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Nuclear Power Market - India - Global Outlook

  • ID: 1089895
  • Report
  • Region: Global, India
  • 114 Pages
  • Global Industry Analysts, Inc
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The global outlook series on the Nuclear Power Market in India provides a collection of statistical anecdotes, market briefs, and concise summaries of research findings. Illustrated with 25 fact-rich market data tables, the report briefly discusses the role of nuclear power in the Indian power sector, present dynamics in nuclear reactor establishments, international agreements and other aspects related to the sector in the Indian market.

The report also recapitulates recent noteworthy mergers, acquisitions, and other strategic developments. Also included is an indexed, easy-to-refer, fact-finder directory listing the addresses, and contact details of 103 companies worldwide.

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Overview & Outlook 1
India's Power Generation Capacity Increases
Nuclear Energy
Accounts for Minute Share 1
Table 1: Installed Power Generation Capacity in India by
Region (2011): Capacity in GW for Western Region, Southern
Region, Northern Region and Others 2

Table 2: Indian Power Generation Capacity by Source (2011):
Percentage Breakdown of Generation Capacity for Thermal,
Hydroelectric, Renewables and Nuclear 2
Electricity Generated from Indian Nuclear Sector to Surge 2
Table 3: Indian Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis of
Nuclear Power Market Analyzed in terms of Annual Electricity
Generated in Billion Kilowatt-Hours for Years 2010 through
2015 3
Investments in Alternative Sources to Soar 3
The Need for Nuclear Energy Thrives 4

India - One of the Fastest Growing Markets for Nuclear Energy
Globally 5
India - Among the Leading Six Nations in Nuclear Power Generation 5
India's Nuclear Power Generation Goes Ahead of Targets 5
Nuclear Power Plants in India 6
Table 4: Active and Planned Capacities for Nuclear Power in
India 6

Table 5: Operating Nuclear Power Reactors in India by Type,
Capacity and Year of First Commercial Operation 7

Table 6: Nuclear Power Reactors Under Construction in India
by Type, Capacity and Expected Month & Year of Commercial
Operation 7
Kaiga Atomic Power Station 8
Kakrapar Atomic Power Station 8
Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant 8
Madras Atomic Power Station 8
Rajasthan Atomic Power Station 9
Tarapur Atomic Power Station 9
Narora Atomic Power Station 9
Nuclear Power Prospects in India 10
Business Opportunities for Nuclear Power in India 10
US-India Nuclear Deal 10
Separation of Military and Civilian Nuclear Programs 11
IAEA Safeguards for Civilian Nuclear Establishments 11
Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Technology 11
US-India Nuclear Agreement: A Boon for Indian Electricity
Generation Market 11
Economic Elements Behind US-India Nuclear Deal 12
Interests of the US Economy in Indian Nuclear Market 12
Countries Rush to Sign Nuclear Deals with India 12
Select Agreements in a Nutshell 13
Indo-American Agreement 13
Indo-French Agreement 13
Indo-Russian Agreement 13
Indo-Mongolian Agreement 13
Indo-Namibian Agreement 13
Indo-Argentinean Nuclear Deal 13
Indo-Canadian Agreement 14
Indo-Kazakhstan Agreement 14
Indo-Korean Deal 14
Australia Lifts Uranium Supply Ban to India 14
US' Antagonism to Nuclear Liability Bill 2010 15
India Issues Finalized Rules on Nuclear Supplier Liability 15
Energy Security and Nuclear Power Policy in India 15
Energy Security in the Indian Context 16
Table 7: Percentage Share of Annual Electricity Generation
Potential by Energy Source 16
Indian Nuclear Power Policy 17
The Three-Stage Nuclear Power Program 17
India - Only Country Active in All Three Fuels 18
Stage 1 18
Strong Native R&D Capability - A Key Contributor to Success
in Stage 1 18
Stage 2 19
Stage 3 19
Administrative Setup for Nuclear Energy Sector in India 20
Indian Government Exercises Full Control of Nuclear Power
Generation in India 20
Doors Remain Closed on FDI and Private Sector Participation in
Nuclear Energy Generation 21
Indian Nuclear Technology - Conspicuously Absent in
International Nuclear Market 21
Indian Nuclear Energy Sector Holds Potential to Go Global 21
Research in Nuclear Reactors 22
Uranium Mining in India 22
Uranium Processing 22
Thorium Cycle 23

