The World Market for Steam Flow Measurement

  • ID: 1051724
  • Report
  • Region: Global
  • Flow Research, Inc
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  • Endress+Hauser
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Steam flow measurement has never been as important as it is today. Many companies that want to reduce their energy and power costs are looking to find ways to increase the efficiency and accuracy of their steam flow measurement. Suppliers have an opportunity to capitalize on this need for improved steam flow measurement by increasing their market presence and offering innovative products. While DP and vortex flowmeters continue to account for a significant portion of the steam flow measurement market, emerging technologies such as Coriolis and ultrasonic are being used more widely. This study quantifies these trends and lets you know what changes to expect in the steam flow measurement market over the next five years.

We have completed a new market study on the worldwide steam flow measurement market. The goal of the study was determining the market size of various technologies used to measure gas flow. In addition, forecasts through 2012 are included.

The study includes the following vital information about the steam flow measurement market::

Market size and market shares for all types of flowmeters used to measure steam flow worldwide.

Forecast market growth in flowmeters used to measure steam flow through 2012.

An explanation of how the different types of flowmeters used to measure steam flow stack up against each other.

A description of the interaction of vortex meters with DP meters, and the potential effect of new technologies such as Coriolis and ultrasonic on steam flow measurement

Strategies to manufacturers for selling into the steam flow measurement market

Company profiles of the 30 leading suppliers of steam flow measurement flowmeters.

The study is divided into the following regions:

-North America

-Europe

-Japan

-Asia without Japan

-Rest of World

The following types of flowmeters included in the study, including primary elements:

-Differential Pressure (DP) Flow Transmitters

-Primary Elements

-Vortex

-Variable Area

-Target

-Turbine

-Variable Area

-Coriolis

-Ultrasonic

The study identifies certain application areas that are especially important.
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Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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FEATURED COMPANIES

  • ABB
  • Endress+Hauser
  • GE Sensing
  • Oval
  • SAMIL Industry
  • Smar
  • MORE
Executive Summary
Overview
A Complete Analysis of the Flowmeter Market
Study Objectives
Methodology
Definitions
Eight Types of Steam Flowmeters
Three Types of Steam
Shipments of Steam Flowmeters Worldwide and by Region:
Figures 1-1 to 1-3
Shipments of Steam Flowmeters by Flowmeter Type: Figure 1-4
End-User Survey
Market Shares
Offer Vortex Flowmeters for Steam Applications

Product and Technology Analysis
Overview
New-Technology Flowmeters
Coriolis Flowmeters
Magnetic Flowmeters
Ultrasonic Flowmeters
Vortex Flowmeters
Paradigm Case Selection Method
Product and Technology Analysis
ABB
Bopp & Reuther
Central Station Steam Company
Dosch Messappararte
Emerson Process Management - Bristol Division
Emerson Process Management - Rosemount Division
Endress+Hauser
Foxboro
Fuji Electric
GE Sensing
KROHNE
McCrometer
Oval
Primary Flow Signal
Racine Federated
SAMIL Industry
Siemens
Sierra Instruments
Smar
Solartron ISA
Spirax-Sarco
Venture Measurement
Veris

World Market Size and Forecasts
Overview
Shipments of Steam Flowmeters by Region: Figures 4-1 to 4-5
Average Selling Price of Steam Flowmeters by Type: Figure 4-6
Shipments of Steam Flowmeters by Flowmeter Type: Figures
4-7 to 4-14
Average Selling Price of Steam Flowmeters by Type: Figure 4-15

Differential Pressure Steam Flow Market Size and Growth
Forecasts
Four Types of Pressure Transmitters
Differential Pressure Flowmeters
History of DP Flowmeters
Theory of Differential Pressure Measurement
What is a Differential Pressure Flowmeter?
DP Steam Flowmeter Suppliers
DP Flowmeters for Steam Flow Applications
Advantages and Limitations
Market Size and Growth Forecasts
Market Forecasts
Factors Promoting the Growth of the Pressure Transmitter Market
Plant Renovations and Upgrades
The Need to Conserve Energy
The Large Installed Base of Differential Pressure Flow
Transmitters
Growth in the Oil & Gas Industry
Rapid Growth in China and Other Developing Markets
Advanced Features in Differential Pressure Flow Transmitters
Shipments of Differential Pressure Flow Transmitters by Region:
Figures 5-1 to 5-5
Average Selling Prices of Differential Pressure Flow Transmitters by
Region: Figure 5-6

