distortions and failures of multiple research projects - and make impossible the ultimate aspirations of the fields.
The impasse concerns a presupposition concerning the nature of representation - that all representation has the nature of encodings: encodingism. Encodings certainly exist, but
encodingism is at root logically incoherent; any programmatic research predicted on it is doomed too distortion and ultimate failure.
The impasse and its consequences - and steps away from that impasse - are explored in a large number of projects and approaches. These include SOAR, CYC, PDP, situated cognition, subsumption architecture robotics, and the frame problems - a general survey of the current research in AI and Cognitive Science emerges.
Interactivism, an alternative model of representation, is proposed and examined.