Cancer Imaging

  • ID: 1757893
  • Book
  • Region: Global
  • 792 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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With cancer related deaths projected to rise to 10.3 million people by 2020, the need to prevent, diagnose, and cure cancer is greater than ever. These two volumes present readers with the most up-to-date imaging instrumentation, general and diagnostic applications for various cancers. Both volumes discuss the various imaging techniques used to locate and diagnose tumors, including ultrasound, X-ray, color Doppler sonography, PET, CT, PET/CT, MRI, SPECT, diffusion tensor imaging, dynamic infrared imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. They also detail strategies for imaging cancer, emphasizing the importance of the use of this technology for clinical diagnosis. Imaging techniques that predict the malignant potential of cancers, response to chemotherapy and other treatments, recurrence, and prognosis are also detailed.

Both volumes [Volume 1: 978-0-12-370468-9 and Volume 2: 978-0-12-374183-7] are sold separately for $189 each.

. Concentrates on the application of imaging technology to the diagnosis and prognosis of lung, breast, prostate, colorectal, ovarian, gastrointestinal, and bone cancers
. Addresses relationship between radiation dose and image quality
. Discusses the role of molecular imaging in identifying changes for the emergence and progression of cancer at the cellular and/or molecular levels
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Contents of Volume 1

Contributors


Preface


Selected Glossary


Part I: Instrumentation


Chapter 1.1 Proton Computed Tomography


Introduction


Review of Prior Studies on Proton Imaging


Image Formation Principles of Proton Computed Tomography


Detector Design and Data Acquisition for Proton Computed Tomography


Image Reconstruction Algorithms


Discussion and Conclusions


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 1.2 Multidetector Computed Tomography


Introduction


Evolution of Computed Tomography


Basic Physics of Multidetector Computed Tomography and Image Quality


Artifacts in Multidetector Computed Tomography


Radiation Dose Considerations


Electrocardiogram-Gated Multidetector Computed Tomography


Use of Intravenous Contrast in Multidetector Computed Tomography Oncologic Imaging


Three-Dimensional and Multiplanar Reformations


Three-Dimensional Volume Rendering


Volumetric Analysis of Lesions


Computer-Aided Detection


References


Chapter 1.3 Megavoltage Computed Tomography Imaging


Introduction


Fundamentals of Megavoltage Imaging


Design and Performance Characteristics of Tomotherapy Megavoltage Computed Tomography


Clinical Implementation of Megavoltage Computed Tomography


Use of Megavoltage Computed Tomography for Daily Alignment: Head and Neck Cancers


Adaptive Image Guidance: Lung Cancers


Image-Based Volumetric Dose Calculations: Prostate Cancer


Image-Based Volumetric Dose Calculations: Intracavitary Brachytherapy


References


Chapter 1.4 Integrated SET-3000G/X Positron Emission Tomography Scanner


Introduction


System Description


Continuous Emission and Spiral Transmission Scanning


PET/CT System with cEST Scanning


Discussion


References


Chapter 1.5 High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy


Introduction


Samples


Spectral Analysis


Results


Discussion


References


Chapter 1.6 Spatial Dependency of Noise and Its Correlation among Various Imaging Modalities


Introduction


Impact of Noise in Images


Noise


Noise Variation


Noise Correlation


Autocorrelation Function


Noise Correlation in Various Modalities


Discussion


References


Chapter 1.7 Computed Tomography Scan Methods Account for Respiratory Motion in Lung Cancer


Introduction


Slow Scan Computed Tomography vs. Fast Scan Computed Tomography


Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography


Respiratory Gating Computed Tomography


Volumetric Cine Computed Tomography


Respiratory-Correlated Segment Computed Tomography


References


Chapter 1.8 Respiratory Motion Artifact Using Positron Emission Tomography/ Computed Tomography


Introduction


Origin of the Artifact


Appearance of the Artifact


Consequences of the Artifact


Avoiding the Effects of the Artifact


References


Chapter 1.9 Gadolinium-Based Contrast Media Used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: An Overview


Introduction


Mechanism of Action


Classification


Clinical Safety


Other Applications


References


Chapter 1.10 Molecular Imaging of Cancer with Superparamagnetic Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles


