Practical Guide to Smoke and Combustion Products from Burning Polymers

  • ID: 1529560
  • Book
  • Smithers Information Ltd
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This Practical Guide presents one of the most complete overviews of this important topic, covering smoke generation (including obscuration, toxicity, corrosivity), small and large scale smoke assessment, regulation of smoke, and methods of controlling smoke by plastics formulation. In particular this book focuses on the assessment of fire hazard and fire risks from combustion products and is an important book for plastics processors, regulatory personnel, and fire research and safety engineers.

This book presents a state of the art overview of smoke formation from natural and synthetic polymeric materials. Also presented is a discussion on why different commercial polymers have different intrinsic tendencies to generate smoke and ways in which smoke generation can be assessed. Mechanisms and general approaches for decreasing smoke formation are examined.

This book also gives an overview of flammability tests for measuring smoke formation. In particular, the criticality of assessing smoke formation in realistic scale is discussed. An overview is provided of regulations, codes and standards for critical application of polymeric materials where smoke generation is controlled. Common commercial approaches to decrease smoke formation in specific polymer systems and for specific applications are also presented. Finally, a balanced opinion on the controversial issue of smoke and associated combustion gases is given.
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Preface

1. Smoke Obscuration/Opacity: Generation of Smoke from Polymeric Materials
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Parameters of Smoke Obscuration
1.2.1 Maximum Specifi c Optical Density of Smoke
1.2.2 Smoke Developed Index
1.2.3 Average Specifi c Extinction Area
1.2.4 Rate of Smoke Release
1.2.5 Total Smoke Released
1.2.6 Smoke Factor
1.3 Visible Smoke (Soot) Formation
1.4 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
1.5 Chemical Structure of Polymers in Relation to Smoke
1.6 Effects of Metals on Soot Formation
1.7 Effects of Flame Retardants
References

2. Generation of Combustion Products from Polymeric Materials
(Smoke Toxicity)
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Common Smoke Toxicants
2.3 Calculation of Smoke Toxicity in Small Fires
2.4 Asphyxiants
2.4.1 Carbon Monoxide
2.4.2 Hydrogen Cyanide

2.5 Irritants
2.5.1 Organic Irritants, Acrolein
2.5.2 Inorganic Irritants
2.6 Overview of Smoke Toxicants - Is There Evidence for ‘Supertoxic’ Components?
2.7 Oxygen Depletion
2.8 Effect of Flame Retardants on Smoke Toxicity
2.8.1 Halogen Flame Retardants
2.8.2 Phosphorus Flame Retardants
2.8.3 Miscellaneous Flame Retardants
2.9 Autopsies of Fire Victims and Real-fire Monitoring
2.10 Post Flashover Fires, Mass-loss Model
2.11 Meaning of Smoke Toxicity Tests
2.12 Long-term Effects of Smoke Toxicity
2.13 Conclusions
References

3. Smoke Corrosivity
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Corrosivity of Construction Materials
3.3 Smoke Corrosivity of Electrical and Electronic Equipment
3.4 Measurements of Smoke Corrosivity
References

4. Transport and Decay of Combustion Products
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Early Small-Scale Experiments
4.3 Large-Scale Experiments
4.3.1 Room-plenum Scenario
4.3.2 Room-corridor Scenario
4.3.3 Room-corridor-room Scenario
4.3.4 Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Scenario
4.4 Later Small-scale Experiments
4.5 Modelling
4.5.1 Model Description
4.5.2 Assessment of the Hydrogen Chloride Decay Model in Hazard I
4.5.3 Update on Modelling
4.6 Other Gases
4.7 Conclusions
4.8 Appendix
4.8.1 Mathematical Formulation
References

5. Fire Tests to Assess Smoke and Combustion-Product Generation
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Static Small-scale Obscuration Tests on Materials
5.3 Dynamic Small-scale Smoke Obscuration Tests on Materials
5.4 Traditional Full-scale Smoke Obscuration Tests on Products 0
5.5 Full-scale Tests Measuring Heat Release and Smoke Release
5.6 Specialised Full-scale Tests Measuring Heat and Smoke Release on Specific Products
5.7 Small-scale Tests Measuring Heat and Smoke Release
5.8 Smoke Toxicity Tests
5.9 Smoke Corrosivity Tests
References

