The theoretical contribution of the book is its focus on the development of the concept of networks. From being regarded as a relative static concept the book transforms the concept into a dynamic concept of networking. The dynamic view on the creation and development of new technologies through network formations is linked to the concept of strategy that is used throughout the book. Hence the strategies are developed along with the creation of technological knowledge, and it is hoped that the diffusion of this specific knowledge will bring new actors into the technological arena or community.
This book will be useful to the academic community, those studying the formation of networks, strategic management, organizational behavior, and management of technology, as well as business observers with a specific interest in the evolution of the biotechnology industry.
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Part 1 Introduction.
1. From life sciences to organization sociology.
1.0 What the book is not about!
1.1 An overview of the studies on the biotechnology industry.
1.2 The constitution of a new technological field.
1.3 The research method.
1.4 Outline of the book.
2. The history of the biotechnology industry.
2.1 The conceptual struggle.
2.2 The research field of biological engineering
an enabling technology.
2.3 The industrial application of new biotechnologies.
2.4 The development of competencies
cross-fertilizing of processes and techniques.
2.5 Network formation and resource dependency.
Part II Construction
3. The biotechnology community.
3.1 The theoretical aspects of the systems approach.
3.2 The biotechnology community
introduction of the actors.
3.3 Strategies among biotechnology firms.
3.4 The role of universities
from knowledge generators to profit makers.
3.5 Technology parks
incubators of biotechnology.
3.6 Public regulatory bodies
a balance between restriction, approval and promotion.
3.7 Venture capital
the noble art of balancing between altruism and cannibalism.
3.8 Pharmaceutical and chemical firms
the late adopters.
Part III Reconstruction.
4. Theoretical aspects of strategies and networks.
4.0 An organizational perspective on strategies and networks
shifting the level of analysis.
4.1 The organization of technological search and learning.
4.2 The internal organization
dominating coalitions and the formation of routines.
4.3 Firms in networks
the external relations.
4.4 Networking activities
types and backgrounds.
4.5 Strategic behavior and the formation of networks
5. The co-evolution of strategies and networks
designing the case studies.
5.1 The parallel and intertwined processes of network formation.
5.2 Designing the case studies of the three types of strategies.
5.3 The conceptualization of the empirical field.
5.4 On the track
Part IV Reconstruction.
6. The project strategy.
6.1 The history of the firm.
6.2 Phase I: Kem-En-Tec 1983-1993.
6.3 Phase II Establishing subsidiaries.
6.4 The future of Kem-En-Tec
the problem of the project strategy.
6.5 The new future of an experimenting firm
the 2001 update.
the project strategy a question of "exits".
7. The incremental strategy.
7.1 AndCare, Inc.
7.2 ThermoGen Inc.
7.3 Conclusion on the incremental strategy.
8. The vertical integration strategy.
8.1 Calgene, Inc.
8.2 Incyte Genomics, Inc.
8.3 Conclusion of the vertical integration strategy.
Part V Conclusion.
9. The role of the biotechnological industries.
9.1 From industrial sociology to organizational sociology.
9.2 Strategy and networks
a mating dance.
9.3 The entrepreneurial strategies revisited.
9.4 The managerial aspects of the network processes.
9.5 The neo-schumpeterian strategies.
10. The constitution of technological fields.
10.0 The theoretical ambition of the study revisited.
10.1 The embeddedness of routines, communities of practice, and technological systems.
10.2 The role of organizational routines.
10.3 The role of communities of practice.
10.4 The role of technological systems.
10.5 Four entrepreneurial abilities in the constitution of technological fields.
List of interviews.