Introduction


Iron Oxide Core and Superparamagnetism


Synthesis and Coating


Biocompatibility and Biodistribution


Cell Tracking


Organ-Specific/Passive Targeting


Active Targeting


Apoptosis


Magnetic Relaxation Switches


Imaging of Gene Expression


High-Throughput Screening


References


Chapter 1.11 Adverse Reactions to Iodinated Contrast Media


Introduction


Acute General Adverse Reactions to Contrast Media


Delayed General Adverse Reactions to Contrast Media


Contrast Media-Induced Nephrotoxicity


Contrast Media Interactions with Other Drugs and Clinical Tests


Conclusion


References


Part II: General Imaging Applications


Chapter 2.1 The Accuracy of Diagnostic Radiology


Introduction


Traditional Methods of Measuring Diagnostic Accuracy


Signal Detection Theory


Mammography Screening: Misses and False Alarms


Mammography Screening: Radiologists and Pathologists


Screening Mammography with Computer-Aided Detection (CAD)


Conclusion


References


Chapter 2.2 Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging: Applications to Medicine


Introduction


Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging System


Principles of Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging


Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging Contrast Mechanisms


Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging Contrast Mechanisms in Breast Cancer Specimens


Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging Conventional Radiography: Comparison of Contrast Mechanisms in Breast Cancer Specimens


References


Chapter 2.3 Role of Imaging in Drug Development


Introduction


Drug Development


Role of Imaging


Technical Considerations


Applications


Discussion


References


Chapter 2.4 Characterization of Multiple Aspects of Tumor Physiology by Multitracer Positron Emission Tomography


Introduction


PET Tracers and Imaging Targets


Complementary Value of Imaging Multiple Tracers


Technical Challenges for Imaging Multiple Tracers


The Future: Rapid Multitracer Positron Emission Tomography


References


Chapter 2.5 Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Metastases


Introduction


Methodology of Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging


Clinical Results of Whole-Body MRI for Tumor Staging


References


Chapter 2.6 Whole-Body Imaging in Oncology: Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT)


Introduction


Technical Considerations


Clinical Considerations


References


Chapter 2.7 Whole-Body Cancer Imaging: Simple Image Fusion with Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography


Introduction


Hardware and Software Fusion


Fusion Technique for Cancer Imaging


Advanced Fusion with Advanced Software


References


Chapter 2.8 Whole-Body Tumor Imaging: O-[11C] Methyl-L-Tyrosine/Positron Emission Tomography


Introduction


Development of O-[11C]Methyl-k-Tyrosine


Whole-Body Tumor Imaging Using OMT Compared with FDG


Brain Tumor Imaging Using OMT Compared with MET


Conclusion


References


Chapter 2.9 Tumor Proliferation: 2-[11C]-Thymidine Positron Emission Tomography


Introduction


[11C]-Thymidine Positron Tomography Methodology


Historical Development of Thymidine Positron Emission Tomography


Validation Studies


[11C]-MethyI-Thymidine


2-[11C]-Thymidine


Validation of 2-[11C]-Thymidine Positron Emission Tomography in Patients


Development and Application of Kinetic Models


Kinetic Analysis of 2-[11C]-Thymidine Positron Emission Tomography Images


Pharmacodynamic Studies


Comparison of 2-[11C]-Thymidine with FDG-PET and Magnetic Resonance Imaging


2-[11C]-Thymidine PET to Detect Antitumor Activity in Clinical Drug Trials


Discussion and Summary


References


Chapter 2.10 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography in Oncology: Advantages and Limitations


Introduction


Mechanisms of 18FDG Uptake


18SFDG PET Uptake Patterns


Advantages of 18FDG PET


Limitations of 18FDG PET


Clinical Indications


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 2.11 Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Tumor Hypoxia and Angiogenesis: Imaging Biology and Guiding Therapy


Introduction


Hypoxia-Induced Changes in Tumor Behavior


Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF)