Recent Years Marred with Uranium Supply Shortages,
International Supply Eases Situation 24
Improved Fuel Supply Alleviates Capacity Utilization Issues 24
Japan's Nuclear Power Plant Explosion, Will it Affect India's
Nuclear Power Plans? 24
Emphasis on Safety Rises in the Indian Nuclear Power Sector 25
India Endorses Need for High Scrutiny in Nuclear Plant
Safety, Tables New Bill in Parliament 25
Protests Marr India's Nuclear Dream 26
New NSG Rules Irks India 27
New Uranium Deposits Cheers up Indian Nuclear Power Sector 27
India to Foray into the Global Nuclear Reactors Market 27
Engineering Companies to Benefit from NSG Waiver 28
Foreign Companies to Enter Indian Nuclear Market 28
Opportunities for Private Players 28
Indian Power Companies Raring to Invest in Nuclear Power 29
NSG Waiver to Open Up Nuclear Energy Market 29

DAE - The Nodal Body for Nuclear Power in India 30
Atomic Energy Commission of India 30
Research Bodies Under DAE 31
Bhabha Atomic Research Center 31
Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research 31
A Leading Publisher of Papers Worldwide 32
Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology 32
Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploitation and Research 32
Industrial Units Under DAE 33
Heavy Water Board 33
Nuclear Fuel Complex 33
Facilities in the Nuclear Fuel Complex 34
Board of Radiation & Isotope Technology 34
Public Sector Undertakings Under DAE 35
Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited 35
Global Recognition Mirrors Superior Capabilities of NPCIL 35
Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam Limited 36
Uranium Corporation of India Ltd. 36
Indian Rare Earths Ltd. 37
Electronics Corporation of India Ltd. 37

Nuclear Energy: A Growing Need for Both Developed and Emerging
Economies 39
Outlook 39
Table 8: Global Nuclear Power Generation by Geographic Region
(2011 & 2015): Percentage Breakdown of Electricity Generated
through Nuclear Power for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific
(including Japan) and Rest of World 40
Global Nuclear Power Generation to Cross 3750 billion kWh by 2030 40
US Remains a Major Contributor in the Industry 41
Despite Growth in Generation, Nuclear Power Share in Global
Electricity Remains Largely Stagnant 41
Table 9: Percentage Share Contribution of Nuclear Energy to
Total Electricity Generation in Select Countries (2006-2009) 42
Concerns over Global Warming to Drive Demand for Nuclear Energy 43
Energy Security to Drive Nuclear Power Market 43
The Fukushima Nuclear Plant Disaster 43
Local Event - Global Impact: The Aftermath of Japan's Nuclear
Disaster 44
Japanese Power Crisis 45
Germany Quits Nuclear Power 45
Problems Crop Up at Home after German Nuclear Shutdown
Announcement 45
France Feels the Ripples of Nuclear Safety Debate 46
China to Balance Investments in Energy Sources 46
Political Will towards Nuclear Energy Wanes in the wake of
Japan's Earthquake 46
Amidst Controversies Nuclear Power Makes a Comeback to the Fore 46
Initial Uproar on Safety of Nuclear Energy Wanes 47
Present Nuclear Power Capacity & Proposed Additions 47
World Nuclear Power Capacity - 2011 47
Table 10: World Nuclear Power Capacity (As of 2011): Break-Up
of Units and Net Capacity of Operating Nuclear Power Reactors
by Region/Country 48

