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RFID / NFC meets Brand Protection

  • ID: 1245078
  • Report
  • May 2010
  • Region: Global
  • 450 Pages
  • Vandagraf International Limited
The authors in association with the Product & Image Security Foundation and IPI Europe, has recently completed a major new report entitled: “RFID / NFC meets Brand Protection”.

We believe this to be a first - A Report focusing exclusively on the dynamics of how and why the fields of RFID and Brand Protection are converging and the emerging importance of RFID and Near Field Communication (NFC) technology as a brand protection tool. The potential significance of mobile phone handsets as readers for end user enabled product authentication is also explored.

We also believe that there are major potential benefits here with niche opportunities for RFID in Brand Protection applications either as stand-alone opportunities or using brand protection as an additional capability for multi-functional RFID tags.

This Report provides valuable information & insights into the major market, business and technology developments taking place.

Financial losses due to counterfeiting and other forms of product related crime amounted to an estimated $698 billion in 2008.

The total market for brand protection technologies was estimated at $4,633 millions in 2008, of which solutions against counterfeiting and piracy accounted for some $2,206 millions (the rest being tamper evidence and anti-theft type technologies).

The market for brand protection solutions to combat counterfeiting and product piracy are showing double digit annual growth, while solutions to combat tampering and retail theft are showing more modest growth.

The total market for RFID technology in 2008 is estimated at around $5,200 million. Within this overall value, the market for passive RFID label / tags in 2008 has been estimated at around $2,200 million and forecast to grow at 17% annually to reach $4,825 million in 2013.

The report comprises 2 Volumes:

- Volume I – Markets & Business Opportunities
- Volume II – Technology.

Why RFID for Brand Protection?

In terms of ‘brand protection’, it is already well known that RFID-based chips can provide a method of uniquely identifying a product or asset.

The embedded unique electronic identifier can be used to verify that the product associated with the tag is genuine and that it has been supplied through ‘authorised’ and legitimate channels: a so-called ‘e-pedigree’.

There is growing demand for solutions and cost-effective systems are therefore urgently required for determining: unique identification; location; the ownership trail (e.g. when an item is sold or transferred) and ‘condition’ (e.g. whether the necessary quality checks have been completed or if the product has been stored at the correct temperature).

RFID-based systems offer unique electronic serialisation and an ability to count multiple items automatically through products and packaging. Some forms of RFID can also provide a fix on location.

Traceability and e-pedigree systems are of great interest as, for the first time technology is now available for combining on the same device data relating to the identity, status, location and condition of a product or item. For many products the concept of ‘total asset visibility’ can therefore be realised.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
About this Report

Volume I – Markets & Business Opportunities: An Overview

Volume II – Technology: An Overview

Executive Summary
- Definitions – What Qualifies as Brand Protection?
- Why RFID for Brand Protection?
- Why Brand Protection looks to be an interesting application area for RFID
- Desirable Characteristics of the Ideal RFID Solution for Brand Protection:
- Background
- Now Rapid Changes are Transforming the Technology Landscape
- Multi-functionality – A Key Factor in Mitigating relatively high cost of RFID
- Primary competitive Technology to RFID in Brand Protection - Printed 2D /
Matrix Digital Codes
- Anti-Collision / Singulation – A Distinctive Strength of RFID Technology
- End user enabled product authentication via mobile phones – The chance for a
Quantum Leap forward for Brand Protection
- Is the Mobile phone handset the Tool to enable End-users / consumers to
authenticate product directly?
- Some limitations in the Mobile Phone Concept:
- RFID tags that cannot be cloned - Going a step further in Brand Protection
- Track, trace and ‘authenticate’ - An Important Emerging Trend has been
- RFID Operating Frequency Bands and Read Range Requirements for Brand
- The World Market for Brand Protection Solutions
- Forecast Annual Growth Rates for Leading Security Technologies
- Driving Forces behind product related crime
- Evolution of Unit Costs – RFID Tags / Labels

Volume I

1. Introduction
1.1 Scope of the Report
1.2 Driving Forces behind product related crime
1.3 Definition – What qualifies as brand protection
1.4 Significant Opportunities for RFID in Brand Protection are now
1.5 Why RFID for Brand Protection?
1.6 How RFID can assist in the process of product authentication?
1.7 Track, trace and ‘authenticate’ - An important emerging trend has
been identified
1.8 Multi-functionality – RFID tags
1.9 The emerging role of RFID in the brand protection field

