Handbook of Cognitive Science. Perspectives on Cognitive Science

  • ID: 1762373
  • Book
  • Region: Global
  • 498 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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The Handbook of Cognitive Science provides an overview of recent developments in cognition research, relying upon non-classical approaches. Cognition is explained as the continuous interplay between brain, body, and environment, without relying on classical notions of computations and representation to explain cognition. The handbook serves as a valuable companion for readers interested in foundational aspects of cognitive science, and neuroscience and the philosophy of mind. The handbook begins with an introduction to embodied cognitive science, and then breaks up the chapters into separate sections on conceptual issues, formal approaches, embodiment in perception and action, embodiment from an artificial perspective, embodied meaning, and emotion and consciousness. Contributors to the book represent research overviews from around the globe including the US, UK, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, France, Sweden, and the Netherlands.
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Contents

Preface


List of Contributors


1 Directions for an Embodied Cognitive Science: Toward an Integrated Approach


Cognitivism in a Blind Alley


Alternative Approaches to Cognitivism


Post-Cognitivism in the Making: Common Ground and Conceptual Issues


Scaling up: Higher Level Cognitive Processes


Acknowledgments


Section I The Interactive Architecture of Cognition: Conceptual Issues


2 Is Embodiment Necessary?


Critiques


Interactive Representation


What Kind of Embodiment?


Conclusion


3 Embodiment and Explanation


Three Threads


The Separability Thesis


Beyond Flesh-Eating Functionalism


Ada, Adder, and Odder


A Tension Revealed


Participant Machinery and Morphological Computation


Quantifying Embodiment


Conclusions


Acknowledgments


4 Can a Swarm be Embodied?


Introduction


Three Examples of Swarms


Artifi cial Swarms and Strong Embodiment


Is a Living Swarm an Embodied Entity?


Conclusion


Section II Robotics and Autonomous Agents


5 CajunBot: A Case Study in Embodied Cognition


Introduction


CajunBot and the DARPA Grand Challenge, 2005


CajunBot Sensor Systems


Path Planning


Steering Control


Simulations


CajunBot Performance and Results


Conclusion


Acknowledgments


6 The Dynamics of Brain-Body-Environment Systems: A Status Report


Introduction


Experimental Accomplishments


Theoretical Accomplishments


Outstanding Challenges


7 The Synthetic Approach to Embodied Cognition: A Primer


Introduction


Basics


Body Dynamics and Morphology


Information Self-Structuring


Learning and Development


Case Study 1: Embodied Categorization


Case Study 2: Application of Embodied Cognition to Prosthetics


Discussion: The Interaction of Physical and Information Processes


Conclusion


8 Animate Vision, Virtual Environments, and Neural Codes


Embodied Intelligence


An Avatar Control System Design


Summary: The Advantages of Embodied Cognition


Section III Perceiving and Acting


9 Ecological Psychology: Six Principles for an Embodied-Embedded Approach to Behavior


Ecological Principle I: Organism-Environment Systems are the Proper Units of Analysis


Ecological Principle II: Environmental Realities Should Be Defined at the Ecological Scale


Ecological Principle III: Behavior Is Emergent and Self-Organized


Ecological Principle IV: Perception and Action are Continuous and Cyclic


Ecological Principle V: Information Is Specificational


Ecological Principle VI: Perception Is of Affordances


Conclusion


10 Seeing What We Can Do: Insights into Vision and Action Through Observations of Natural Behavior


Introduction


Methods of Assessing Visual Processes in Isolation and in Concert


Isolating Visual Processes Within an Embodied Context


Trade-Offs Between Gaze and Working Memory Use


Bridging the Gap Between Laboratory Experiments and Natural Behavior


Future Directions of Research in Embodied Visual Cognition


11 Why We Don't Mind to be Inconsistent


Introduction


Detecting Attributes


Spatial Perception


Inconsistent Action


Combining Information


Conscious Perception


Section IV A Dynamic Brain


12 Neuronal and Cortical Dynamical Mechanisms Underlying Brain Functions


Introduction


How to Build a Suitable Neuronal Model for a Psychological Experiment


Calculating the f MRI Signal for an Example Set Shifting Model


Response Times and Error Rates in an Example Set Shifting Task


Summary and Back to "color phi”


13 Dynamic Field Theory as a Framework for Understanding Embodied Cognition


Dynamical Systems


Dynamic Neural Fields and Peaks as Units of Representation


Interactions Between Multiple Activation Peaks


Preshape in Dynamic Neural Fields


Categorical Behavior from Continuous Representations


Embodying Dynamic Neural Fields on Autonomous Robots


Conclusions


14 A Lazy Brain? Embodied Embedded Cognition and Cognitive Neuroscience


Introduction


Overview


The Computational Unfeasibility of a Brain in Complete Control


Ignorantly Successful in a User-Friendly Environment


Generating Research Questions for Cognitive Neuroscience and Robotics


Conclusion


Section V Embodied Meaning


15 The Role of Sensory and Motor Information in Semantic Representation: A Review


Introduction


Direct Versus Indirect Engagement


A Brief Review of the Evidence


Conclusions


16 Embodied Concept Learning


How Concepts Are Learned


Evidence for Embodied Concepts


Learning Basic Words/Concepts


Learning and Using Abstract and Technical Words and Concepts


Conclusions


17 Mathematics, the Ultimate Challenge to Embodiment: Truth and the Grounding of Axiomatic Systems


Mathematics, a Real Challenge to Embodiment


Everyday Embodied Mechanisms for Human Imagination


Mathematical Abstraction: The Embodiment of Axioms, Sets, and Hypersets


Everyday Abstraction: The Embodiment of Spatial Construals of Time and Their "Axioms”


Conclusion


18 Embodiment for Education


Why Education?


Embodied Mathematics


Embodied Reading


PM and IM and Vocabulary Acquisition


PM and IM in Science Exposition


Conclusions


Section VI Scaling-Up


19 How Did We Get from There to Here? An Evolutionary Perspective on Embodied Cognition


Introduction


Flexibility and Resemblance: Keys to Off-Line Embodiment?


Future Directions


20 Thinking with the Body: Towards Hierarchical, Scalable Cognition


Introduction


Separating Mind and Body


The Phenomenon of Control


Control from Body to Mind


Integration Is Key


Conclusions


Acknowledgments


21 On the Grounds of (X)-Grounded Cognition


The Massive Redeployment Hypothesis


Implications of MRH for X-Grounded Cognition


Conclusion


Acknowledgments


Section VII Emotion and Social Interaction


22 Understanding Others: Embodied Social Cognition


An Embodied Approach


Implicit Simulation or Embodied Practices


Conclusion


23 Getting to the Heart of Emotions and Consciousness


Introduction: Descriptive Foundations and Animation


On the Distinction Between Behavior and Movement


Concepts Emanating from Movement


Affective Feelings


Dynamic Congruency


Index


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Calvo, Paco
Gomila, Toni
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