Primary Elements Steam Flow Market Size and Forecasts
Overview
Orifice Measuring Points
Pitot Tubes
Venturi Tube
Flow Nozzle
Wedge Elements
Other Primary Elements
Primary Elements Suppliers
Primary Elements for Steam Flow Measurement - Advantages and
Limitations
Market Size and Growth Forecasts
Primary Elements are Riding the Wave of Growth in the Oil &Gas
Industry
Factors Promoting the Growth of the Primary Elements Market
Growth in the Oil & Gas Industry
Rapid Growth in China and Other Developing Markets
Technology Improvements in Primary Elements
Growth in the Use of Multivariable DP Flowmeters
Growth in the Use of Integrated DP Flowmeters
Market Forecasts
Shipments of Primary Elements for Steam Flow by Region:
Figures 6-1 to 6-5
Average selling Prices of Primary Elements for Steam Flow by
Region: Figure 6-6

Vortex Steam Flow Market Size and Forecasts
Multivariable/Smart/Conventional
Vortex Steam Flowmeter Suppliers
Vortex Steam Flow Measurement
Advantages and Limitations
Market Size and Growth Forecasts
Product Enhancements and Greater User Familiarity Boost Sales of
Vortex Flowmeters
Growth Factors for the Vortex Flowmeter Market
Vortex Flowmeters are Widely Used for Steam Applications
More Suppliers Now in the Market
Suppliers with Difficult-to-Apply Steam Flow Technologies are
Using Vortex Flowmeters as an Alternative Technology
More Multivariable Vortex Flowmeters Now Available
Users are Moving Towards New-Technology Meters
Industry-Wide Standards Have Been Developed for the Use of
Vortex Flowmeter for Custody Transfer Applications
Vortex Flowmeters Used for District Heating Applications
Factors Limiting Growth
Market Forecasts
Shipments of Vortex Steam Flowmeters by Region:
Figures 7-1 to 7-5
Average Selling Price of Vortex Steam Flowmeters by Region:
Figure 7-6

Variable Area Steam Flow Market Size and Forecast
Variable Area Suppliers
Variable Area Flowmeters for Steam Flow Applications
Advantages and Limitations
Market Size and Growth Forecasts
Growth Factors for the Variable Area Gas Flowmeter Market
Variable Area Flowmeters Continue to Fill Multiple Needs for Users

Variable Area Flowmeters are the Lowest Cost Solution Available
Variable Area Flowmeters will Continue to be Used for Laboratory,
Research, and OEM Applications
Factors Limiting Growth
Market Forecasts
Shipments of Variable Area Steam Flowmeters by Region: Figures
8-1 to 8-5
Average Selling Prices of Variable Area Steam Flowmeters
by Region: Figure 8-6

Target Steam Flow Market Size and Forecasts
Target Flowmeter Suppliers
Target Flowmeters for Steam Flow Application
Advantages and Limitations
Market Size and Growth Forecasts
Growth Factors for the Target Steam Flowmeter Market
Target Flowmeters a Good Solution for Steam Flow Measurement
Target Meters Have Attractive Features
Factors Limiting Growth
Market Forecasts
Shipments of Target Steam Flowmeters by Region: Figures
9-1 to 9-5
Average Selling Price of Target Steam Flowmeters by Region:
Figure 9-6

Turbine Steam Flow Market Size and Forecasts
Turbine Flowmeter Design
Steam Turbine Flowmeter Suppliers
Turbine Flowmeters for Steam Flow Applications
Advantages and Limitations
Market Size and Growth Forecasts
Growth Factors for the Turbine Gas Flowmeter Market
Turbine Flowmeters are Well-Established
Installed Base of Turbine Flowmeters
Approval Organizations Specify Turbine Meters
Turbine Flowmeters Remain a Viable Choice Steady, Medium to
High-Speed Flows
Factors Limiting Growth
Market Forecasts
Shipments of Turbine Steam Flowmeters by Region: Figures
to 10-5
Average Selling Prices of Turbine Steam Flowmeters by Region:
Figure 10-6