2. Types of Product Related Crime and Technology-Based Solutions

2.1 Types of Product Counterfeiting and Piracy of Branded Products
2.1.1 Identification of High Risk Product Categories – Attractive targets
for Counterfeiters / Threats for Brand Owners (Pricing / Tax /
Volumes Issues)
2.1.2 Product Counterfeiting and Piracy - Forgery/Alteration Fraud
2.1.3 Product Counterfeiting and Piracy - Parallel Trading, Grey
Markets and Diversion
2.1.4 Product Counterfeiting and Piracy - Unauthorised Distribution,
Back Door Trading and Over-runs
2.1.5 Product Counterfeiting and Piracy - Copy and Look-alike
2.1.6 Product Counterfeiting and Piracy – Dilution, Substitution and
2.1.7 Retail and Supply Chain Theft
2.1.8 Returns Fraud

2.2 Types of Tampering
2.2.1 Grazing (i.e.: Sampling of Products in Store without Purchasing)
2.2.2 Tampering for the Purpose of Obtaining Fraudulent Cash

2.2.3 Pilfering i.e. Removal of a product (or partial product) from its
Container (Products are vulnerable at all stages in the entire
Supply Chain)
2.2.4 Malicious Criminal Tampering (Poisoning or Spiking of Products,
often accompanied by Extortion Demands)

2.3 Global Financial Losses due to Product Related Crime – Breakdown
by end-user sectors

2.4 RFID has unique capability in product protection

3. Brand Protection Technologies used to combat Counterfeiting and Product

3.1 Introduction
3.1.1 Geographical Aspects
3.1.2 Brand Owner Aspects

3.2 Protect the product as well as the packaging – Brand Protection
3.2.1 A layered approach to authentication
3.2.2 Levels of Defense
3.2.3 Driving Forces behind product related crime

3.3 Brand Protection Technologies that potentially compete with RFID
as Brand Protection Solutions
3.3.1 High density 3D / Matrix bar codes and other coding
technologies – including mass serialisation and surface feature
3.3.2 Security Holographic Devices including Holographic Threads
3.3.3 Tags & Taggants (Chemical and Molecular Coding), Nanotechnologies
3.3.4 Security Materials / Substrates - Papers / Security Polarising
Films / Hidden Image Technology / Digital Watermarking

3.4 Printing & Inks in Brand Protection
3.4.1 Security Printing Inks & Coatings - Optically variable Inks
(OVI’s), Thermochromic Inks, Rub Reactive Inks, Coin Reactive
Inks, Ultra Violet Inks, Laser activated colour change inks, Self
Authenticating Inks, Photochromic Inks
3.4.2 The move to ‘digital’ print
3.3.3 Security Printing in Brand Protection – Product Development and
Chain of Custody Requirements

3.5 Tamper Evidence – A component of Brand Protection
3.5.1 Tamper Evident Caps, tear tapes, blister seals and closures
3.5.2 Tamper Evident Labels
3.5.3 Other forms of Tamper Evident Packaging
3.5.4 How RFID can assist in ‘raising the security barrier’ for tamper
evident packaging – Physical Removal / Digital Attacks
3.5.5 Privacy – Built in destruction feature allows consumers to
deactivate RFID tags once a tagged product has been

3.6 Theft Deterrence
3.6.1 Anti-theft EAS tags and systems
3.6.2 Source Tagging – Anti-theft EAS tags
3.6.3 Global Theft Costs Retailers and Consumers US$104 Billion
3.6.4 Global Costs of Retail Crime – Market Sizing
3.6.5 Theft - Who's to Blame?
3.6.6 Theft - Most Vulnerable Merchandise
3.6.7 Loss Prevention and Impact of EAS Technology

