Biochips and Microarrays - Technologies, Markets and Companies

  • ID: 1408454
  • January 2016
  • Region: Global
  • 262 Pages
  • Jain PharmaBiotech
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This report is an analysis of biochip/microarray markets based on technologies and applications. The report starts with a description of technologies as a basis for estimation of markets. Technologies include array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), copy number variation (CNV), DNA methylation, ChIP-Chip, RNA splice variants, and microRNA. Separate chapters are devoted to protein biochips/microarrays, microfluidics and nanobiotechnology-based nano-arrays.

Various applications of biochips and microarrays are described throughout the report. Areas of application such as point-of-care, genetic screening, cancer, and diagnosis of infections are included. Separate chapters are devoted to applications in drug discovery and development as well as personalized medicine

The report provides current share of each segment: market size in 2015 and projected value for the years 2020 and 2025. Gene expression has the largest share and is an established market. Share of microarray technologies in other areas will grow with the maximum growth in RNA splice variants followed by epigenetics. The growth in protein microarrays is somewhat less, partly because it is more mature than the other submarkets and has already shown considerable growth in the past. Impact of next generation sequencing on segments of microarray markets is identified. Customer requirements and unmet needs are described. Markets are also analyzed according to geographical areas.

Brief profiles of companies involved in biochip/microarray technologies are provided. Currently selected 92 companies are included along with listing of 120 collaborations between companies. The text is supplemented by 21 tables, 11 figures and 140 references to literature.

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0. Executive Summary

1. Introduction
Definitions of biochips/microarray
Terms used for biochips
Historical aspects of biochip/microarray technology
Relation of microarrays to other technologies
Applications of biochips/microarrays
Advantages of biochips/microarrays

2. Biochip and Microarray Technologies
Nucleic acid amplification and microarrays
PCR on a chip
Fast PCR biochip
Multiplex microarray-enhanced PCR for DNA analysis
Universal DNA microarray combining PCR and ligase detection reaction
NASBA combined with microarray
Rolling circle amplification on microarrays
Multiplexed Molecular Profiling
Genomewide association scans
Whole genome microarrays
GeneChip Human Genome Arrays
Arrayit's® H25K
Transposon insertion site profiling chip
Standardizing the microarrays
Optical Mapping
Imaging technologies used for detection in biochips/microarray
Fluorescence and chemiluminescence
MALDI-MS imaging and tissue microarrays
Surface plasmon resonance technology for microarrays
Microarray imaging systems
Vidia™ Microarray Imaging Systems
GenePix 4100A Microarray Scanner
Tecan LS Reloaded™
Microarrays based on ENA detection by physico-chemical methods
Electrochemical detection of DNA
Photoelectrochemical synthesis of DNA microarrays
Microchip capillary electrophoresis
Strand displacement amplification on a biochip
Biosensor technologies for biochips
DNA-based biosensors
Arrayed Imaging Reflectometry
Phototransistor biochip biosensor
Applications of biosensor biochips
Biosensors in food safety
Cholesterol biosensor
Glucose biosensors
Microarrays for cytogenetics
Comparative genomic hybridization
Array-based CGH
NimbleGen CGH arrays
Single-cell array CGH
Regulatory requirements for array CGH
Agilent CGH+SNP microarray platform
Tissue microarrays
Pathology tissue-ChIP
Carbohydrate microarrays
RNA profiling
RNA splice variants
Microarrays for miRNAs
Microarrays vs qPCR for measuring miRNAs
Quantitative analysis of miRNAs in tissue microarrays by ISH
Exon microarrays
Microarrays & DNA sequencing
Microarray-based emerging DNA sequencing technologies
Exome sequencing for study of human variation
High-throughput array-based resequencing
Sequencing by hybridization
SOLiD-System based ChIP-Sequencing
Next generation sequencing vs microarrays for expression profiling
Microarrays for synthetic biology
Arrayit microarray platform for synthetic biology
Microarray-based gene synthesis
Magnetophoretic array-based cell sorting for further studies

3. Microfluidics-based Biochips and Microarrays
Lab-on-a-chip multiplex immunoassay
Micronics' microfluidic technology
Rheonix CARD technology
Microfluidic chips/arrays using PCR
Digital PCR Array
Digital PCR on a SlipChip
Microfluidic automated DNA analysis using PCR
Microfluidic single-cell RT-qPCR on a chip
Microfluidic chips integrated with RCAT
Microfluidic chips integrated with PET
Molecular diagnostic applications of microfluidic biochips
Biochips/microfluidics for detection of circulating tumor cells
CEE (cell enrichment and extraction) technology
Cluster-Chip for capturing CTCs
DNA nanospheres for isolation of CTCs
Herringbone-chip for detection of CTCs
Lab-on-chip for the isolation and detection of CTCs
Microfluidic devices for analyzing blood of pediatric and neonatal patients
Microfluidic PepArray™ for in situ synthesis of peptides
Integrated microfluids platform for biomolecular interactions
Companies developing microfluidic technologies