Coriolis Steam Flow Market Size and Forecasts
Why Measure Mass Flow
Coriolis Remains the Most Accurate Flowmeter
Steam Coriolis Flowmeter Suppliers
Coriolis Flowmeters for Steam Flow Applications
Advantages and Limitations
Market Size and Growth Forecasts
Growth Factors for the Coriolis Gas Flowmeter Market
Custody Transfer of Natural Gas is a Potential Boom Market for
Coriolis Meters
Introduction of Low Cost Coriolis Meters
Users are Looking for Low Maintenance
Suppliers Continue to Make Technological Improvements in Coriolis
Flowmeters
Factors Limiting Growth
Market Forecasts
Shipments of Coriolis Steam Flowmeters by Region: Figures
11-1 to 11-5
Average Selling Prices of Coriolis Steam Flowmeters by Region:
Figure 11-6

Ultrasonic Steam Flow Market Size and Forecast
Overview
History
Advantages of Ultrasonic Flowmeters
Types of Ultrasonic Flowmeters
Ultrasonic Flowmeter Suppliers
Ultrasonic Flowmeters for Steam Flow Measurement
The Use of Multipath Ultrasonic Flowmeters for Natural Gas Flow
Measurement is on the Rise
Market Size and Growth Forecasts
Growth Factors for the Steam Ultrasonic Flowmeter Market
Successful User Experience Serves as a Paradigm for the
Industry
Improvements in Transit Time Technology
Suppliers Continue to Enter the Market
Increased Use of Ultrasonic Flowmeters in the Process
Industries
Factors Limiting Growth
Market Forecasts
Shipments of Ultrasonic Steam Flowmeters by Region: Figures
12-1 to 12-5
Average Selling Prices of Ultrasonic Steam Flowmeters by
Region: Figure 12-6

Steam Flowmeter Supplier Market Shares
Overview
Market Shares for Steam Flowmeters by Flowmeter Type
Emerson Process Management, Rosemount Division
Yokogawa
Endress+Hauser
Tokyo Keiso
Spirax Sarco
EMCO Flow Systems
Emerson Process Management, Micro Motion Division
GE Sensing
KROHNE

User Perspective Survey on Steam Flow Measurement
Part One: Executive Summary
Overview
Topics Included is Survey
Line Sizes
Applications
Drivers of Accuracy
Part Two: Scope and Methodology
Topics Included in the Survey
Team History and Experience
Flow Research, Inc
Part Three: Steam Flow End User Survey
Overview
Line Sizes

Applications
Types of Steam and Steam Measurement
Accuracy
Drivers of Accuracy
Primary Elements
Particular Repair / Maintenance Issues
Change in Primary Element
Change to Another Flowmeter Type

Strategies for Success
Overview
Offer Vortex Flowmeters for Steam Applications
Consider Offering Multivariable Flowmeters
Survey End-Users Regularly, and Listen to What They Say
Become a Broad-line Supplier
Form Alliances with Other Companies
When Consolidating Product Lines, Provide a Migration Path for
End-Users to Current Technology
Create a Coherent and Understandable Product Naming System
Build a Great Website, and Keep it Up-To-Date 15-
Invest in Smart Flowmeters, and in Communication Protocols

Supplier Profiles (Partial List of 30 Suppliers)
ABB
Central Station Steam Company
Emerson Micro Motion
Emerson Process Management
Rosemount Division
Foxboro
Fuji Electric Group
GE Sensing
Honeywell
McCrometer, Inc
OVAL Corporation
Sierra Instruments
Smar Equipmentos Industrials Ltds
Smar International Corp
Solartron ISA
Spirax Sarco, Inc
EMCO, a Division of Spirax Sarco, Inc
Veris
Yamatake Corporation
Yokogawa

Appendix A: Steam Flow Study Proposal
Appendix B: User Survey Questionnaire
Appendix C: Steam Flowmeter Suppliers