3.7 RFID
3.7.1 Types of RFID explained (Chip-based RFID Solutions, Printed
Organic RFID Solutions, 1st Generation Chip-less Identification
Solutions) – Applications
3.7.2 The three classifications of RFID, proximity (up to 20cm), Vicinity
(20cm to 1m) and extended range which allows tag to reader
communications of up to and beyond 10 metres.
3.7.3 Types of RFID
3.7.4 The potential role of RFID in Brand Protection – the ‘click and
authenticate’ approach
3.7.5 Nokia – Further developments in NFC
3.7.6 Going a step further in Brand Protection - Preventing the re-use
of genuine RFID tags / labels on unauthorised or counterfeit
3.7.7 Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) as an integrated function in
an RFID Tag in Brand Protection Applications – An Important
Product Differentiator
3.7.8 Anti-Collision / Singulation Capabilities – Essential in some
Brand Protection Markets
3.7.9 Retrofitting RFID Solutions for Brand Protection
3.7.10 A scenario for the consideration of RFID tag and label suppliers
as a method of delivering a better authentication system than
exists at present
3.7.11 Comparison of the attributes of RFID when weighed against
competitive automated customer or inspection based
authentication systems utilising auto-identification technologies
linked to a database
3.7.12 Analysis of ‘track & trace’ products use in authentication and

4 Analysis of Selected End User Markets – Based on Applicability of RFID as
a Brand Protection Technology

4.1 Overview of Markets
4.1.1 Financial Losses due to Product Related Crime
4.1.2 The Market for Product Related Security Solutions
4.1.3 Forecast Evolution of Product Related Crime & Brand Protection
4.1.4 Breakdown of the Market by Type of Brand Protection Solution
4.1.5 Forecast Annual Growth Rates for Leading Security
4.1.6 Shares of Gross Spending on Security Technologies -
Breakdown by End User Sector
4.1.7 Forecast Annual Growth Rates for Brand Protection / Product
Security Solutions – Breakdown by End User Sector
4.1.8 Estimated Usage of RFID Tags in 2008
4.1.9 Breakdown of the RFID market by Passive / Active Tags,
Readers, Networking Software
4.1.10 Evolution of Unit Costs – RFID Tags / Labels
4.1.11 Comparative costs per item protected between RFID and other
brand protection solutions

4.2 Pharmaceuticals and Healthcare Products, Home Diagnostic Kits,
Veterinary Products, Alternative Medication
4.2.1 Market Overview (Market Sizing and Growth rates, Industry
Structure, Leading Players & the Value Chain)
4.2.2 Product Related Crime
4.2.3 Brand Protection
4.2.4 Opportunities for RFID as a Brand Protection Solution
Case Study West Pharmaceutical Services, Inc.
Case Study Purdue Pharma / OxyContin – Item Level UHF RFID
Case Study Pfizer / Viagra – HF RFID Labelling at Item Level
Case Study Compliers Group, NL – An innovative Brand Protection
Solutions – RFID enabled Blister Packs – Can be linked
by mobile phone to centralised database for monitoring
and to initiate prompts
Case Study Unique sequential Dot Matrix codes for remote end-user
enabled product authentication by mobile phone

4.3 Apparel (Clothing, Footwear & Headgear)
4.3.1 Market Overview (Market Sizing and Growth rates, Industry
Structure, Leading Players & the Value Chain)
4.3.2 Product Related Crime
4.3.3 Brand Protection
4.3.4 Opportunities for RFID as a Brand Protection Solution
Case Study Gerry Weber – Item Level RFID Labels
Case Study American Apparel rolls out Item Level RFID to additional
Case Study Serge Blanco – Item Level RFID Labels
Case Study Rica Lewis Jeans – Item level RFID Labels
Case Study Marks & Spencer - The world's biggest Item Level
retailing usage of RFID
Case Study Hush Puppies Footwear – RFID implementation

4.4 Alcoholic Drink Products – Liqueurs / Spirits & Wine
4.4.1 Market Overview (Market Sizing and Growth rates, Industry
Structure, Leading Players & the Value Chain)
4.4.2 Product Related Crime
4.4.3 Brand Protection
4.4.4 Opportunities for RFID as a Brand Protection Solution
Case Study Nokia / Bols - NFC trials reveal application for RFID in
liquor bottle
Case Study eProvenance System to Protect Fine Wines
Case Study InkSure and eProvenance have formed a Technology
Alliance to protect the Winemarket
Case Study Smartcorq™ – RFID enabled fine winefine fine wine cork
provides information about a fine winefine fine wine’s
background (Time / Temperature profile)
Case Study Sea Smoke Winery – RFID Tagged Barrels

