Environmental and Pollution Science. Edition No. 2

  • ID: 1760470
  • Book
  • 552 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Environmental and Pollution Science, Second Edition, provides the latest information on the environmental influence of a significant number of subjects, and discusses their impact on a new generation of students.

This updated edition of Pollution Science has been renamed to reflect a wider view of the environmental consequences we pay as a price for a modern economy. The authors have compiled the latest information to help students assess environmental quality using a framework of principles that can be applied to any environmental problem.

The book covers key topics such as the fate and transport of contaminants, monitoring and remediation of pollution, sources and characteristics of pollution, and risk assessment and management. It contains more than 400 color photographs and diagrams, numerous questions and problems, case studies, and highlighted keywords.

This book is ideally suited for professionals and students studying the environment, especially as it relates to pollution as well as government workers and conservationists/ecologists.

* Emphasizes conceptual understanding of environmental impact, integrating the disciplines of biology, chemistry, and mathematics
* Topics cover the fate and transport of contaminants; monitoring and remediation of pollution; sources and characteristics of pollution; and risk assessment and management
* Includes color photos and diagrams, chapter questions and problems, and highlighted key words
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Table of Contents

Preface


The Editors


Contributing Authors


The Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science (SWES)


Part 1 Processes Affecting Fate and Transport of Contaminants


Chapter 1 The Extent of Global Pollution


1.1 Science and Pollution


1.2 Global Perspective of the Environment


1.3 Pollution and Population Pressures


1.4 Overview of Environmental Characterization


1.5 Advances in Analytical Detection Technology


1.6 The Risk Based Approach to Pollution Science


1.7 Waste Management, Site Remediation, and Ecosystem Restoration


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 2 Physical-Chemical Characteristics of Soils and the Subsurface


2.1 Soil and Subsurface Environments


2.2 Solid Phase


2.3 Gaseous Phase


2.4 Liquid Phase


2.5 Basic Physical Properties


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 3 Physical-Chemical Characteristics of Waters


3.1 The Watery Planet


3.2 Unique Properties of Water


3.3 Mechanical Properties


3.4 The Universal Solvent


3.5 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions


3.6 Light in Aquatic Environments


3.7 Oceans


3.8 Lakes and Reservoirs-The Lentic System


3.9 Streams and Rivers-The Lotic System


3.10 Groundwater-Water in the Subsurface


3.11 A Watershed Approach


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 4 Physical-Chemical Characteristics of the Atmosphere


4.1 Chemical Composition


4.2 Physical Properties and Structure


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 5 Biotic Characteristics of the Environment


5.1 Major Groups of Organisms


5.2 Microorganisms in Surface Soils


5.3 Microorganisms in the Subsurface


5.4 Biological Generation of Energy


5.5 Soil as an Environment for Microbes


5.6 Activity and Physiological State of Microbes in Soil


5.7 Enumeration of Soil Bacteria via Dilution and Plating


5.8 Microorganisms in Air


5.9 Microorganisms in Surface Water


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 6 Physical Processes Affecting Contaminant Transport and Fate


6.1 Contaminant Transport and Fate in the Environment


6.2 Contaminant Properties


6.3 Advection


6.4 Dispersion


6.5 Mass Transfer


6.6 Transformation Reactions


6.7 Characterizing Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Contaminants


6.8 Estimating Phase Distributions of Contaminants


6.9 Quantifying Contaminant Transport and Fate


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 7 Chemical Processes Affecting Contaminant Transport and Fate


7.1 Introduction


7.2 Basic Properties of Inorganic Contaminants


7.3 Basic Properties of Organic Contaminants


7.4 Sorption Processes


7.5 Abiotic Transformation Reactions


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 8 Biological Processes Affecting Contaminant Transport and Fate


8.1 Biological Effects on Pollutants


8.2 The Overall Process of Biodegradation


8.3 Microbial Activity and Biodegradation


8.4 Biodegradation Pathways


8.5 Transformation of Metal Pollutants


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Part 2 Monitoring, Assessment, and Regulation of Environmental Pollution


Chapter 9 Physical Contaminants


9.1 Particle Origins


9.2 Particle Size


9.3 Particles in Air or Aerosols


9.4 Particulates in Water


9.5 Summary


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 10 Chemical Contaminants


10.1 Introduction


10.2 Types of Contaminants


10.3 Sources: Agricultural Activities


10.4 Sources: Industrial and Manufacturing Activities


10.5 Sources: Municipal Waste


10.6 Sources: Service-Related Activities


10.7 Sources: Resource Extraction/Production


10.8 Sources: Radioactive Contaminants


10.9 Natural Sources of Contaminants


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 11 Microbial Contaminants


11.1 Water-Related Microbial Disease


11.2 Classes of Diseases and Types of Pathogens


11.3 Types of Pathogenic Organisms


11.4 Sources of Pathogens in the Environment


11.5 Fate and Transport of Pathogens in the Environment


11.6 Standards and Criteria for Indicators


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 12


The Role of Environmental Monitoring in Pollution Science


12.1 Introduction


12.2 Sampling and Monitoring Basics


12.3 Statistics and Geostatistics


12.4 Sampling and Monitoring Tools


12.5 Soil and Vadose Zone Sampling and Monitoring


12.6 Groundwater Sampling and Monitoring


12.7 Surface Water Sampling and Monitoring


12.8 Atmosphere Sampling and Monitoring


12.9 Conclusions


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 13 Environmental Toxicology