LIST OF FIGURES
1-1 Total Shipments of Steam Flowmeters Worldwide
1-2 Total Shipments of Steam Flowmeters Worldwide
1-3 Shipments of Steam Flowmeters by Region
1-4 Shipments of Steam Flowmeters by Technology
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The World Market for Steam Flow Measurement
Flow Research Inc
1-5 Flowmeter Types in Use
1-6 Market Shares for the Leading Suppliers of DP Transmitters for Steam
Applications Worldwide
1-7 Market Shares for the Leading Suppliers of Vortex Flowmeters for Steam
Applications Worldwide
2-1 New-Technology and Traditional Technology Flowmeters
2-2 New-Technology Flowmeters Approved by the Fieldbus Foundation
3-1 Models and Types of Steam Flowmeters by Supplier
4-1 Total Shipments of Steam Flowmeters Worldwide
4-2 Total Shipments of Steam Flowmeters Worldwide
4-3 Shipments of Steam Flowmeters by Region
4-4 Shipments of Steam Flowmeters by Region
4-5 Shipments of Steam Flowmeters by Region
4-6 Average Selling Price of Steam Flowmeters by Region
4-7 Shipments of Steam Flowmeters Worldwide by Flowmeter Type
4-8 Shipments of Steam Flowmeters Worldwide by Flowmeter Type
4-9 Shipments of Steam Flowmeters Worldwide by Flowmeter Type
4-10 Shipments of Steam Flowmeters in North America by Flowmeter Type
4-11 Shipments of Steam Flowmeters in Europe by Flowmeter Type
4-12 Shipments of Steam Flowmeters in Japan by Flowmeter Type
4-13 Shipments of Steam Flowmeters in Asia without Japan by
Flowmeter Type
4-14 Shipments of Steam Flowmeters in Rest of World by Flowmeter Type
4-15 Average Selling Price of Steam Flowmeters by Type
5-1 Shipments of Differential Pressure Steam Flow Transmitters Worldwide
5-2 Shipments of Differential Pressure Steam Flow Transmitters Worldwide
5-3 Shipments of Differential Pressure Steam Flow Transmitters by Region
5-4 Shipments of Differential Pressure Steam Flow Transmitters by Region
5-5 Shipments of Differential Pressure Steam Flow Transmitters by Region
5-6 Average Selling Price of Differential Pressure Steam Flow Transmitters
by Region
6-1 Shipments of Primary Elements for Steam Flow Worldwide
6-2 Shipments of Primary Elements for Steam Flow Worldwide
6-3 Shipments of Primary Elements for Steam Flow by Region
6-4 Shipments of Primary Elements for Steam Flow by Region
6-5 Shipments of Primary Elements for Steam Flow by Region
6-6 Average Selling Price of Primary Elements for Steam Flow by Region
7-1 Total Shipments of Vortex Steam Flowmeters Worldwide
7-2 Total Shipments of Vortex Steam Flowmeters Worldwide
7-3 Shipments of Vortex Steam Flowmeters by Region
7-4 Shipments of Vortex Steam Flowmeters by Region
7-5 Shipments of Vortex Steam Flowmeters by Region
7-6 Average selling Price of Vortex Steam Flowmeters by Region
8-1 Total Shipments of Variable Area Steam Flowmeters Worldwide
8-2 Total Shipments of Variable Area Steam Flowmeters Worldwide
8-3 Shipments of Variable Area Steam Flowmeters by Region
8-4 Shipments of Variable Area Steam Flowmeters by Region
8-5 Shipments of Variable Area Steam Flowmeters by Region
8-6 Average Selling Price of Variable Area Flowmeters by Region
9-1 Total Shipments of Steam Target Flowmeters Worldwide
9-2 Total Shipments of Steam Target Flowmeters Worldwide
9-3 Shipments of Steam Target Flowmeters by Region
9-4 Shipments of Steam Target Flowmeters by Region
9-5 Shipments of Steam Target Flowmeters by Region
9-6 Average Selling Price of Target Steam Flowmeters by Region
10-1 Total Shipments of Turbine Steam Flowmeters Worldwide
10-2 Total Shipments of Turbine Steam Flowmeters Worldwide
10-3 Shipments of Turbine Steam Flowmeters by Region
10-4 Shipments of Turbine Steam Flowmeters by Region
10-5 Shipments of Turbine Steam Flowmeters by Region
10-6 Average Selling Price of Turbine Steam Flowmeters by Region
11-1 Total Shipments of Coriolis Steam Flowmeters Worldwide
11-2 Total Shipments of Coriolis Steam Flowmeters Worldwide
11-3 Shipments of Coriolis Steam Flowmeters by Region
11-4 Shipments of Coriolis Steam Flowmeters by Region
11-5 Shipments of Coriolis Steam Flowmeters by Region
11-6 Average Selling Price of Coriolis Steam Flowmeters by Region
12-1 Total Shipments of Ultrasonic Steam Flowmeters Worldwide
12-2 Total Shipments of Ultrasonic Steam Flowmeters Worldwide
12-3 Shipments of Ultrasonic Steam Flowmeters by Region
12-4 Shipments of Ultrasonic Steam Flowmeters by Region
12-5 Shipments of Ultrasonic Steam Flowmeters by Region
12-6 Average Selling Price of Ultrasonic Steam Flowmeters by Region
13-1 Market Shares for the Leading Suppliers of DP Flow Transmitters for
Steam Applications Worldwide
13-2 Market Shares for the Leading Suppliers of Primary Elements for Steam
Application Worldwide
13-3 Market Shares for the Leading Suppliers of Vortex Flowmeters for Steam
Applications Worldwide
13-4 Market Shares for the Leading Suppliers of Variable Area Flowmeters for
Steam Applications Worldwide
13-5 Market Shares for the Leading Suppliers of Target Flowmeters for Steam
Applications Worldwide
13-6 Market Shares for the Leading Suppliers of Turbine Flowmeters for Steam
Applications Worldwide
13-7 Market Shares for the Leading Suppliers of Coriolis Flowmeters for Steam
Applications Worldwide
13-8 Market Shares for the Leading Suppliers of Ultrasonic Flowmeters for
Steam Applications Worldwide
14-1 Industry Distribution of Participants
14-2 Line Sizes
14-3 Steam Flow Applications
14-4 Need for Accuracy
14-5 New-Technology and Traditional Technology Flowmeters
14-6 Industry Distribution of Participants
14-7 Industry Distribution of Participants (Bar Chart)
14-8 Flowmeter Types in Use
14-9 Flowmeter Types in Use (Bar Chart)
14-10 Line Sizes
14-11 Line Sizes (Bar Chart)
14-12 Steam Flow Applications
14-13 Steam Flow Applications (Bar Charts)
14-14 Steam Flow Types
14-15 Steam Flow Types (Bar Chart)
14-16 Steam Flow Measurement
14-17 Steam Flow Measurement (Bar Chart)
14-18 Use of Other Instrumentation
14-19 Use of Other Instrumentation (Bar Chart)
14-20 Accuracy of Measurement
14-21 Accuracy of Measurement (Bar Chart)
14-22 Need for Accuracy
14-23 Need for Accuracy (Bar Chart)
14-24 Use of Flow Computer
14-25 Use of Flow Computer (Bar Chart)
14-26 Use of Primary Elements
14-27 Use of Primary Elements (Bar chart)
14-28 Maintenance / Repair Issues
14-29 Maintenance / Repair Issues (Bar Chart)
14-30 Potential for Change in Primary Elements
14-31 Potential for Change in Primary Elements (Bar Chart)
14-32 Potential for Change in Flowmeter Type
14-33 Potential for Change in Flowmeter Type (Bar Chart)
14-34 Purchase History for Primary Elements
14-35 Purchase History for Primary Elements (Bar Chart)
15-1 Become a Broad-line Supplier: Steam Flowmeter Suppliers