Table 11: Number of Nuclear Reactors in Operation and
Operating Capacity Worldwide: 2000-2009 49
Nuclear Power Reactors Under Construction - 2011 49
Table 12: Nuclear Power Reactors Under Construction Worldwide
(As of 2011): Number of Reactors and Net Capacity by Country 50
Table 13: Number of Nuclear Reactors Under Construction
Worldwide (2001-2011) 50
Planned Nuclear Power Reactors 51
Table 14: Number of Planned Reactors Worldwide by Country (As
of 2011) 51
Proposed Nuclear Power Reactors 51
Table 15: Number of Proposed Reactors Worldwide by Country (
As of 2011) 51
Growth Drivers in a Capsule 51
Rapid Growth in Electricity Demand 51
Volatile Crude Oil Prices Stimulate Growth of Nuclear Power 52
Government Support Encourages Adoption of Nuclear Power 52
Experience Gain and Rise in Average Load Factor of Nuclear
Reactors 52
Plant Life Extensions Breathe Life into the Industry 52
Expansion in Asia and Issues Over Energy Supply Security
Drive Nuclear Power 53
Financial Incentives Motivate Nations to Increase Nuclear
Power Production 53
Challenges in Store 53
Nuclear Accidents - A Major Challenge 53
Mishaps Remain Cause of Concern For Nuclear Power Industry 54
High Investment 54
Economic Risks of Nuclear Power 54
Environmental Issues with Storage and Management of Spent Fuel 55
Non-Proliferation Issues 55
Supply of Technical Man-Power 55
Public & Political Acceptance 55
Uranium Supply Market 56
Mined Uranium Continues to be the Major Source of Fuel Supply 56
Table 16: Global Uranium Supply by Mining Method (2009 &
2010): Percentage Breakdown of Volume Supply for
Conventional, In-Situ Leaching and By-Product 56

Table 17: World Recoverable Uranium Reserves by Leading
Country (2010) 57
Production of Uranium 57
Table 18: Global Uranium Production (1970-2010) from Mines
(Million lbs of U3O8) 57

Table 19: Global Natural Uranium Production (1980-2010) in
Thousand Tonnes 58
Kazakhstan Tops Natural Uranium Production 58
Table 20: Natural Uranium Production Worldwide by Country:
2005-2010 59
Leading Marketers of Uranium 60
Table 21: Leading Uranium Marketers Worldwide (2009 & 2010):
Volume of Uranium Marketed for Cameco, Areva, KazAtomProm,
Rio Tinto, ARMZ and Others 60

Table 22: Leading Uranium Mines Worldwide by Output: 2009 &
2010 61
Rising Uranium Prices 61
Table 23: Global Spot Prices of Uranium (1970-2010) in US$
per pound of U3O8 62

Table 24: Global Prices of Uranium (2001-2010) in US$ per
pound of U3O8 62
Miners Gain Upper Hand 62
Regulations: An Overview 63
Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) 63
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 64

