Spectroscopic Measurement

  • ID: 1763588
  • Book
  • 268 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, molecular spectroscopy, optics and radiation form the foundations of the field. On top of these rest the techniques applying the fundamentals (e.g. Emission Spectroscopy, Laser Induced Fluorescence, Raman Spectroscopy). This book contains the basic topics associated with optical spectroscopic techniques. About 40 major sources are distilled into one book, so researchers can read and fully comprehend specific optical spectroscopy techniques without visiting many sources.

Optical diagnostics are widely used in combustion research. Ideas first proposed here are now applied in other fields, including reacting flows for materials production (CVD reactors, oxidation reactors and some plasma work), atmospheric sensing, measuring constituents of exhaled human breath (to indicate stress in airway passages and the lungs and hence,e.g., provide a very early indicator of lung cancer).

Researchers not formally trained who apply spectroscopy in their research need the detail in this book to ensure accuracy of their technique or to develop more sophisticated measurements.
Time is valuable and future research will benefit. Learning "on the fly" can involve direct information on a specific diagnostic technique rather than gaining the background necessary to go into further depth.

Please Note: This is an On Demand product, delivery may take up to 11 working days after payment has been received.

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Preface

Acknowledgments


Nomenclature


1 Introduction


1.1 Spectroscopic Techniques


1.2 Overview of the Book


1.3 How to Use This Book


1.4 Concluding Remarks and Warnings


2 A Brief Review of Statistical Mechanics


2.1 Introduction


2.2 The Maxwellian Velocity Distribution


2.3 The Boltzmann Energy Distribution


2.4 Molecular Energy Distributions


2.5 Conclusions


3 The Equation of Radiative Transfer


3.1 Introduction


3.2 Some Definitions


3.2.1 Geometric Terms


3.2.2 Spectral Terms


3.2.3 Relationship to Simple Laboratory Measurements


3.3 Development of the ERT


3.4 Implications of the ERT


3.5 Photon Statistics


3.6 Conclusions


4 Optical Electromagnetics


4.1 Introduction


4.2 Maxwell's Equations in Vacuum


4.3 Basic Conclusions from Maxwell's Equations


4.4 Material Interactions


4.5 Brief Mention of Nonlinear Effects


4.6 Irradiance


4.7 Conclusions


5 The Lorentz Atom


5.1 Classical Dipole Oscillator


5.2 Wave Propagation Through Transmitting Media


5.3 Dipole Emission


5.3.1 Dipole Emission Formalism


5.3.2 Dipole Radiation Patterns


5.4 Conclusions


6 Classical Hamiltonian Dynamics


6.1 Introduction


6.2 Overview of Hamiltonian Dynamics


6.3 Hamiltonian Dynamics and the Lorentz Atom


6.4 Conclusions


7 An Introduction to Quantum Mechanics


7.1 Introduction


7.2 Historical Perspective


7.3 Additional Components of Quantum Mechanics


7.4 Postulates of Quantum Mechanics


7.5 Conclusions


8 Atomic Spectroscopy


8.1 Introduction


8.2 The One-Electron Atom


8.2.1 Definition of V


8.2.2 Approach to the SchrSdinger Equation


8.2.3 Introduction to Selection Rules and Notation


8.2.4 Magnetic Moment


8.2.5 Selection Rules, Degeneracy, and Notation


8.3 Multi-Electron Atoms


8.3.1 Approximation Methods


8.3.2 The Pauli Principle and Spin


8.3.3 The Periodic Table


8.3.4 Angular Momentum Coupling


8.3.5 Selection Rules, Degeneracy, and Notation


8.4 Conclusion


9 Molecular Spectroscopy


9.1 Introduction


9.2 Diatomic Molecules


9.2.1 Approach to the Schr6dinger Equation


9.2.2 Rotation-Vibration Spectra and Corrections to Simple Models


9.2.3 A Review of Ro-Vibrational Molecular Selection Rules


9.2.4 Electronic Transitions


9.2.5 Electronic Spectroscopy


9.2.6 Selection Rules, Degeneracy, and Notation


9.3 Polyatomic Molecules


9.3.1 Symmetry and Point Groups


9.3.2 Rotation of Polyatomic Molecules


9.3.3 Vibrations of Polyatomic Molecules


9.3.4 Electronic Structure


9.4 Conclusions


10 Resonance Response


10.1 Einstein Coefficients


10.1.1 Franck-Condon and HSnl-London factors


10.2 Oscillator Strengths


10.3 Absorption Cross-sections


10.4 Band Oscillator Strengths


10.5 Conclusions


11 Line Broadening


11.1 Introduction


11.2 A Spectral Formalism


11.3 General Description of Optical Spectra


11.4 Homogeneous Broadening


11.5 Inhomogeneous Broadening


11.6 Combined Mechanisms: The Voigt Profile


11.7 Conclusions


12 Polarization


12.1 Introduction


12.2 Polarization of the Resonance Response


12.3 Absorption and Polarization


12.4 Polarized Radiant Emission


12.5 Photons and Polarization


12.6 Conclusions


13 Rayleigh and Raman Scattering


13.1 Introduction


13.2 Polarizability


13.3 Classical Molecular Scattering


13.4 Rayleigh Scattering


13.5 Raman Scattering


13.5.1 Raman Flowfield Measurements


13.6 Conclusions


14 The Density Matrix Equations


14.1 Introduction


14.2 Development of the DME


14.3 Interaction with an Electromagnetic Field


14.4 Multiple Levels and Polarization in the DME


14.5 Two-level DME in the Steady-state Limit


14.6 Conclusions


A Units


B Constants


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Linne, Mark A.
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