LIST OF TABLES
3-1 Advantages and Disadvantages of DP and New Technology Flowmeters
3-2 New Technology and DP Flowmeters Principles of Operation
3-3 Paradigm Case Conditions for New Technology Flowmeters
6-1 Suppliers of Primary Elements for Steam Flow Measurement

LIST OF MAPS
2-1 World Map
2-2 World by Region
2-3 Asia
2-4 Europe
2-5 The Russian Federation
2-6 China
2-7 Japan
2-8 India
2-9 Indonesia
2-10 Europe, Middle East, and Africa (EMEA)
2-11 The Middle East
2-12 Asia
2-13 South America
2-14 Central America
2-15 The United States
2-16 Canada

List of Photos
6-1 An Orifice Plate
6-2 Orifice Flange Assemblies
6-3 Verabar Multiport Averaging Pitot Tube
6-4 Venturi Tubes
6-5 A Flow Nozzle
6-6 COIN Wedge Meter
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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FEATURED COMPANIES

  • ABB
  • Endress+Hauser
  • GE Sensing
  • Oval
  • SAMIL Industry
  • Smar
  • MORE
Steam plays a very important role in our lives today. It is used in the production of paper, in food preparation, for cooling and heating buildings, and as a source of power for ships. Perhaps its most important use is a source of power in electricity production.