4. Protein Biochips
Protein biochip technologies
Protein microarrays
Affinity proteomics /antibody microarrays
Applications of antibody microarrays
Antibody microarrays for diagnosis of cancer
Discovery of biomarkers by MAb microarray profiling
Aptamer-based protein biochip
High-density protein microarrays
HPLC-Chip for protein identification
2D displacement chromatography using HPLC Chip
LabChip for protein analysis
MALDI-MS imaging and protein microarrays
Multiplexed Protein Profiling on Microarrays
Peptide microarrays
Protein chips for antigen-antibody interactions molecular diagnostics
Proteomic pattern analysis
Reverse phase protein microarrays
Single molecule array
TRINECTIN proteome chip
New developments in protein chips/microarrays
Microfluidic devices for proteomics-based diagnostics
Viral protein chip
Use of microarray technologies in human protein atlas initiative
Applications of protein biochip/microarrays
Applications of peptide microarrays
Biosensor protein chip
Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Array
Proteome Identification Kit
Protein nanobiochip for diagnosis
Proteomic chip for profiling signaling pathways in single tumor cells
Protein biochips/microarrays for personalized medicine
Companies involved protein biochips/microarrays

5. Nanobiotechnology-based Biochips & Microarrays
Nanotechnology-based biochips
Fullerene photodetectors for chemiluminescence detection on microfluidic chip
Nanotechnology on a chip
NanoChip® Electronic Microarray
Silver nanorod array for on-chip detection of microbes and chemicals
Verigene System
Use of nanotechnology in microfluidics
Construction of nanofluidic channels
NanoAnalyzer® chip
Nanoscale flow visualization
Moving (levitation) of nanofluidic drops with physical forces
Electrochemical nanofluid injection
Nanofluidics on nanopatterned surfaces
Nano-interface in a microfluidic chip
Nanofluidic channels for study of DNA
Dip Pen Nanolithography for nanoarrays
NanoPro™ System
Biochips with nanosensors
Peptide nucleic acid nanobiosensor arrays
Cantilever arrays
Nanotechnology-based protein biochips/microarrays
AFM for immobilization of biomolecules in high-density nanoarrays
Nanoparticle protein chip
Protein biochips based on fluorescence planar wave guide technology
Self-assembling protein nanoarrays
Diagnostic applications of nanobiochips
Nanofluidic devices to detect a single molecule of DNA
Nanochip/biosensor for detection of circulating cancer cells

6. Biochips & Microarrays for Epigenetics
Epigenomic technologies
Epigenomics Digital Phenotype
Global methylation analysis
Illumina’s assays for analysis of methylation sites
GenomicTree’s MDScan? technology
Orion’s MethylScope® technology
Microarray for immunogenetic testing
Applications for study of DNA methylation

7. Applications of Microarrays in Drug Discovery & Development
Drug discovery
Finding lead compounds
High-throughput cDNA microarrays
Use of gene expression data to find new drug targets
Investigation of the mechanism of drug action
Cellular microarrays
Peptide microarrays for high-throughput screening
Biochips for toxicology studies
Gene expression studies for toxicology using microarrays
Testing drugs in organ-on-a-chip microdevices
Stem cells differentiation on a chip for testing response to drugs
SmartChip for cancer drug discovery
Drug development
Use of microarrays in clinical trials
Reverse phase protein microarrays
Controlled-release microchip for drug delivery
Implanted chips for drug delivery
Lab-on-a-chip for drug delivery

8. Biochips for Biomarkers, Molecular Diagnostics & Personalized
Microarrays with integrated PCR
AmpliChip CYP450
AmpliChip P53 as companion diagnostic for cancer
Infinity System
In-Check Lab-on-Chip
Biochips for POC diagnosis
Triage protein chip
POC salivary diagnostic biochip
POC microarray for detection of circulating microRNA biomarkers
Application of microarrays for discovery of biomarkers
Gene expression microarray data as a source of protein biomarkers
Peptide array technology for detection of biomarkers
Protein microarrays for discovery of biomarkers
QPDx® BioChips for biomarkers
Tissue microarrays for study of biomarkers
Biochip and microarray-based detection of SNPs
Affymetrix Variation Detection Arrays
Biochip combining BeadArray and ZipCode technologies
NanoChip for detection of SNPs
SNP genotyping by MassARRAY
SNP-IT primer-extension technology
Copy number variations in the human genome
Agilent microarrays
Affymetrix microarrays
Infinium’s CNV and SNP lines
HD Human660W-Quad BeadChip
Roche NimbleGen’s CGH and CNV product line
TaqMan® Copy Number Assays
Innovations in CNV and CGH microarrays
Bioinformatic tools for analysis of CNV data
Applications of biochip technology in personalized medicine
Commercial development of biochip technologies for diagnostics

