Forest Fires

  • ID: 1761754
  • Book
  • 594 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Even before the myth of Prometheus, fire played a crucial ecological role around the world. Numerous plant communities depend on fire to generate species diversity in both time and space. Without fire such ecosystems would become sterile monocultures. Recent efforts to prohibit fire in fire dependent communities have contributed to more intense and more damaging fires. For these reasons, foresters, ecologists, land managers, geographers, and environmental scientists are interested in the behavior and ecological effects of fires. This book will be the first to focus on the chemistry and physics of fire as it relates to the ways in which fire behaves and the impacts it has on ecosystem function. Leading international contributors have been recruited by the editors to prepare a didactic text/reference that will appeal to both advanced students and practicing professionals.

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Contributors

Preface


Acknowledgments


1 Strengthening Fire Ecology's Roots


I. Introduction


II. Processes


III. Transfer Rates and Budgets


IV. Examples of Traditional vs. Proposed Approach


References


2 Flames


I. Introduction


II. Basic Aspects of Combustion in Forest Fires


III. Temperature, Velocity, Species Concentration, and Flame Height


IV Premixed and Diffusion Flames


V. Extinction of Diffusion Flames


VI. Diffusion Flames and Scaling Analysis


VII. Spreading Flames


VIII. Structure of Flame Base


IX. Conclusions


Notation


References


3 Combustion Chemistry and Smoke


I. Introduction


II. Fuel Chemistry and Combustion


III. Smoke Production


IV. Minimizing Smoke Production


V. Conclusions


References


4 Water Relations of Forest Fuels


I. Introduction


II. Forest Fuels


III. Fuel Moisture Relationships


IV. Moisture Content Estimation


Notation


Additional Reading


References


5 Wildland Fire Spread Models


I. Introduction


II. Head Fire Rate of Spread (Physical Principles and their Mathematical Embodiment)


III. Head Fire Rate of Spread: Australia


IV. Head Fire Rate of Spread: United States


V. Head Fire Rate of Spread: Canada


VI. Smoldering


VII. Whole Fire Modeling-Fire Shape


Notation


References


6 Wind-Aided Fire Spread


I. Introduction


II. Laboratory-Scale Setup


III. Fire Spread Model


IV. Preliminary Testing of the Model


V. Test Results for the Effect of Wind Speed and Fuel Loading on the Rate of Fire Spread


VI. Conclusions


Notation


Recommended Reading


References


7 Fire Plumes


I. Introduction


II. Modeling Fire Temperature Maxima


III. Plumes above Fires in a Cross Wind


Notation


References


8 Coupling Atmospheric and Fire Models


I. Introduction


II. Vorticity Dynamics in a Fire


III. Coupling between Atmosphere and Fire


IV. The Elements of Fire Modeling


V. Modeling the Atmosphere


VI. The Coupled Fire-Atmosphere Modeling Approach


VII. Idealized Studies of Wildfire Behavior


VIII. Infrared Observations of Fires


IX. Conclusions and Future Work


Appendix I. Circulation and Vorticity


Appendix II. Development of Vertical Rotation in a Frictionless Fluid


Appendix III. Generation of Vertical Motion in Rotating Convective Cells


Notation


References


9 Surface Energy Budget and Fuel Moisture


I. Introduction


II. Evapotranspiration Processes and the Meteorological Controlling Factors


III. Estimation of Potential Evapotranspiration Rates


IV. Functional Dependence of PET and AET


V. Characteristics of PET


VI. Near-Surface Environment


VII. Models of Land-Surface Interactions


VIII. Remote Sensing of the Surface Energy Budget


IX. Fire Weather Rating Systems


Notation


Suggested Reading List


References


10 Climate, Weather, and Area Burned


I. Introduction


II. Weather and Area Burned-Synoptic Surface Features


III. Weather and Area Burned-Upper Air Features


IV. Teleconnections


V. Future Warming and Area Burned


VI. Summary


References


11 Lightning and Forest Fires


I. Introduction


II. Lightning


III. Previous Studies of Lightning-Initiated Fire


IV. Interaction between Lightning and Fuels


V. How Ignition Occurs


VI. Ignition Experiments with Real Forest Fuels


VII. Generating Models for Operational Use


VIII. Smoke, Lightning, and Cloud Microphysics


IX. Global Implications of Lightning Ignition Characteristics


X. Conclusion


References


12 Statistical Inference for Historical Fire Frequency Using the Spatial Mosaic


I. Introduction


II. Graphical Analysis


III. Statistical Inference with Prespecified Change Points


IV. The Efficiency of Sample vs. Map Data


V. Determining Epochs of Constant Fire Frequency


References


13 Duff Consumption


I. Introduction


II. Characteristics of Duff


III. Empirical Studies of Duff Consumption


IV. Flaming Combustion


V. Smoldering Combustion and Pyrolysis


VI. Models of Smoldering Combustion


VII. Contribution of Smoldering Combustion Models to Understanding of Duff Consumption


Notation


References


14 Fire Effects on Trees


I. Introduction


II. Effects of Fire on the Tree Bole


III. Effects of Fire on Canopy Components


IV. Root Necrosis


V. Tree Mortality


VI. Discussion


Notation


Additional Readings


References


15 Forest Fire Management


I. Introduction


II. The Relationship between Fire and Forest Land Management Objectives


III. Assessing Fire Impacts


IV. Forest Fire Management Organizations


V. Level of Fire Protection Planning


VI. Some Challenges


Further Reading


References


Index
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Johnson, Edward A.
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