Steam power plants obtain heat from a variety of sources, including fossil fuels such as coal, oil, or natural gas. Some plants get their power from nuclear fuels. Others get fuel from waste fuels, municipal sold waste, solar energy, and other sources. With each of these power sources, heat energy is released. With fossil fuels, this is done through combustion, while nuclear plants use fission. Heat is typically transferred to water in these plants. The heated water generates steam.

Steam in a power plant is generated in a system called a boiler. The steam flows to a turbine, where drives a generator for the purpose of producing electricity. After it passes through the turbine, the steam flows to a condenser. Here the steam is converted back to water so it can be reused as boiler feedwater.

Types of Steam
Steam is often classified into three types. These types of steam reflect the different temperature and pressure conditions that steam exists under:

Wet steam is a fluid that contains both steam and condensed hot water. The term “quality” is used to refer to the percent of flow that is steam and water by weight. For example, 85% quality refers to a fluid that is 85% steam and 15% water. Wet steam is also called quality steam, and it is the most difficult type of steam to measure.

Saturated steam does not contain any water, and exists at one pressure and corresponding temperature. Saturated steam is saturated with heat. Adding heat to saturated steam raises the temperature above the boiling point, and removing heat from saturated steam causes water to form

Superheated steam exists when the temperature of the steam has been raised above the boiling point. The temperature above the boiling point is called degrees of superheat.

Measurement of Steam Flow
Steam flow is measured mainly by vortex and differential pressure (DP) flowmeters. However, some new technologies are now being used to measure steam flow, namely Coriolis and ultrasonic flowmeters.

Vortex Flowmeters
Vortex flowmeters have a small obstruction in the flowstream called a bluff body. The presence of the bluff body in the flowstream generates alternating vortices, which are circular appearing ripples. The velocity of the flow is proportional to the frequency of the vortices. The flowmeter determines vortex frequency by one of several methods, including ultrasonic, thermal, and pressure. Flowrate is calculated, based on vortex frequency and the area of the pipe.

Vortex flowmeters have a number of advantages. While they are not as accurate as Coriolis flowmeters, they still have good accuracy. Vortex flowmeters also are quite reliable. While they are more intrusive than magnetic and ultrasonic flowmeters, they are less intrusive than DP flowmeters, especially those using orifice plates. Vortex flowmeters offer good accuracy and reliability for a reasonable price.

Use for Steam Flow
Vortex flowmeters are well suited for measuring steam flow, and they are widely used for this purpose. Steam is the most difficult fluid to measure. This is due to the high pressure and high temperature of steam, and because the measurement parameters vary with the type of steam, including pressure.

Steam is often measured in process plants, and for power generation. Magnetic flowmeters cannot measure steam flow. In addition to their ability to tolerate high process temperatures and pressures, vortex meters have wide rangeability. This allows them to measure steam flow at varying velocities. In process and power plants, steam is often measured coming from a boiler.

District Heating
District heating is a growing application for vortex flowmeters. In district heating, a centralized heating system is created that can provide heat for a building, a group of houses, or even an entire town. A similar concept applies to district cooling. In district heating, a volumetric flowmeter is often combined with a temperature sensor and pressure transmitter to measure mass flow. A flow computer is used to calculate mass flow. Both vortex and ultrasonic flowmeters are used to measure water flow, and steam flow is also measured.

District heating is a growing application in Europe, and it is also beginning to be more widely used in Asia. It has never caught on in the United States, perhaps because of the individualistic mindset of U.S. citizens. However, it is likely that district heating will start being used more widely in the United States, as the costs of energy increase. District heating is already used in Canada.

Multivariable Vortex
Sierra Instruments introduced the first multivariable vortex flowmeter in 1997. This meter includes an RTD temperature sensor and a pressure transducer with a vortex shedding flowmeter. By using the information from these sensors, the flowmeter can determine volumetric flow, temperature, pressure, fluid density, and mass flow. This makes it unnecessary to use a flow computer to make the flow calculation.

