What's after NAND?

  • ID: 1488239
  • Report
  • Region: Global
  • 163 Pages
  • Forward Insights
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In the near future, floating gate NAND flash will encounter fundamental scaling limitations. A variety of technologies including Toshiba's BiCs, Samsung's VG-NAND, Macronix's BE-SONOS, Hynix's Vertical Cylindrical FG, SanDisk's 3D Memory and Intel/Micron's PCMs (stackable PCM) offer the promise of continued increases in storage capacities and lower cost per bit necessary to enable new and emerging data storage applications.

What's after NAND? Provides an in-depth analysis of the post-planar floating gate NAND flash options and an independent assessment of the viability of these technologies going forward.

Mainstream NAND flash memories are currently manufactured with smallest feature sizes between 27 nm and 24 nm by the major NAND flash vendors. In the race to reduce costs, NAND flash manufacturers are developing technology nodes in the low 2x nm range. However, performance and reliability characteristics of these floating gate NAND cells are becoming more and more degraded and the bit line pitch is no longer scaled as aggressively as the word line pitch.

When floating gate NAND scaling comes to its end, What's after NAND? NAND flash vendors are actively exploring a variety of alternatives including spin-torque-transfer MRAM, phase change memory, conductive bridge memory or metal oxide based valence change memory. However as lithographic scaling becomes more challenging, companies are turning their sights to vertically stacked implementations of memory cells or 3D memory. 3D memory technologies offer the promise of continued increases in storage capacities and lower cost per bit necessary to enable emerging applications such as solid state drives.

Among the candidates are stacked NAND technologies employing charge trapping technology, vertical memory cells etched in a pillar and stackable cross-point memory arrays. This report explores the feasibility of each of these alternatives as a candidate to replace NAND flash memories within this decade.
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

INTRODUCTION

NAND FLASH MEMORY
- NAND Flash Memory Technology
- Floating Gate Memory Cell Scaling Challenges
- Program Voltages and WL-WL Dielectric Breakdown
- Number of Floating Gate Electrons, Charge Cross-talk, and Random Telegraph Noise
- IPD Scaling of Electrical Thickness and Program Saturation: Can a Planar Cell be a Solution?
- NAND alternative: Charge Trapping Memory Cell

3D MEMORY ALTERNATIVES
- Conventional Approach
- Samsung Stacking by Single Crystal Deposition
- Concept
- Advantages and Disadvantages
- Challenges
- Nonconventional approach
- Horizontal channel - horizontal gate
- Concept
- Advantages/Disadvantages
- Challenges
- Vertical gate - Macronix TFT - Samsung VG-NAND
- Concept
- Advantages/Disadvantages
- Challenges
- Vertical Channel - Punch Structure
- Toshiba BiCS
- Concept - 1st Generation
- Advantages and Disadvantages
- Concept - 2nd Generation ' p-BiCS structure
- Challenges
- Samsung TCAT
- Concept
- Advantages
- Disadvantages
- Challenges
- Hynix Vertical Cylindrical Floating-gate
- Concept
- Advantages
- Disadvantages
- Challenges
- Vertical Channel - Channel Wrap-around Structure
- Samsung VSAT - Vertical Stacked Array Transistor
- Concept
- Advantages
- Disadvantages
- Challenges
- Cross-point Memory Arrays
- Concept
- Switching elements and storage effects
- Stackable cross-point structure and 3D integration
- Advantages/Disadvantages and Challenges

COMPARISON OF 3D MEMORY CONCEPTS
- Cell Size
- Disturbs
- Process Complexity
- Cell Efficiency
- Yield
- Performance
- Endurance
- Retention
- Power Consumption
- Scalability
- Cost
- Summary
- OUTLOOK
- Roadmap (2010-2020)

REFERENCES

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