Angiogenesis


Tumor Hypoxia and Clinical Outcome: New Approach to an Old Problem


The Importance of Identifying Hypoxia in Tumors


Methods to Evaluate Tumor Hypoxia


Polarographic Electrode Measurements of Tissue Oxygenation


Evaluating Angiogenesis


Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Hypoxia Imaging


Summary


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 2.12 Noninvasive Determination of Angiogenesis: Molecular Targets and Tracer Development


Introduction


Possible Targets for Imaging Angiogenesis


Summary and Conclusion


References


Chapter 2.13 Gross Tumor Volume and Clinical Target Volume: Anatomical Computed Tomography and Functional FDG-PET


Introduction


Radioprotection of the Patient


Method


Discussion


Problems and Their Solutions


Expected Improvement


References


Chapter 2.14 Post-Treatment Changes in Tumor Microenvironment: Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging


Introduction


Contrast Media


Acquisition of T1 Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Data


Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced-MRI in Experimental Oncology


Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced-MRI in Clinical Oncology


Limitations


Conclusions and Perspectives


Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging


References


Chapter 2.15 In Vivo Molecular Imaging in Oncology: Principles of Reporter Gene Expression Imaging


Introduction


Reporter Gene Expression Imaging: A Subfield of Molecular Imaging


Principles of Reporter Gene Expression Imaging


Categories of Reporter Gene Expression Imaging Systems


Principles of Optical Reporter Gene Imaging in Living Subjects


Instrumentation and Techniques for Bioluminescence Imaging


Future Outlook


References


Chapter 2.16 Medical Radiation-Induced Cancer


Introduction


Diagnostic Radiation Exposure


Therapeutic Radiation Exposure


Discussion


References


Part III: Applications to Specific Cancers


Chapter 3.1 Adrenal Lesions: Role of Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography, and Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography


Introduction


Computed Tomography


Magnetic Resonance Imaging


Positron Emission Tomography and Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography


Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA) Biopsy


Summary


References


Chapter 3.2 Hemangioendothelioma: Whole-Body Technetium-99m Red Blood Cell Imaging-Magnetic Resonance Imaging


Introduction


Histopathologic Classification


Clinical Presentation and Radiology of Hemangioendothelioma


Technetium-99m Red Blood Cell Imaging


Summary


References


Chapter 3.3 Malignant Bone Involvement: Assessment Using Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography


Introduction


SPECT and PET Imaging of Malignant Bone Involvement: Technological and Radiochemical Aspects


Imaging of Bone Involvement in Common Human Malignancies


References


Chapter 3.4 Bone Metastasis: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography


Introduction


Bone Metastasis


Technical Aspects for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography


Clinical Applications for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography Fusion


References


Chapter 3.5 Bone Cancer: Comparison of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography with Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography


Introduction


What is 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography?


What is Bone Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography?


FDG-PET vs. Bone SPECT for Bone Metastases in Various Human Malignancies


Summary


References


Chapter 3.6 Bone Metastasis in Endemic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography


Introduction


Diagnosis and Staging


Management


Bone Metastasis


References


Chapter 3.7 Colorectal Polyps: Magnetic Resonance Colonography


Colorectal Cancer Screening


Virtual Colonoscopy


Magnetic Resonance Colonography


Future Directions


References


Chapter 3.8 Early Bile Duct Carcinoma: Ultrasound, Computed Tomography, Cholangiography, and Magnetic Resonance Cholangiography


Introduction


Pathology of Early Bile Duct Cancer


Sonographic Features


Computed Tomography Features


Cholangiography and Magnetic Resonance Cholangiographic Features


Cholangiographic Features


Comparison between Pathology and Imaging


References


Chapter 3.9 Incidental Extracolonic Lesions: Computed Tomography


Introduction


Computed Tomography Colonography Technique


Minimal Preparation Computed Tomography Technique


Extracolonic Findings in Computed Tomography Colonography and Minimum Preparation Computed Tomography


Comparison of Reported Studies


Practical Implications and Handling of Extracolonic Findings in Specific Organs


Conclusions


References


Chapter 3.10 Colorectal Cancer: Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Cellular and Molecular Imaging


Introduction


Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Basic Principles


Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Colorectal Cancer in Clinical Use