13.1 History of Modern Toxicity in the United States


13.2 Toxic Versus Nontoxic


13.3 Exposure and Dose


13.4 Evaluation of Toxicity


13.5 Responses to Toxic Substances


13.6 Carcinogens


13.7 Mutagens


13.8 Teratogens


13.9 Chemical Toxicity: General Considerations


13.10 Chemical Toxicity: Selected Substances


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 14 Risk Assessment


14.1 The Concept of Risk Assessment


14.2 The Process of Risk Assessment


14.3 Ecological Risk Assessment


14.4 Microbial Risk Assessment


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 15 Environmental Laws and Regulations


15.1 Regulatory Overview


15.2 The Safe Drinking Water Act


15.3 The Clean Water Act


15.4 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act


15.5 Federal Insecticide and Rodenticide Act


15.6 Clean Air Act


15.7 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)


15.8 The Pollution Prevention Act


15.9 Other Regulatory Agencies and Accords


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Part 3 Land and Water Pollution Mitigation


Chapter 16 Soil and Land Pollution


16.1 Introduction


16.2 Surface Mining


16.2.1 Mine Tailings


16.2.2 Air Emissions


16.3 Deforestation


16.4 Soil Acidity-Salinity


16.5 Soil Erosion


16.6 Agricultural Activities


16.7 Animal Wastes


16.8 Industrial Wastes With High Salts and Organics


16.9 Invasive Species


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 17 Subsurface Pollution


17.1 Groundwater as a Resource


17.2 Groundwater Pollution


17.3 Groundwater Pollution Risk Assessment


17.4 Point-Source Contamination


17.4.1 Hazardous Organic Chemicals


17.5 Diffuse-Source Contamination


17.6 Other Groundwater Contamination Problems


17.7 Sustainability of Groundwater Resources


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 18 Surface Water Pollution


18.1 Surface Freshwater Resources


18.2 Marine Water Resources


18.3 Sources of Surface Water Pollution


18.4 Sediments as Surface Water Contaminants


18.6 Nutrients and Eutrophication of Surface Waters


18.7 Organic Compounds in Water


18.8 Enteric Pathogens as Surface Water Contaminants


18.9 Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs)


18.10 Quantification of Surface Water Pollution


18.11 Determining BOD


18.12 Dilution of Effluents


18.13 Dye Tracing of Plumes


18.14 Spatial and Temporal Variation of Plume Concentrations


18.15 Compliance Monitoring


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 19 Soil and Groundwater Remediation


19.1 Introduction


19.2 Superfund Process


19.3 Site Characterization


19.4 Remediation Technologies


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 20 Ecosystem Restoration and Land Reclamation


20.1 Introduction


20.2 Site Characterization


20.3 Site Restoration


20.4 Site Monitoring


20.5 Approaches to Ecosystem Restoration


20.6 Land Reclamation


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Part 4 Atmospheric Pollution


Chapter 21 Sensory Pollutants, Electromagnetic Fields and Radiofrequency Radiation


21.1 Introduction


21.2 Heat


21.3 Light


21.4 Noise Pollution


21.5 Odor as a Sensory Pollutant


21.6 Electromagnetic Fields and Radiofrequency Radiation


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 22 Indoor Air Quality


22.1 Fundamentals of Indoor Air Quality


22.2 Sources of Indoor Air Pollutants


22.3 Factors Influencing Exposure to Indoor Air Pollution


22.4 Monitoring IAQ


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 23 Atmospheric Pollution


23.1 Air Pollution Concepts


23.2 Sources, Types, and Effects of Air Pollution


23.3 Weather and Pollutants


23.4 Pollution Trends in the United States


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 24 Global Change


24.1 Introduction


24.2 Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect


24.3 Other Global Changes


24.4 Solutions to the Problems of Global Environmental Change


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Part 5 Waste and Water Treatment and Management


Chapter 25 Industrial and Municipal Solid Waste Treatment and Disposal


25.1 Introduction


25.2 Relevant Regulations for Industrial and Municipal Solid Wastes


25.3 Major Forms of Industrial Wastes


25.4 Treatment and Disposal of Industrial Wastes


25.5 Reuse of Industrial Wastes


25.6 Treatment and Disposal of Municipal Solid Waste


25.7 Pollution Prevention


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 26 Municipal Wastewater Treatment