This multivariable flowmeter is one of a growing number of multivariable new-technology flowmeters, including multivariable magnetic flowmeters and multivariable DP flowmeters. Multivariable ultrasonic flowmeters are used in district heating applications. Since Sierra brought out the multivariable vortex, several other companies have introduced their own multivariable vortex flowmeters, including Yokogawa and J-Tec.

DP Flowmeters
DP flowmeters are also used to measure steam flow. DP flowmeters consist of a DP transmitter and a primary element. The primary element places a constriction in the flowstream. The constriction creates a pressure drop in the line. DP flowmeters determine flowrate based on the difference in pressure upstream of and downstream from the primary element.

There are many different types of primary elements. The main types are orifice plates, Venture tubes, flow nozzles, primary flow elements, and averaging pitot tubes. Other types include wedge elements and V-Cones. There are also a number of different types of orifice plates. Orifice plates are the most widely used type of primary element.

Primary elements create a pressure drop that makes the flow calculation possible. This pressure drop is considered a disadvantage of this method of measuring flow, due to pumping costs. The amount of pressure drop depends on the type of primary element used. Orifice plates typically create the highest amount of pressure loss.

Suppliers of DP transmitters have made important advances to make their products more appealing, and to keep up with advances in flow technology. Just as suppliers of vortex flowmeters have introduced multivariable products, so suppliers have introduced multivariable DP transmitters. These products typically include pressure and temperature transmitters, and use these values to compute mass flow. This makes it unnecessary to use a flow computer to perform the mass flow calculation.

Another advance by DP transmitter suppliers is to include an integrated primary element with the multivariable DP transmitter. This makes it possible to calibrate the primary element together with the transmitter prior to shipping. Multivariable DP transmitters, with and without integrated primary elements, are widely used to measure gas and steam flow. The temperature and pressure values are used to compute density, which in turn is used to calculate mass flow.

Suppliers of pressure transmitters have made other important advances, including the introduction of high tier products. High tier pressure transmitters set new benchmarks in terms of transmitter accuracy and stability. These advances apply to differential pressure, as well as gage and absolute pressure transmitters.

Emerging Technologies
Both ultrasonic and Coriolis flowmeters are beginning to be used to measure steam flow. However, this is a difficult measurement for both technologies. GE Infrastructure Sensing (formerly Panametrics) has introduced a clamp-on ultrasonic flowmeter designed to measure steam flow. Expect to see additional steam flow products from both ultrasonic and Coriolis suppliers in the future.

Another type of meter used to measure steam flow is the target meter. However, there are relatively few manufacturers of this type of meter. Target flowmeters are sometimes used for large pipe applications. Besides steam, they are also used to measure the flow of liquids and gases.

Conclusion
It is safe to say that steam is the most difficult fluid to measure, when compared to liquids, gases, and air. Steam is very easily influenced by changes in temperature and pressure, and to that extent can be considered an unstable fluid. Condensation presents a problem for turbine and Coriolis meters, while heat presents a problem for ultrasonic flowmeters. While suppliers have worked to resolve these problems, both Coriolis and turbine meters work best with dry steam. Finding satisfactory ways to measure steam flow is still very much a work in progress for Coriolis, ultrasonic, and turbine meter suppliers.

DP and vortex flowmeters work well to measure steam flow because they can tolerate the high temperature and pressures associated with steam flow measurement. The effectiveness of DP flowmeters varies with the type of primary element used. But the DP transmitter itself is not exposed to the heat from the steam, and the primary element is the only component of the flowmeter that is exposed to the heat. For vortex meters, it is the bluff body, not the transmitter, that is exposed to the heat of the steam.

Despite the existence of other technologies, vortex and DP flowmeters still do the lion’s share of steam flow measurement. Watch for further developments in emerging steam flow technologies, along with continued enhancements in the DP and vortex flowmeter technologies.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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-ABB
-Bopp & Reuther
-Central Station Steam Company
-Dosch Messappararte
-Emerson Process Management - Bristol Division
-Emerson Process Management - Rosemount Division
-Endress+Hauser
-Foxboro
-Fuji Electric
-GE Sensing
-KROHNE
-McCrometer
-Oval
-Primary Flow Signal
-Racine Federated
-SAMIL Industry
-Siemens
-Sierra Instruments
-Smar
-Solartron ISA
-Spirax-Sarco
-Venture Measurement
-Veris
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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