Imaging Strategies for the Future


Conclusion


References


Chapter 3.11 Potential New Staging Perspectives in Colorectal Cancer: Whole-Body PET/ CT-Colonography


Introduction


Indications


Patient Preparation and Imaging Procedure


Image Evaluation


Clinical Experience


Perspectives and Considerations


Possible Indications and Perspectives


Limitations and Conclusion


References


Chapter 3.12 Thoracic Esophageal Cancer: Interstitial Magnetic Lymphography Using Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide


Introduction


Method


Discussion


Reference


Chapter 3.13 Esophageal Cancer: Comparison of 18F-Fluoro-3-Deoxy-3-L-Fluorothymidine-Positron Emission Tomography with 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography


Introduction


Materials and Methods


Results


Discussion


References


Chapter 3.14 Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Positron Emission Tomography and Contrast-Enhanced Helical Computed Tomography


Introduction


Imaging Techniques to Localize and Monitor Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors


Use of Imatinib in Treatment of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors


18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography


Metabolic and Morphological Imaging


References


Chapter 3.15 Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Computed Tomography


Introduction


Pathologic Features


Clinical Features


Computed Tomography Features


Conclusion


References


Chapter 3.16 Gastrointestinal Lipomas: Computed Tomography


Introduction


Computed Tomography


Other Imaging Methods


References


Chapter 3.17 Computed Tomography in Peritoneal Surface Malignancy


Introduction


Computed Tomography Diagnosis


Computed Tomography Patient Selection


Interpretive Computer Tomography Classification of the Small Bowel and Its Mesentery


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 3.18 Gastrointestinal Tumors: Computed Tomography/Endoscopic Ultrasonography


Introduction


Tumor Size


Problems in Staging Classification


Preoperative Three-Dimensional Structure and Volumetry of Gastrointestinal Tumors


Future Prospects


References


Chapter 3.19 Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography


Introduction


Principles, Techniques, and Pitfalls


Pancreas


Biliary Tract


References


Chapter 3.20 Occult Primary Head and Neck Carcinoma: Role of Positron Emission Tomography Imaging


Introduction


Evaluation


Positron Emission Tomography


Panendoscopy


Treatment


Unknown Primary Adenocarcinoma


Melanoma of Unknown Primary Tumor


Cystic Metastatic Disease in the Neck


Conclusions/Future Direction


References


Chapter 3.21 Benign and Malignant Nodes in the Neck: Magnetic Resonance Microimaging


Introduction


Technical Details


Anatomy of the Lymph Node


Metastatic Nodes


Nodal Lymphomas and Infectious Lymphadenopathy


Imaging Strategy for Diagnosing Lymphadenopathy in the Neck


References


Chapter 3.22 Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Comparison of Computed Tomography with Magnetic Resonance Imaging


Introduction


Methods


Results


Discussion


Conclusion


References


Chapter 3.23 Computed Tomography in Renal Cell Carcinoma


Introduction


Multidetector Computed Tomography Technique


Staging of Renal Cell Carcinoma


Role of Multidetector Computed Tomography in Conservative Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma


Multidetector Computed Tomography of Cystic Renal Cell Carcinoma


Multidetector Computed Tomography Features of Specific Subtypes of Renal Cell Carcinoma


Differential Diagnosis of Renal Cell Carcinoma with Multidetector Computed Tomography


Radiation Dose Associated with Multidetector Computed Tomography of Renal Cell Carcinoma


References


Chapter 3.24 Renal Cell Carcinoma Subtypes: Multislice Computed Tomography


Introduction


Renal Cell Carcinoma Subtypes


Multislice Computerized Tomography


Differentiation of RCC Subtypes by MDCT


Discussion


References


Chapter 3.25 Renal Impairment: Comparison of Noncontrast Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Urography, and Combined Abdominal Radiography/ Ultrasonography


Introduction


Combined Plain Abdominal Radiography and Ultrasonography


Noncontrast Computed Tomography


Magnetic Resonance Urography


Materials and Methods


Results


Discussion and Conclusion


References


Chapter 3.26 Renal Lesions: Magnetic Resonance Diffusion-Weighted Imaging


Introduction


Technique


Renal Diffusion


Renal Normal Parenchyma


References


Chapter 3.27 Malignant Lymphoma: 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography


Introduction


Principle and Methods


Positron Emission Tomography and Staging


Positron Emission Tomography and Early Response to Therapy


Post-Therapy Positron Emission Tomography


Positron Emission Tomography before Transplantation


Positron Emission Tomography and Radiotherapy and Radioimmunotherapy


Positron Emission Tomography and Relapse


References


Chapter 3.28 Malignant Melanoma: Positron Emission Tomography


Introduction


Positron Emission Tracers


Receptor-Specific PET Tracers


Conclusion


References


Chapter 3.29 Multiple Myeloma: Scintigraphy Using Technetium-99m-2- Methoxyisobutylisonitrile


Introduction


Technetium-99m-MIBI Scintigraphy


References


Chapter 3.30 Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography


Introduction


Pretreatment Evaluation


Post-Treatment Tumor Evaluation


Response to Radiotherapy


Response to Chemotherapy


Residual or Recurrent Tumor


Radiation-Induced Complications


Conclusion


References


Chapter 3.31 Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma for Staging and Re-Staging with 18F-FDG-PET/CT


Introduction


Methods: Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Imaging Protocol


Results and Discussion


References


Chapter 3.32 Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors: Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging


Introduction


Granulosa Cell Tumors


Fibroma, Fibrothecoma, and Thecoma


Sclerosing Stromal Tumor of Ovary


Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor


Steroid Cell Tumor


Summary


References


Chapter 3.33 Malignant Germ Cell Tumors: Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging


Introduction


Dermoid Cyst with Malignant Transformation


Immature Teratoma


Dysgerminoma


Endodermal Sinus Tumor


Choriocarcinoma


Embryonal Carcinoma


Malignant Mixed Germ Cell Tumors


References


Chapter 3.34 Ovarian Small Round Cell Tumors: Magnetic Resonance Imaging


Introduction


Imaging Findings


References


Chapter 3.35 Ovarian Borderline Serous Surface Papillary Tumor: Magnetic Resonance Imaging


Introduction


Discussion


References


Chapter 3.36 Chronic Pancreatitis versus Pancreatic Cancer: Positron Emission Tomography


Introduction


Usefulness of FDG-PET


Limitations of FDG-PET


Differential Diagnosis between Pancreatic Cancer and Inflammatory Pancreatic Lesions


is There Any Better Tracer Than FDG?


Conclusions and Future Perspective


References


Chapter 3.37 Pancreatic Cancer: p-[123l] Iodo-L-Phenylalanine Single Photon Emission Tomography for Tumor Imaging


Introduction


Materials and Methods


Results


Discussion


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 3.38 Pancreatic Islet Cell Tumors: Endoscopic Ultrasonography


Introduction


Classification of Islet Cell Tumors


Detection and Localization by Endoscopic Ultrasonography


Endoscopic Ultrasonographic Findings of Islet Cell Tumors


Atypical Manifestations and Differential Diagnosis


References


Chapter 3.39 Parotid Gland Tumors: Advanced Imaging Technologies


Introduction


Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Imaging


Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Calculation


Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging (1H-MRS)


Positron Emission Tomography and Scintigraphy


Benign Parotid Tumors


Malignant Parotid Tumors


References


Chapter 3.40 Pituitary Macroadenomas: Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Endonasal Endoscopy


Introduction


Methods


Results


Discussion


Future Directions


References


Chapter 3.41 Penile Cancer Staging: 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography


Introduction


Etiology, Histology, and Staging


Therapy


Diagnostics of the Primary Malignancy


Lymph Node Metastases


Scintigraphic Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy


Conventional Imaging Modalities for Staging of Penile Cancer


PET and PET/CT for Staging of Penile Cancer


Summary


References


Chapter 3.42 Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors: [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography


Introduction


Standard Diagnostic Procedures


Treatment and Outcome


Positron Emission Tomography Imaging in Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor


Summary


References


Chapter 3.43 Prostate Cancer: 11C-Choline-Positron Emission Tomography


Introduction


Principle and Methods


11C-Choline PET for Intraprostatic Tumor Localization


11 C-Choline PET for Staging of Prostate Cancer


11C-Choline PET for Detection of Prostate Cancer Recurrence


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 3.44 Metabolic Characterization of Prostate Cancer: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy


