The first major and most comprehensive synthesis of results from ecological, naturalistic behavioral, comparative psychological, and humanoid language research on apes since the classic work, The Great Apes, by Robert M. and Ada Yerkes in 1929. Based on more than 1,360 references from scientific journals, monographs, symposium volumes, and other public sources, the book contains a wealth of current information on the taxonomy, ecology, postural and locomotive behavior, natural communications, and social behavior of the apes. Topical discussions in the book are organized to show the extent of progress, including the development of new research questions, and the way our views of apes have changed as new information has become available since 1929.
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The Hylobatid Apes
The Pongid Apes
Temperament and Taxonomy
Food Competition and Niche Differentiation among Asian Apes
Comparison of the Feeding Ecologies of the African Apes
Meat-Eating, Hunting, Food-Sharing and Cannibalism
Lodge Sites and Nesting
What Determines the Choice of Lodge Sites by Apes?
Is Pongid Nest Making Instinctive or Learned?
Nests as Tools and Exemplars of Pongid (Proto-) Culture
Instrumentation by Captives
Instrumentation in the Wild
The Question of Culture
Brains and Mentality
The Problem of Self-Awareness
Artifactual Symbols and Rules
Menzel's Chimpanzees and the Social Imperative
Sociality and Sociobiology
Sexual Selection in the Pongidae
Synoptic Comparison of Apes