4.5 Electronic Equipment & Components, Batteries
4.5.1 Market Overview (Market Sizing and Growth rates, Industry
Structure, Leading Players & the Value Chain)
4.5.2 Product Related Crime
4.5.3 Brand Protection
4.5.4 Opportunities for RFID as a Brand Protection Solution
Case Study Siemens Enterprise Communications Manufacturing &
Case Study Intel & RFID
Case Study RFID chips mounted on PCBs / PCAs – A Solution from
Silica / Avnet Inc. that improves visibility in
manufacturing and can also provide enhanced brand
Market Overview – Mobile Phones & Smart Phones

4.6 Automotive Parts & Components Aftermarket (including Tyres)
4.6.1 Market Overview (Market Sizing and Growth rates, Industry
Structure, Leading Players & the Value Chain)
4.6.2 Product Related Crime
4.6.3 Brand Protection
4.6.4 Opportunities for RFID as a Brand Protection Solution
Case Study Groupe Michelin detected Asian replicas of Michelin
tyres in the European market and has taken legal action
Case Study Russian tyre maker Amtel-Vredestein N.V. discovered
counterfeit, Chinese-made Amtel-brand tyres
Case Study Continental AG – Leading German Tyre Maker
Case Study Groupe Michelin RFID Tyre Identification Technology
Case Study Goodyear implements RFID-enabled tyre-leasing
program for NASCAR

4.7 Aerospace and Defense Aftermarket – Replacement Parts
4.7.1 Market Overview (Market Sizing and Growth rates, Industry
Structure, Leading Players & the Value Chain)
4.7.2 Product Related Crime
4.7.3 Brand Protection
4.7.4 Opportunities for RFID as a Brand Protection Solution
Case Study Counterfeit Bearings for Aircraft
Case Study Airbus - RFID Tagging of Aircraft Parts in 2010
Case Study Axway Inc. / Sopra - New product ‘Synchrony for
Aviation’ aimed at helping the aviation industry guard
against counterfeit parts

4.8 Tobacco Products
4.8.1 Market Overview (Market Sizing and Growth rates, Industry
Structure, Leading Players & the Value Chain)
4.8.2 Product Related Crime
4.8.3 Brand Protection
4.8.4 Opportunities for RFID as a Brand Protection Solution
Case Study Fighting fakes in China - The World’s largest source of
counterfeit cigarettes
Case Study Illegal subterranean manufacturing operations of
counterfeit cigarettes in China

4.9 Beauty Products – Perfumes & Colognes, Cosmetics & Make-up
4.9.1 Market Overview (Market Sizing and Growth rates, Industry
Structure, Leading Players & the Value Chain)
4.9.2 Product Related Crime
4.9.3 Brand Protection
4.9.4 Opportunities for RFID as a Brand Protection Solution
Case Study Authentication of Victorinox Swiss Army Fragrance

4.10 Luxury Products - Fashion Accessories – Jewelry, Watches,
Leather Products / Baggage & Sunglasses
4.10.1 Market Overview (Market Sizing and Growth rates, Industry
Structure, Leading Players & the Value Chain)
4.10.2 Product Related Crime
4.10.3 Brand Protection
4.10.4 Opportunities for RFID as a Brand Protection Solution
Case Study An RFID solution for Jewelry Protection – Sokymat
partners with Dubai Jewelry Store
Case Study Authentication of Hublot Watches
Case Study Alpvision System for Brand Protection of Watches -
Competition for RFID in Brand Protection

4.11 Imaging Supplies
4.11.1 Market Overview (Market Sizing and Growth rates, Industry
Structure, Leading Players & the Value Chain)
4.11.2 Product Related Crime
4.11.3 Brand Protection
4.11.4 Opportunities for RFID as a Brand Protection Solution
Case Study Hewlett Packard (HP) involvement with RFID
Solution Paper TBS (Total Brand Security) - T blue S Technology – Fully
integrated Brand Solutions for Imaging Supplies (Printer

4.12 Games Software and Hardware
4.12.1 Market Overview (Market Sizing and Growth rates, Industry
Structure, Leading Players & the Value Chain)
4.12.2 Product Related Crime
4.12.3 Brand Protection
4.12.4 Opportunities for RFID as a Brand Protection Solution
Case Study Counterfeit Games Consoles seized in raid in the United
Case Study Sony X-Box Game Media - Microsoft's New Multi-colour
Bar Code Technology for Identifying Audiovisual Works