9. Markets
Methods for estimation of markets
Microarray markets
Market share of microfluidics-based microarrays
Gene expression microarray markets
Array CGH markets
CNV markets
Markets for RNA splice variants
Markets for imaging technologies used in biochips/microarrays
Markets for microarray relevant to miRNA
Epigenetic markets
Markets for protein microarrays
Role of scientists’ attitudes on the evolution of protein microarray markets
Market share of microarray technology in protein biomarkers
Geographical distribution of microarray markets
Currents trends
Types of arrays used
Tiling array
Exon array
Reaction specifics
Pre-amplification use
Reagents from array vendor or other sources
Dual versus single color array preference
Oligo versus BAC preference
Cost per sample or cost per array
Preference for single versus multiplex sample arrays
Current and future throughput in samples per week
Use in niche markets
Drug discovery
Screening assays versus whole genome aCGH
Effect of next generation sequencing on microarray markets
Impact of next generation sequencing on microarray markets for diagnostics
Impact of next gen sequencing on microarray markets for drug discovery
RNA profiling
Transcriptome sequencing for mRNA Expression
Applications of next generation sequencing in basic research
Mapping and sequencing of structural variation from human genomes
Identifying protein-coding genes in genomic sequences
Applications in clinically relevant areas
Genetic disorders
Cancer research
Management of HIV/AIDS
Customer requirements and unmet needs
Concluding remarks on microarray markets
Future of biochip technology for molecular diagnostics
Impact of next generation sequencing on microarray markets in the future
Effect on CNV market
Effect on RNA profiling
Screening samples

10. Companies
Profiles of companies

11. References

Table 1-1: Various terms used for biochips, microarrays and microfluidics
Table 1-2: Historical landmarks relevant to the development of biochip technology
Table 1-3: Applications of microarrays
Table 2-1: Companies developing whole genome chips/microarrays
Table 2-2: Microarray imaging systems
Table 2-3: Applications of biosensor biochips in healthcare
Table 2-4: Microarray/biochip-based technologies for cytogenetics
Table 2-5: Companies developing whole genome chips/microarrays
Table 2-6: ChIP detection platforms for sequencing
Table 3-1: Companies developing microfluidic technologies
Table 4-1: Applications of protein biochips/microarrays
Table 4-2: Applications of peptide microarrays
Table 4-3: Companies involved in peptide microarrays
Table 4-4: Selected companies involved in protein biochip/microarray technology
Table 5-1: Companies with nanoarray and nanofluidic technologies
Table 8-1: Applications of biochip technology relevant to personalized medicine
Table 8-2: Companies involved in biochips for molecular diagnostics
Table 9-1: Growth of markets for biochip/microarray technologies from 2015 to 2025
Table 9-2: Geographical distribution of biochip/microarray markets 2015-2025
Table 9-3: Global markets for sequencing services according to applications
Table 10-1: Collaborations

Figure 1-1: Relation of biochips/microarrays to other technologies and applications
Figure 2-1: Affymetrix GeneChip technology
Figure 2-2: Surface plasma resonance (SPR)
Figure 2-3: Basic principle of a biosensor
Figure 2-4: Principle of Arrayed Imaging Reflectometry
Figure 2-5: Construction of SOLiD fragment library using DNA enrichment by ChIP
Figure 4-1: ProteinChip System
Figure 5-1: Schematic representation of Dip Pen Nanolithography (DPN)
Figure 8-1: Role of biochip/microarray technology in personalized medicine
Figure 8-2: Role of CYP450 genotyping in development of personalized medicine
Figure 8-3: Application of biochips/microarrays in personalized medicine

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Professor K. K. Jain is a neurologist/neurosurgeon by training and has been working in the biotechnology/biopharmaceuticals industry for several years. He received graduate training in both Europe and USA, has held academic positions in several countries and is a Fellow of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Medicine of the Royal Colleges of UK. Currently he is a consultant at Jain PharmaBiotech. Prof. Jain is the author of 415 publications including 16 books (2 as editor) and 48 special reports, which have covered important areas in biotechnology, gene therapy and biopharmaceuticals.

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