Allelopathy. Edition No. 2. Physiological Ecology

  • ID: 1756839
  • Book
  • 368 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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A thorough revision and update of the first edition, this Second Edition is designed to create an awareness of the rapidly developing field of allelopathy. The author appraises existing knowledge in certain critical areas, such as roles of allelopathy in the prevention of seed decay and in the nitrogen cycle, the chemical nature of allelopathic compounds, factors affecting concentrations of allelochemics in plants, movement of allelochemics from plants and absorption and translocation by other plants, mechanisms of action of allelopathic agents, and factors determining effectiveness of allelopathic compounds after egression from producing organisms. Areas in which more basic and applied research is needed are emphasized. A discussion of terminology and early history of allelopathy is followed by a discussion of the important roles of allelopathy in forestry, agriculture, plant pathology, and natural ecosystems. A separate listing of the phyla of plants demonstrated to have allelopathic species is also included.
Allelopathy, Second Edition, is a comprehensive review of the literature on allelopathy, integrating information on allelopathy with important information on ecological and agronomic problems, citing more than 1000 references. Among those who will find this to be a valuable source of information are ecologists, horticulturists, botanists, plant pathologists, phytochemists, agricultural scientists, and plant breeders.

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Preface

Preface to the First Edition


1. Introduction


I. Origin and Meaning of Allelopathy


II. Suggested Terminology for Chemical Interactions between Plants of Different Levels of Complexity


III. Early History of Allelopathy


IV. Phyla of Plants Demonstrated to Have Allelopathic Species


2. Manipulated Ecosystems: Roles of Allelopathy in Agriculture


I. Effects of Weed Interference on Crop Yields


II. Allelopathic Effects of Crop Plants on Other Crop Plants


III. Allelopathic Effects of Crop Plants on Weeds


3. Manipulated Ecosystems: Roles of Allelopathy in Forestry and Horticulture


I. Forestry


II. Horticulture


4. Roles of Allelopathy in Plant Pathology


I. Allelopathy in Development and Morphogenesis of Pathogens


II. Allelopathy in Antagonism of Pathogens by Nonhost Organisms


III. Allelochemics and the Promotion of Infections by Pathogens


IV. Allelopathy in Development of Disease Symptoms


V. Allelopathy in Host Plant Resistance to Disease


5. Natural Ecosystems: Allelopathy and Patterning of Vegetation


I. Concepts of Patterning


II. Allelopathic Effects of Herbaceous Species on Patterning


III. Allelopathic Effects of Woody Species on Patterning


IV. Patterning due to Allelopathic Effects of Microorganisms


6. Natural Ecosystems: Ecological Effects of Algal Allelopathy


I. Effects on Algal Succession


II. Allelopathic Effects of Algae Not Related Directly to Algal Succession


7. Natural Ecosystems: Allelopathy and Old-Field or Urban Succession


I. Old-Field Succession in Oklahoma


II. Old-Field Succession in Areas Other Than Oklahoma


III. Allelopathy in Urban Plant Succession in Japan


8. Allelopathy and the Prevention of Seed Decay before Germination


I. Direct Production of Microbial Inhibitors by Seed Plants


II. Production of Microbial Inhibitors in Seed Coats by Soil Microorganisms


III. Conclusions


9. Allelopathy and the Nitrogen Cycle


I. The Nitrogen Cycle and Phases Known to Be Affected by Allelopathy


II. Allelopathic Effects on Nitrogen Fixers and Nitrogen Fixation


III. Inhibition of Nitrification


10. Chemical Nature of Allelopathic Agents


I. Types of Chemical Compounds Identified as Allelopathic Agents


II. Unidentified Inhibitors


11. Factors Affecting Amounts of Allelopathic Compounds Produced by Plants


I. Introduction


II. Effects of Radiation


III. Mineral Deficiencies


IV. Water Stress


V. Temperature


VI. Allelopathic Agents


VII. Age of Plant Organs


VIII. Genetics


IX. Pathogens and Predators


X. Conclusions


12. Evidence for Movement of Allelopathic Compounds from Plants and Absorption and Translocation by Other Plants


I. Movement from Plants


II. Uptake by Plants


III. Translocation


IV. Possible Plant-Plant Movement through Root Grafts, Fungal Bridges, or Haustoria of Parasitic Vascular Plants


V. Conclusions


13. Mechanisms of Action of Allelopathic Agents


I. Introduction


II. Effects on Division, Elongation, and Ultrastructure of the Cell


III. Effects on Hormone-Induced Growth


IV. Effects on Membrane Permeability


V. Effects on Mineral Uptake


VI. Effects on Easily Available Phosphorus and Potassium in Soils


VII. Effects on Stomatal Opening and Photosynthesis


VIII. Effects on Respiration


IX. Inhibition of Protein Synthesis and Changes in Lipid and Organic Acid Metabolism


X. Possible Inhibition of Porphyrin Synthesis


XI. Inhibition or Stimulation of Specific Enzymes


XII. Effects on Corking and Clogging of Xylem Elements, Stem Conductance of Water, and Internal Water Relations


XIII. Miscellaneous Mechanisms


14. Factors Determining Effectiveness of Allelopathic Agents after Egression from Producing Organisms


I. Chemical Union of Some Allelochemics with Organic Matter in Soil


II. Soil Texture and Accumulation of Allelochemics to Physiologically Active Concentrations


III. Duration of Allelopathic Activity


IV. Decomposition of Allelochemics


V. Synergistic Action of Allelochemics


VI. Enhancement of Allelopathic Activity by Other Stress Factors


Bibliography


Index
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Rice, Elroy L.
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