Defining Nuclear Power 66
Historical Development of Nuclear Power 66
Early Development of Nuclear Reactors 66
The Progress Phase 66
Present Usage of Nuclear Power 67
Nuclear Power - A Key Aspect of Future of Power Generation 67
Alternatives for Nuclear Fission Energy 68
Fossil Fuels 68
Oil 68
Coal 69
Natural Gas 69
Nuclear Fusion 69
Solar 69
Solar Thermal 69
Solar PhotoVoltaics 70
Wind 70
Biomass 70
Geothermal Energy 71
Enhanced Geothermal Energy 71
Hydrogen 71
Advantages of Nuclear Energy 71
Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy 72
Lifecycle of Nuclear Power Generation 72
Fission Material 72
Uranium - The Conventional Fuel for Nuclear Power Generation 72
Uranium-235 (235U) 72
Uranium-233 (233U) 73
Plutonim-239 (239Pu) 73
Consumption and Reserves of Uranium On the Rise 73
Table 25: Worldwide Uranium Reserves (*) by Type (2003 &
2005): Assured Reserves and Additional Reserves 74
Cost of Uranium Extraction 74
Economic Use of Uranium 74
Recycling Power Plant Steam 74
Production of Nuclear Power 75
Mechanism Underlying Nuclear Power Production 75
Nuclear Reactor 76
Types of Nuclear Reactors 76
Pressurized Water Reactors 76
Heavy Water Reactors 76
High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors 76
Boiling Water Reactors 76
Advanced Nuclear Reactors 77
Uranium Fast Breeder Reactors 77
Thorium Breeder Reactors 77
Fourth Generation Reactors 77
Second, Third and Fourth Generation Reactors: A Comparison 78
Advantages of New Generation Nuclear Reactors 78
Safety Issues - At the Forefront of Nuclear Reactor Design 79
Radioactivity Control 79
Core Cooling Maintenance 79
Maintaining Barriers to Prevent Radiation Release 79
Development Costs of Nuclear Reactors 79
Nuclear Waste and Emissions 80
Table 26: Major Isotopes and Half Life Periods 80
Disposal of Nuclear Waste 81
Reprocessing of Nuclear Waste 81
Outline of Nuclear Waste Disposal Methods 82
Cooling in Supervised Pools 82
Reprocessing Radioactive Waste 82
Disposal of Remaining Waste 82
Solidifying Nuclear Waste 82
Multibarrier System 82
Cost Incurred on Waste Disposal and Decommissioning 83
Radiation and Effect on Human Life Cosmic Radiation 83
Terrestrial Radiation 83
Internal Radionuclides 83
Apoptosis 83
Cancer 83
Skin Burns 84
Genetic Changes 84
Research and Development in Nuclear Power 84


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Nuclear power, which currently accounts for about 3.0% of the overall electricity generated in the country, represents one of the rapidly developing power-generation sectors in India. Major factors driving investments in nuclear power for generating electricity include limited reserves of fossil fuels in the country and a vision to attain energy independence in the decades to come through thorium based nuclear power. Nuclear power, although accounting for a minute share in the overall electricity generated in India, is moving at a robust pace. Increase in availability of uranium, driven by increase in domestic supply and access to supply from international market, is driving generation of electricity in the nuclear sector. With an indigenous nuclear power program, India plans to attain a 20,000 MWe (Mega Watt electrical) nuclear capacity by the year 2020 and aims to increase the share of nuclear energy to 25% of the total electricity demand by the year 2050.

As of 2011, India operated 20 nuclear reactors with a combined capacity of 4,780 MW. Additionally, seven nuclear power plants are presently under construction. In terms of number of nuclear power reactors, India represents the sixth largest country worldwide. The recent years witnessed a dip in available domestic sources of nuclear fuel that created a demand-supply gap. The situation forced most of the nuclear power plants in India to operate at lower levels than their full capacity. Besides, the dearth in nuclear fuel stalled commencement of operations of new reactors, which were scheduled for start in 2007 and 2008. However, the supply situation improved with the opening of Turamdih mill in Jharkhand in the year 2008, and further due to increasing supply from overseas markets, which enabled significant increase in availability levels at currently operated reactors.

India has signed nuclear deals with as many as nine countries since the NSG lifted its ban over nuclear trade with India in 2008. The list includes countries such as USA, Russia, France, Canada, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Namibia, Argentina, and South Korea, with South Korea being the latest to join the suit. The US represents the first country that India signed a nuclear deal with. Of all the countries, France and Russia have benefited significantly than others with the countries entering into agreement to build nuclear power plants in India, while companies in the US are still competing with each other in terms of entering the market in the wake of India passing the nuclear liability bill. While most countries have agreed to trade technologies with India, Kazakhstan has commenced supplying uranium to India.

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