6. Methods for Reducing Visible Smoke in Specific Polymer Systems
6.1 General Comments
6.2 Smoke and Decomposition/Combustion Products from Polyvinyl Chloride
6.2.1 Antimony Oxide and Related Products: Effect on Smoke in Halogen-containing Polymers
6.2.2 The Effect of Chlorinated Paraffins and Related Chlorine Additives on Smoke
6.2.3 Use of Alumina Trihydrate for Reducing Smoke in Polyvinyl Chloride
6.2.4 Magnesium Hydroxide and other Magnesium
Compounds for Reducing Smoke in Polyvinyl Chloride
6.2.5 Molybdenum Compounds in Polyvinyl Chloride
6.2.6 Copper Compounds as Smoke Suppressants in Polyvinyl Chloride
6.2.7 Borates as Smoke Suppressants in Polyvinyl Chloride
6.2.8 Zinc Stannates as Smoke Suppressants in Polyvinyl Chloride
6.2.9 Zinc Sulfi de as a Smoke Suppressant in Polyvinyl Chloride
6.2.10 Calcium Carbonate as a Smoke Suppressant in Polyvinyl Chloride
6.2.11 Low Flammability Plasticisers: Phosphate Esters and their Smoke Effects
6.2.12 Low Temperature Lower-smoke Alkyl Diphenyl Phosphate Plasticisers
6.2.13 Smoke Considerations in Calendered Vinyls
6.2.14 Smoke Considerations in Plenum Wire and Cable
6.2.15 Coated Textile Applications
6.2.16 Vinyl Flooring
6.2.17 Polyvinyl Chloride from a Safety and Environmental Point of View – the Role of Smoke
6.3 The Smoke Problem with Styrenics
6.4 Smoke Considerations with Textiles
6.5 Smoke Considerations with Polyurethanes
6.6 Smoke Considerations with Polycarbonates
6.7 Smoke Considerations in Thermoplastic Polyesters
6.8 Smoke Considerations in Polyamides
6.9 Smoke Considerations in Polyolefins
6.10 Aluminum Trihydrates and Magnesium Hydroxides in Elastomers: Low Smoke Formulations
6.11 Smoke Considerations in Unsaturated Polyester Resins
6.11.1 Low Smoke Polyester Resins by Replacement of Styrene
6.11.2 Low Smoke Unsaturated Acrylate Oligourethane Resins with Alumina Trihydrate
6.11.3 Char-forming Low-smoke Additive for Unsaturated Polyester Resin Systems
6.12 Inherently Low Smoke Phenolic Resins
6.13 Low Smoke Epoxy Resins
References

7. Regulations, Codes and Standards Associated with Smoke
7.1 Background: Regulations, Codes and Standards
7.2 Regulations
7.2.1 How Regulation for Fire Safety Works in the United States
7.2.2 Federal Regulations
7.2.3 State Regulations
7.2.4 Local Regulations
7.2.5 Regulations of Specific Items
7.2.5.1 Aircraft
7.2.5.2 Ships
7.2.5.3 Trains and Underground Rail Vehicles
7.2.5.4 Motor Vehicles
7.2.5.5 Buses and School Buses
7.2.5.6 Mine Conveyor Belts
7.2.5.7 Carpets
7.2.6 Comparison with International Regulations
7.3 Codes
7.3.1 International Code Council Codes
7.3.1.1 International Building Codes
7.3.1.2 International Fire Codes
7.3.1.3 International Residential Codes
7.3.1.4 International Mechanical Codes
7.3.1.5 International Existing Building Codes
7.3.1.6 Other International Code Council Codes
7.3.2 National Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards
7.3.2.1 National Electrical Codes
7.3.2.2 National Life Safety Code
7.3.2.3 Uniform Fire Code
7.3.2.4 National Fire Protection Association Building Code
7.3.2.5 Buildings of Historic or Cultural Interest
7.3.2.6 Manufactured Housing
7.3.2.7 Air-Conditioning Standard
7.3.2.8 Other National Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards
7.3.3 International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials Codes
7.3.3.1 Uniform Mechanical Code
7.4 Standards
7.4.1 Organisations and Committees Issuing Fire Standards or Standards with Fire Tests
7.4.2 Standard Test Methods for Smoke Obscuration
7.4.3 Standard Test Methods Associated with Smoke Toxicity
7.5 Conclusions
References

8. Fire Hazard and Smoke Generation
References
Abbreviations
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