This book sets out to improve the reliability of cost-benefit analyses particularly of hazardous substances present in air, water, soil and food. It suggests that the human health risk assessment of chemicals is performed in a bottom-up analysis, i.e., following a spatially resolved multimedia modelling approach. In order to support cost-benefit analyses, the approach is accompanied by monetary valuation of human health impacts, yielding so-called external costs. Results for selected priority metals show that these external costs are small compared to those by the classical air pollutants and involve rather long time horizons touching on the aspect of intergenerational equity within sustainable development. When including further hazardous substances, the total external costs attributable to contaminants are expected to be more substantial.
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2: Assessment of human health impacts and the approach followed
3: Multimedia environmental fate and/or exposure assessment of prioritised contaminants
4: Multimedia environmental fate assessment framework: outline, atmospheric modelling and spatial differentiation
5: Modelling the environmental fate in the terrestrial environment
6: Modelling the environmental fate in the aquatic environment
7: Exposure and impact assessment
9: Evaluation of results
10: Case studies on emissions from single facilities
11: Whole economy case study
12: Concluding remarks
Appendix A: Model formulation
Appendix B: Substance-independent data
Appendix C: Substance-dependent data
Appendix D: Symbols, indices and compartment acronyms used for parameter and process description