Introduction


Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy


Current Techniques


Current In Vivo Prostate Cancer Spectroscopy


Future Directions


Acknowledgment


References


Chapter 3.45 Prostate Cancer: Diffusion-Weighted Imaging


Introduction


Basics and Recent Advances of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging


Current Problems and Future Directions of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging


References


Chapter 3.46 Prostatic Secretory Protein of 94 Amino Acids Gene-Directed Transgenic Prostate Cancer: Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Microimaging


Introduction


Brief Review of PSP94


PSP94 Gene-Directed Genetically Engineered Mouse Prostate Cancer Models


Microimaging of GE-PC Mouse Models: Importance of Noninvasive Techniques


PSP-TGMAP Microimaging Methods


Results of PSP-TGMAP Imaging Studies


Future Directions: Imaging of Prostate Tumor Vascularity


References


Chapter 3.47 Prostate Cancer within the Transition Zone: Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging


Introduction


Methods


Results


Discussion


References


Chapter 3.48 Rectal Wall Invasion of Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Comparison of Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Transrectal Ultrasound


Introduction


Selection of Patients for Radical Surgery


Determining the Appropriate Surgical Procedure


References


Chapter 3.49 Local Staging of Prostate Cancer Using Endorectal Coil Magnetic Resonance Imaging


Introduction


Tumor Characteristics


Grading and Partin Tables


Prognostic Factors


Staging of Prostate Cancer


Imaging Techniques in Staging


Endorectal Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Local Staging of Prostate Cancer


Conclusion


References


Chapter 3.50 Extremity Sarcoma: Positron Emission Tomography


Introduction


Evolution of FDG-PET in Extremity Sarcoma


Role of FDG-PET in the Differential Diagnosis of Connective Tissue Lesions


Role of FDG-PET in Grading Soft Tissue Sarcoma


Role of FDG-PET in Directing Biopsy


Role of FDG-PET in Predicting Sarcoma-Specific Death


Role of FDG-PET in Monitoring Response to Therapy


Bone Sarcoma


Role of FDG-PET in Evaluating Sarcoma Recurrence


Future Directions


References


Chapter 3.51 Retroperitoneal Synovial Sarcoma: Color Doppler Ultrasound, Computed Tomography, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging


Introduction


Radiologic Findings


Conclusion


References


Chapter 3.52 Thymoma: Computed Tomography


Introduction


Computed Tomography


Therapy


Conclusions


References


Chapter 3.53 Hemolymphangiomatosis of the Spleen: Conventional Diagnostic Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Superparamagnetic Contrast Agent


Introduction


Pathology


Imaging


Differential Diagnosis and Conclusions


References


Chapter 3.54 Thyroid Cancer: 18F-FDG-Positron Emission Tomography


Introduction


Assessment of Thyroid Nodules


Thyroid Positron Emission Tomography Incidentaloma


Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma


Hürthle Cell Carcinoma


Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer


Medullary Thyroid Cancer


Summary and Conclusions


References


Chapter 3.55 Thyroid Cancer: ~SF-Fluoro-2-Deoxy-D- Glucose Positron Emission Tomography (An Overview)


Introduction


18F-Fluoro-2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Positron Emission Tomography


Biological Mechanism of the Enhanced FDG-Uptake in Thyroid Cancer


FDG-PET in the Diagnostic Assessment of a Thyroid Nodule


FDG-PET in the Follow-Up of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer


FDG-PET in Medullary Thyroid Cancer


FDG-PET in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer


Thyroid FDG-PET Incidentaloma


References


Chapter 3.56 Diagnosis of Thyroid Cancer in Children: Value of Power Doppler Ultrasound


Introduction


Pathogenesis


Clinical Presentation


Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging


Benign Thyroid Lesions


Thyroid Cancer


References


Index


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Hayat, M. A.
Dr. Hayat has published extensively in the fields of microscopy, cytology, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, and antigen retrieval methods. He is Distinguished Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Kean University, Union, New Jersey, USA.
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