26.1 The Nature of Wastewater (Sewage)


26.2 Modern Wastewater Treatment


26.3 Oxidation Ponds


26.4 Septic Tanks


26.5 Land Application of Wastewater


26.6 Wetlands and Aquaculture Systems


26.7 Sludge Processing


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 27 Land Application of Biosolids and Animal Wastes


27.1 Biosolids and Animal Wastes: A Historical Perspective and Current Outlook


27.2 The Nature of Wastewater (Sewage)


27.3 Wastewater (Sewage) Treatment


27.4 Methods of Land Application of Biosolids


27.5 Benefits of Land Application of Biosolids


27.6 Hazards of Land Application of Biosolids


27.7 Sources of Animal Wastes


27.8 Nonpoint Versus Point Source Pollution


27.9 Benefits of Land Application of Animal Wastes


27.10 Hazards of Land Application of Animal Wastes


27.11 Public Perceptions of Land Application


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 28 Drinking Water Treatment and Water Security


28.1 Water Treatment Processes


28.2 Disinfection


28.3 Factors Affecting Disinfectants


28.4 Halogens


28.5 Disinfection By-Products


28.6 Residential Water Treatment


28.7 Water Security


28.8 Monitoring Community Water Quality


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Part 6 Emerging Issues in Pollution Science


Chapter 29 Genetically Engineered Crops and Microbes


29.1 Introduction to Nucleic Acids


29.2 Recombinant DNA Technology


29.3 Transfer of Nucleic Acid Sequences from One Organism to Another (Cloning)


29.4 Chemical Synthesis, Sequencing and Amplification of DNA


29.5 Heterologous Gene Expression in Pro- and Eukaryotes


29.6 Genetically Engineered Plants for Agriculture


29.7 Genetically Engineered Plants for Remediation


29.8 Microbial-Assisted Remediation


29.9 Potential Problems Due to Genetically Modified Organisms


29.10 Summary


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 30 Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria and Gene Transfer


30.1 Why Are Antibiotics An Issue?


30.2 Classification and Function of Antibiotics


30.3 Development of Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance


30.4 Transfer of Genetic Material by Horizontal Gene Transfer


30.5 Prevalent Environments Favoring HGT


30.6 Isolation and Detection of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria


30.7 Incidence of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Various Environments


30.8 Gene Transfer Between Bacteria-How Prelevants It?


30.9 Summary and Conclusions


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 31 Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disruptors


31.1 Endocrine Disruptors and Hormones


31.2 Significance of EDCs in Water


31.3 Incidence of EDCs in Water


31.4 Fate and Transport of Estrogenic Compounds in Municipal Wastewater


31.5 Methods for Measuring Estrogenic Activity in Water


31.6 What are the Risk of EDCs?


Questions and Problems


References and Additional Reading


Chapter 32 Epilogue: Is the Future of Pollution History?


32.1 The Role of Government in Controlling Pollution


32.2 Research Priorities Necessary to Protect Human Health


32.3 Pollution Prevention of Earth, Air, and Water


32.4 Is the Future of Pollution History?


References and Additional Reading


Index


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Pepper, Ian L.
Dr. Ian Pepper is currently a Professor at the University of Arizona. He is also Director of the University of Arizona, Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL) and the NSF Water and Environmental Technology (WET) Center. Dr. Pepper is an environmental microbiologist specializing in the molecular ecology of the environment. His research has focused on the fate and transport of pathogens in air, water, soils and wastes. His expertise has been recognized by membership on six National Academy of Science Committees and former memberships on an EPA FIFRA Science and Advisory Panel. Dr. Pepper is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Academy of Microbiology, the Soil Science Society of America, and the American Society of Agronomy. He is also a Board Certified Environmental Scientist within the American Academy of Environmental Engineers and Scientists. He is the author or co-author of six textbooks; 40 book chapters; and over 180 peer-review journal articles.
Gerba, Charles P.
Dr. Charles P. Gerba is a Professor at the University of Arizona. He conducts research the transmission of pathogens through the environment. His recent research encompasses the transmission of pathogens by water, food and fomites; fate of pathogens in land applied wastes; development of new disinfectants; domestic microbiology and microbial risk assessment. He has been an author on more than 500 articles including several books in environmental microbiology and pollution science. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In 1998 he received the A. P. Black Award from the American Water Works Association for outstanding contributions to water science and in 1996 he received the McKee medal from the Water Environment Federation for outstanding contributions to groundwater protection. He received the 1999 Award of Excellence in Environmental Health from National Association of County and City Health Officials.
Brusseau, Mark L.
Dr Mark Brusseau's work is focused on developing a fundamental understanding of the physical, chemical, and biological factors and processes influencing the transport and fate of contaminants in the subsurface environment. At the university he also teaches courses on Contaminant Transport in Porous Media as well as Soil and Groundwater Remediation. He has published over 250 works, and is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and the Soil Science Society of America.
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