4.13 Summary of End User Market Sectors which could offer Potential
Opportunities for Suppliers of Brand Protection Solutions (both
RFID and non-RFID)

Volume II

5. Chip-based RFID Devices

5.1. High Frequency (HF) RFID Tags (13.56MHz)
5.1.1. Near Field Communication (NFC) Chip-based RFID Tags Type 1 NFC Tags Type 2 NFC Tags Type 3 NFC Tags Type 4 NFC Tags Label Converters
5.1.2. Brand Protection Systems based on NFC enabled Mobile
Phones NFC-enabled Mobile Phones (Nokia, INSIDE
Contactless, Moversa, Twinlinx) Suppliers of NFC-enabled Brand Protection Solutions
(Gentag, Karl Knauer, Total Brand Security,
Original1, Authix)
5.1.3. Secure Brand Protection Systems based on HF RFID Tag Atmel – CryptoRF Range RFIDsec ST Microelectronics TI Infineon EM Microelectronic NXP Magellan Siemens KryptoRF® Veratag Verayo Others (WISeKey, Mikoh)
5.1.4. Verification Chip-based RFID Tags Friendly Technologies
5.1.5. Printed Antenna for HF RFID Devices (Leonhard KURZ, Parelec,
ASK, NanoMas Technologies, Hanita Coatings, Stork Prints)

5.2. Ultra High Frequency (UHF) RFID Tags (868 -920MHz)
5.2.1. Far Field UHF RFID Tags
5.2.2. Secure & Unclonable UHF Chip-based RFID Tags Alien Technology SecureRF Others (NXP, Impinj)
5.2.3. The Hibiki Project
5.2.4. Near & Far Field UHF RFID Tags Polychem Impinj Sirit
5.2.5. Printed Antenna for UHF RFID Devices Additive Process Technologies - Focused Field
Deposition (FFD) Conductive Inkjet Technologies - CIT Meco Others (PolyIC, Hanita Coatings, Hueck Folien, RCD

5.3. Microwave RFID Tags (2.45GHz)
5.3.1. Hitachi "µ-chip" (or mu-chip) Airgate Technologies RFID Crystalgram, Japan
5.3.2. HP Memory Spot

5.4. Combination EAS- RFID Devices
5.4.1. Accordus/Resolution Team

5.5. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) RFID Devices (50 – 2500MHz)

5.6. Low Frequency RFID Tags (125kHz- 134kHz)

5.7. Future Research Trends: Chip-based RFID Devices
5.7.1. RFID Tags Combined with Overt Security Features
5.7.2. Low Cost Integration of RFID Tags into Packaging & Products
5.7.3. Improving the Cost/Performance Envelope of RFID Tags (Kovio,
NanoMas Technologies, DAG System, Cambridge Resonant
Technologies, Magellan PJM)
5.7.4. Multi-Functional RFID Devices
5.7.5. Secure Databases & Integrated Communication
5.7.6. Restricting Sensitive Data on the RFID Tag

5.8. Security of Data Stored on Chip-based RFID Devices
5.8.1. The Main Types of Security Threats RFID Viruses & Security Threats
5.8.2. Methods of Securing & Protecting RFID Tags Tag Access Controls Anti-Cloning Techniques Detecting Alteration, Insertion & Deletion Countering Eavesdropping ‘Lite’ Hardware Designs Physical Means of Protection Other Methods of Ensuring Data is Secure on Chipbased
5.8.3. RFID Security Alliance
5.8.4. Secure Authentication Systems First Ondemand Neocatena Networks

6. Printed ‘Organic’ RFID Devices

6.1. Printed Memory
6.1.1. Thin Film Electronics
6.1.2 Menippos

6.2. Fully Printed Passive RFID Devices
6.2.1. Ink Stripes Acreo Panipol
6.2.2. Printed Radar Arrays Inksure Technologies Somark Innovations VubiQ
6.2.3. Organic Thin Film Transistor Circuits (OTFTCs) PolyIC Siemens Kovio OrganicID/Weyerhauser Others (3M, NanoGram, Nano ePrint, Plastic Logic,
Printed Systems GmbH, Xerox)

