
Table 6.2: Major Competitors in the Drugs of Abuse Urine Testing Market Segment
Table 6.3: OraSure Portfolio of Drugs of Abuse Detection Methodologies
Table 6.4: Avitar’s Aimstep ORALINE-4 Drugs of Abuse Cut-off Levels
Table 6.5: Alpha Scientific Designs Drugs of Abuse Testing Cut-off Level
Table 6.6: Regulatory Clearance of Alpha Scientific Products for Drugs of Abuse Testing
Table 6.7: Available 510K Cleared Analytes for the Vision Integrated Drugs of Abuse Test Cup
Table 6.8: Drugs of Abuse Analytes and Cut-off Level Detected by the Oral-View Saliva Multi-Drugs of Abuse
Table 6.9: Drugs of Abuse Cut-off Levels for the TOX/See Test by Bio-Rad
Table 7.1: Performance Characteristics Required before Implementation of FDA-Approved/Cleared Tests
Table 7.2: Comparison of Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibody Characteristics
Table 7.3: Samples and Sample Handling Features of Centaur CP
Table 7.4: Large- and Mid-Size Immunochemistry Analyzers
Table 7.5: Small- to Mid-Volume Immunoassay Analyzers
Table 8.1: Overview of the ADVIA 2400
Table 8.2: Sample Handling Capability of the ADVIA 2400
Table 8.3: Microvolume Technology Utilized by the ADVIA 2400
Table 8.4: Reaction Area of the ADVIA 2400
Table 8.5: Reagent Handling Capability of the ADVIA 2400
Table 8.6: Parameter Menu of the ADVIA 2400
Table 8.7: Open System Capability of the ADVIA 2400
Table 8.8: ISE Parameters of the ADVIA 2400
Table 8.9: Calibration Parameters of the ADVIA 2400
Table 8.10: Data Management Capability of the ADVIA 2400
Table 8.11: General Specifications of the ADVIA 2400
Table 8.12: Ultra-Large Clinical Chemistry Analyzers
Table 8.13: Overview of ADVIA 1650
Table 8.14: Sample Handling Capabilities of the ADVIA 1650
Table 8.15: Microvolume Technology Capability of the ADVIA 1650
Table 8.16: Reaction Area Associated with the ADVIA 1650
Table 8.17: Reagent Handling Capability of the ADVIA 1650
Table 8.18: Parameter Menu Associated with the ADVIA 1650
Table 8.19: Open System Capability of the ADVIA 1650
Table 8.20: ISE Parameters of the ADVIA 1650
Table 8.21: Calibration Capabilities of the ADVIA 1650
Table 8.22: Data Management Capabilities of the ADVIA 1650
Table 8.23: General Specifications of the ADVIA 1650
Table 8.24: JEOL Analyzer Comparison
Table 8.25: Large Clinical Chemistry Analyzers
Table 8.26: Mid-Size Clinical Chemistry Analyzers
Table 8.27: Small Clinical Laboratory Analyzers
Table 8.28: Heritability Estimates for Drugs of Abuse
Table 8.29: Genetic Associations Implicated in Drug Addiction Phenotypes
Table 8.30: FDA Recognized Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in to Identify Responders and Non-Responders to Medications
Table 8.31: Common Pharmacotherapies for Drug Dependence and Genetic Variations Implicated in Treatment
Table 9.1: Potential Challenges of Drugs of Abuse Testing Market
Table 9.2: Timeline of Legislative Changes from the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, 2010-2013
Table 11.1: Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) Testing Categories
Table 11.2: Annual Minimum Drug and Alcohol Random Testing Rates Established within DOT Agencies and the USCG, 2011
Table 11.3: General Responsibilities of Employers under the Department of Transportation’s (DOT) rule, 49 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40
Table 11.4: Actions that Employers Must Take after an Employee Test Result is Verified Positive
Table 11.5: Drugs of Abuse Cut-off Values (Initial Test) as Specified under Article 15 of the Drug Abuse Urine Testing Act
Table 11.6: Drugs of Abuse Cut-off Values (Confirmatory Test) as Specified under Article 18 of the Drug Abuse Urine Testing Act
Table 11.7: Medical Review Officer Requirements in the Department of Transportation Drug Testing Program
Table 11.8: Medical Review Officer Responsibilities in Drug Testing Programs
Table 11.9: Medical Review Officer Requirements when Reporting a Drug Test Result
Table 11.10: International Olympic Committee, U.S. Olympic Committee and NCAA Banned Substances
Table 11.11: Conditions of Sentences by Adult Probationers by Severity of Offense
Table 11.12: Total Federal Drug Control Budget for Fiscal Years 2002-2011
Table 11.13: Federal Drug Control Budget by Function for Fiscal Years 2009-2011

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