Basic Medical Endocrinology. Edition No. 4 - Product Image

Basic Medical Endocrinology. Edition No. 4

  • ID: 1757405
  • Book
  • 344 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Basic Medical Endocrinology, Fourth Edition provides up-to-date coverage of rapidly unfolding advances in the understanding of hormones involved in regulating most aspects of bodily functions. Topics are approached from the perspective of a physiologist with over 40 years of teaching experience.

This fourth edition is richly illustrated in full color with both descriptive schematic diagrams and laboratory findings obtained in clinical studies. Each of the fourteen chapters starts with an overview of the topic and ends with a Suggested Reading list. Initial chapters lay a foundation by presenting basic information and principles of hormone structure, secretion, and actions, and the physiological roles of the principal endocrine glands. Subsequent chapters address the role of the endocrine system in solving such physiological problems as the regulation of the volume and composition of body fluids in the face of changing environmental demands, and the regulation of short- and long-term energy balance. The final chapters deal with the indispensable role of hormones in growth, development and reproduction.
  • Strikes an excellent balance between systems/organismal level of overview and cellular/molecular analysis
  • Richly illustrated with over 250 full color figures, descriptive schematic diagrams, and laboratory findings
  • All chapters have been thoroughly rewritten and updated, including new discussions of adrenal steroid biosynthesis, the parathyroid in osteoporosis, obesity and metabolism, as well as an entirely new chapter on gastrointestinal hormones
  • Editor has 45 years of experience teaching endocrinology and physiology to medical students at Harvard and UMass
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List of Figures

Preface to the Fourth Edition


Preface to the First Edition


Preface to the Second Edition


Preface to the Third Edition


Chapter 1 Introduction


Biosynthesis of Hormones


Storage and Secretion


Hormones in Blood


Hormone Degradation


Mechanisms of Hormone Action


Specificity


Characteristics of Receptors


Hormonal Actions Mediated by Intracellular Receptors


Hormonal Actions Mediated by Surface Receptors


The G-protein Coupled Receptors


Receptors that Signal through Tyrosine Kinase


Regulation of Hormone Secretion


Negative Feedback


Positive Feedback


Feed Forward


Measurement of Hormones


Immunoassays


Hormone Levels in Blood


Suggested Reading


Chapter 2 Pituitary Gland


Morphology


Physiology of the Anterior Pituitary Gland


Glycoprotein Hormones


Growth Hormone and Prolactin


Adrenocorticotropin Family


Development of the Anterior Pituitary Gland


Regulation of Anterior Pituitary Function


Hypophysiotropic Hormones


Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH)


Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone


Control of GH Secretion


Corticotropin Releasing Hormone


Dopamine and control of Prolactin Secretion


Secretion and Actions of Hypophysiotropic Hormones


Feedback Control of Anterior Pituitary Function


Physiology of the Posterior


Pituitary


Regulation of Posterior Pituitary Function


Suggested Reading


Chapter 3 Thyroid Gland


Morphology


Thyroid Hormones


Biosynthesis


Iodine Trapping


Thyroglobulin Synthesis


Incorporation of Iodine


Hormone Storage


Secretion


Control of Thyroid Function


Effects of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone


Effects of the Thyroid-Stimulating Immunoglobulins


Autoregulation of Thyroid Hormone Synthesis


Thyroid Hormones in Blood


Metabolism of Thyroid Hormones


Physiological Effects of Thyroid Hormones


Growth and Maturation


Skeletal System


Central Nervous System


AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM


CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM


METABOLISM


Oxidative Metabolism and Thermogenesis


Carbohydrate Metaboliism


Lipid Metabolism


Nitrogen Metabolism


Regulation of Thyroid Hormone Secretion


Mechanism of Thyroid Hormone Action


Suggested Reading


Chapter 4 Adrenal Glands


Morphology


Adrenal Cortex


Adrenocortical Hormones


Control of Adrenocortical Hormone Synthesis


Adrenal Steroid Hormones in Blood


Postsecretory Metabolism of Adrenal Cortical Hormones


Physiology of the Mineralocorticoids


Effects of Aldosterone on the Kidney


Regulation of Aldosterone Secretion


Physiology of the Glucocorticoids


Effects on Energy Metabolism


Effects on Water Balance


Effects on Lung DevelopmentGlucocorticoids and Responses to Injury


Adrenocortical Function during Stress


Mechanism of Action of Glucocorticoids


Regulation of Glucocorticoid Secretion


Adrenal Medulla


Biosynthesis of the Medullary Catecholamines


Storage, Release, and Metabolism of Medullary Hormones


Physiological Actions of Medullary Hormones


Regulation Of Adrenal Medullary Function


Suggested Reading


Chapter 5 Principles of Hormonal Integration


Integration of Hormonal Signals at the Cellular and Molecular Level


Augmentation, Antagonism, and Synergy


Permissiveness


Maintaining Signal Fidelity


Modulation of Responding Systems


Sensitivity and Capacity


Spare Receptors


Hormonal Integration at the Whole Animal Level


Redundancy


Reinforcement


Push-Pull Mechanisms


Chapter 6 Hormones of the Gastrointestinal Tract


Functional Anatomy of the GI Tract


Overview of Digestion and Absorption


Hormones of the Gastrointestinal Tract


The Gastrin/Cholecystokinin Family


Physiological Actions of Gastrin


Regulation of Gastrin Secretion


Cholecystokinin (CCK)


The Secretin/Glucagon Superfamily


Secretin 114


GIP (Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide/Gastric Inhibitory Peptide)


Glucagon-like Peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2)


The Pancreatic Polypeptide Family


Neurotensin


The Motilin/Ghrelin Family


Concluding Comments


Suggested Reading


Chapter 7 The Pancreatic Islets


Morphology of the Endocrine Pancreas


Glucagon


Biosynthesis, Secretion, and Metabolism


Physiological Actions of Glucagon


Glucose Production


Glycogenolysis


Gluconeogenesis


Lipogenesis and Ketogenesis


Ureogenesis


Regulation of Glucagon Secretion


Insulin


Biosynthesis, Secretion, and Metabolism


Physiological Actions of Insulin


Effects of Insulin Deficiency


Effects on Adipose Tissue


Effects on Muscle 138


Effects on Liver


Mechanism of Insulin Action


Regulation of Insulin Secretion


Glucose


Other Circulating Metabolites


Hormonal and Neural Control


Cellular Events


Somatostatin


Suggested Reading


Chapter 8 Hormonal Regulation of Fuel Metabolism


General Features of Energy Metabolism


Body Fuels


Glucose


Glycogen


Protein


Fat


Problems Inherent in the Use of Glucose and Fat as Metabolic Fuels


Fuel Consumption


The Glucose Fatty Acid Cycle


AMP Activated Kinase (AMPK)


Overall Regulation of Blood Glucose Concentration


Short-term Regulation


Long-term Regulation


Integrated Actions of Metabolic Hormones


Adipose Issue


Muscle


Liver


Pancreatic Islets


Regulation of Metabolism during Feeding and Fasting


Postprandial Period


Postabsorptive Period


Fasting


Hormonal Interactions during Exercise


Short-Term Maximal Effort


Sustained Aerobic Exercise


Long-term Regulation of Fuel Storage


Adipogenesis


Hypothalamic Control of Appetite and Food Intake


Peripheral Input to Hypothalamic Feeding and Satiety Neurons


Adiposity Signals


Leptin


Insulin as an Adiposity Signal


Adipokines


Satiety Signals


Perspective


Suggested Reading


Chapter 9 Regulation of Salt and Water Balance


General Considerations


Salt and Water Balance


Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)


Antidiuretic Effect


Effects on Blood Pressure


Regulation of ADH Secretion


Plasma Osmolality


Blood Volume


Dysfunctional States


The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System


Actions of Angiotensin II


Actions on the Adrenal Cortex


Actions on the Kidney


Cardiovascular Effects


Central Nervous System Effects


Regulation of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System


Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF)


Physiological Actions


Cardiovascular Actions


Renal Actions


Effects on Aldosterone Secretion


Other Effects


Regulation of ANF Secretion


Integrated Compensatory Responses to Changes in Salt and Water Balance


Hemorrhage


Response of the Renin Angiotensin System


Response of the ADH System


Response of Aldosterone


Response of ANF


Dehydration


Salt Loading and Depletion


Suggested Reading


Chapter 10 Hormonal Regulation of Calcium Balance


General Features of Calcium Balance


Distribution of Calcium in the Body


Calcium Balance


Intestinal Absorption


Bone


Kidney


Phosphorus Balance


Parathyroid Glands and Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)


Biosynthesis, Storage, and Secretion of PTH


Mechanisms of Parathyroid Hormone Action


Physiological Actions Of PTH


Actions on Bone


Actions on Kidney


Effects on Intestinal Absorption


PTH Fragments


Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide (PTHRP)


Regulation Of PTH Secretion


Calcitonin


Cells of Origin


Biosynthesis, Secretion, and Metabolism


Physiological Actions of Calcitonin


Actions on Bone


Actions on Kidney


Regulation of Secretion


The Vitamin D-Endocrine System


Synthesis and Metabolism


Physiological Actions of 1,25(OH)2D3


Actions on Intestine


Actions on Bone


Actions on Kidney


Actions on Parathyroid Glands


Regulation Of 1,25(OH)2D3 Production


Calcium Regulation of Plasma Calcium Concentrations


Integrated Actions of Calcitropic Hormones


Response to a Hypocalcemic Challenge


Response to a Hypercalcemic Challenge


Other Hormones That Influence Calcium Balance


Suggested Reading


Chapter 11 Hormonal Control of Growth


Growth Hormone


Synthesis, Secretion, and Metabolism


Mode of Action


Physiological Actions of Growth Hormone


Effects on Skeletal Growth


Effects of GH/IGF-I on Body Composition


Regulation of GH Secretion


Effects of Age


Regulators of GH Secretion


Actions Of GHRH, Somatostatin, IGF-I, and GH Relin on the Somatotrope


Thyroid Hormones


Dependence of GH Synthesis and Secretion on T3


Importance of T3 for Expression Of GH Actions


Insulin


Gonadal Hormones


Effects of Estrogens on Epiphyseal Growth Plates


Effects on Growth Hormone Secretion and Action


Effects of Androgens


Glucocorticoids


Suggested Reading


Chapter 12 Hormonal Control of Reproduction in the Male


Morphology of the Testes


Leydig Cells and Seminiferous Tubules


Male Reproductive Tract


Control of Testicular Function


Leydig Cells


Germinal Epithelium


Testosterone


Secretion and Metabolism


Mechanism of Action


Effects on the Male Genital Tract


Effects on Secondary Sexual Characteristics


Sexual Differentiation


Development of Internal Reproductive Ducts and Their Derivatives


Development of the External Genitalia


Testicular Descent into the Scrotum


Postnatal Development


Anomalies of Sexual Differentiation


Regulation of Testicular Function


Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone and the Hypothalamic Pulse Generator


Negative Feedback Regulators


Inhibin and Testosterone


Prepuberty


Puberty


Suggested Reading


Chapter 13 Hormonal Control of Reproduction in the Female: The Menstrual Cycle


Female Reproductive Tract


Ovaries


Folliculogenesis


Oviducts and Uterus


Ovarian Hormones


Estrogens


Progesterone Inhibin


Relaxin


Control of Ovarian Function


Effects of FSH and LH on the Developing Follicle


Estradiol Production


Follicular Development


Cellular Actions of FSH and LH


Effects on Ovulation


Effects on Corpus Luteum Formation


Effects on Oocyte Maturation


Effects on Corpus Luteal Function


Effects on Ovarian Blood Flow


Physiological Actions of Ovarian Steroid Hormones


Effects on the Reproductive Tract


Menstruation


Effects on the Mammary Glands


Other Effects of Ovarian Hormones


Mechanism of Action


Regulation of the Reproductive Cycle


Pattern of Hormones in Blood during the Ovarian Cycle


Regulation Of FSH And LH Secretion


Negative Feedback Aspects


Selection of the Dominant Follicle


Positive Feedback Aspects


Neural Control of Gonadotropin Secretion


Sites of Feedback Control


Timing of Reproductive Cycles


Suggested Reading


Chapter 14 Hormonal Control of Pregnancy and Lactation


Fertilization and Implantation


Gamete Transport


Role of the Oviducts


Implantation and the Formation of the Placenta


The Placenta


Placental Hormones


Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)


Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin (HCS)


Progesterone


Estrogens


The Role of the Fetal Adrenal Cortex


The Role of Progesterone and Estrogens in Sustaining Pregnancy


Maternal Adaptations to Pregnancy


Cardiovascular Adaptations


Renal Adaptations


Osmoregulation and Thirst


Respiratory Adjustments


Gas Exchange


Metabolic Adjustments


Calcium Balance


Parturition


The Role of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH)


The Role of Oxytocin


Lactation


Growth and Development of the Mammary Glands


Milk Production


Lactation and Maternal Calcium Balance


Mechanism of Prolactin Action


Neuroendocrine Mechanisms


Milk Let-Down Reflex


Cellular Actions of Oxytocin


Control of Prolactin Secretion


Cellular Regulation of Prolactin Secretion


Prolactin in Blood


Lactation and Resumption of Ovarian Cycles


Suggested Reading


Index
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Holt, Elizabeth H.
Dr. Holt was the co-director of the Endocrine Neoplasia Group; the Connecticut Endocrine Society President (2006); recognized as Connecticut Magazine Top Docotrs in 205 and 2016.
Peery, Harry
.Dr. Peery is an assistant professor and teaches medical students at the Cumming School of Medicine. He received his PhD from the University of Saskatchewan and focused his research on the pathogenesis of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, cancer biomarkers, and endometriosis. Dr. Peery holds a Masters degree in microbiology (Ohio State University), and a PhD in molecular neuropharmacology (University of Saskatchewan).
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