6.3. Printing Complete Passive RFID Devices Directly onto Products or

6.4. Brand Protection using Fully Printed Active RFID Devices
6.4.1. The Compliers Group
6.4.2. NTERA
6.4.3 Others (Cypak, Monohakobi)

6.5. Future Developments & Research Trends – Printed RFID (pRFID)
6.5.1. Passive RFID Display Cards (Bundesdruckerei, Oberthur
Technologies, GS1 Technologies, Giesecke & Devrient)
6.5.2 The PRISMA (Printed Smart RFID Labels Consortium)
6.5.3. PARIFLEX Consortium
6.5.4. CONTACT

7. Other Competing Technologies - Chip-less Identification Devices

7.1. Introduction
7.1.1 Electromagnetic, Inductive & Capacitor Array Chip-less
Identification Devices
7.1.2. Chip-less RFID Technologies Performance comparisons – Chip-less RFID
Technologies Flying Null ACS – Advanced Coding Systems Inkode Quantum Dots

7.2. Future Prospects for the Development of Chip-less Devices
7.2.1. Molecular Computational Identification (MCID) Devices
7.2.2. Oxonica (Sol-ID) Background: Raman Scattering, SERS and
7.2.3. Surface Feature Authentication (SFA)
7.2.4 TruTag
7.2.5 Other Silicon Chip-less Technologies that can be read from a
distance Nicanti Authix SingularID Terahertz Tagging

8. Incorporating RFID & Other Types of Device into Packaging, Labels &

8.1 Main Characteristics of HF Versus UHF RFID Tags / Labels

8.2 Substrates for RFID Inlays - Labels & Film
8.2.1 Low-cost RFID Smart Labels - 13.56 MHz
8.2.2 Product Offerings – Components Versus Finished Labels
8.2.3 RFID Label Types & Form Factors
8.2.4 Prime Item Level RFID labels
8.2.5 RFID Enabled Hang-Tags / Swing Tickets
8.2.6 Tubular Woven Labels

8.3 RFID Label Printing and Over-printing
8.3.1 Background to RFID Label Printing
8.3.2 Process Options
8.3.3 Applying finished RFID labels to products
8.3.4 Incorporating RFID Labels & Inlays into Corrugated Materials

8.4 The Basics of RFID Inlay / Label Manufacture
8.4.1 Low-Cost RFID UHF Inlay Construction
8.4.2 Strap Attachments (Fixing Silicon Chips to Antennas)
8.4.3 RFID Label Laminate Construction - Triple layer & Dual layer
8.4.4 Creating an RFID Smart Labelstock
8.4.5 Printed RFID Antennas

8.5 Operational Considerations
8.5.1 Modify tag position according to the contents of the pack
8.5.2 Orientation & Position
8.5.3 Read Range
8.5.4 Size
8.5.5 Environment

9. Selecting Optimum RFID Tag Types / Technologies for Brand Protection

9.1 Brand Protection Application Requirements

9.2 Effective Exploitation of Chip-based & Chip-less RFID Brand
Protection Systems
9.2.1 Selecting Effective RFID Brand Protection Systems for Specific
9.2.2 Selecting Systems based on NFC-enabled Mobile Phones

9.3 Benchmarking RFID based systems against Conventional Brand
Protection Technologies

9.4 Future Prospects for Multiple Function Brand Protection Systems
APPENDIX 1 Glossary of Technical Terms
APPENDIX 2 Near Field Communication (NFC): What it is & How it Works
APPENDIX 3 Supplier Profiles
Table A.3.1 Suppliers of Chip-based RFID Devices for Brand
Protection & e-Pedigree Applications
Table A.3.2 Suppliers of Chip-based RFID Data Management
Systems for Brand Protection & e-Pedigree
Table A.3.3 Suppliers of Inks or Printed Antennas for Chip-based
& Printed Organic RFID Devices
APPENDIX 4 Supplier Profiles: 2nd generation Chip-less & Printed Organic RFID
Devices for Brand Protection & e-Pedigree Applications
APPENDIX 5 Some Recent EU Funded Projects on RFID in Brand Protection &
Related Applications
A.5.1 SustainPack
A.5.3 StolPan: SToLPaN - Store Logistics & Payment with
A.5.4 RACE networkRFID
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown