Troubleshooting Windows 2000 TCP/IP - Product Image

Troubleshooting Windows 2000 TCP/IP

  • ID: 1765277
  • Book
  • 608 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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TCP/IP is a set of proposals developed to allow cooperating computers to share resources across a network. Some of the largest networks today are built on the TPC/IP protocol suite. Understanding how TCP/IP is "supposed" to work is not enough for today's network managers. In this book, readers will learn to prevent, detect, troubleshoot and correct TCP/IP network problems. By using products such as distributed sniffers, field metering tools and protocol analyses, network managers can learn a lot about what is going on in (or wrong in) an internetwork and be able to troubleshoot a live TPC/IP network. This book focuses specifically on identifying problem areas, including identifying and correcting protocol errors, DNS route problems, application faults and slow response times.

Syngress have sold over 700,000 Microsoft and Cisco certification guides in the last two years. Most of the administrators buying these will be interested in this book.

* TPC/IP is a very popular topic; readers will welcome a guide to troubleshooting and repairing problems
* Tackles monitoring the network using protocol analyses
* Teaches effective methods of baselining and trend analysis

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Preface

Chapter 1: TCP/IP Overview


Introduction


TCP/IP's "Net" Worth


More Power, More Flexibility-and More Potential for Problems


What's Ahead in This Chapter


TCP/IP: Where It Came From, and Where It's Going


History of the TCP/IP Protocols


The Future of TCP/IP


Networking Models


The Purpose of the Models


The ISO OSI Model


The DoD Model


The Microsoft Windows 2000 Networking Model


A Family of Protocols: The TCP/IP Suite


Application Layer Protocols


Transport Layer Protocols


Network Layer Protocols


TCP/IP Utilities


Basic Network Design


Planning as Preventative Medicine


Testing and Implementation


Summary


FAQs


Chapter 2: Setting up a Windows 2000 TCP/IP Network


Introduction


Designing a New Windows 2000 TCP/IP Network


The Planning Team


Planning the Hardware Configurations


Planning the Physical Layout


Planning for Sites


Planning the Namespace


Planning the Addressing Scheme


Installing and Configuring Windows 2000 TCP/IP


Installing TCP/IP on a Windows 2000 Computer


Upgrading to Windows 2000 from Windows NT 4.0


The Windows NT Domain Models


Other Pre-Upgrade Issues


Common Upgrade Problems


Migrating to Windows 2000 from Novell NetWare


Understanding the NetWare Implementation of TCP/IP


Premigration Issues


Common Migration Problems


Migrating to Windows 2000 from UNIX


Understanding the UNIX Implementation of TCP/IP


Peaceful Coexistence: The Hybrid Network Environment


NetWare Interoperability


UNIX Interoperability


Interoperability with IBM Mainframe Networks


Summary


FAQs


Chapter 3: General Windows 2000 TCP/IP Troubleshooting Guidelines


Introduction


The Ten Commandments of Troubleshooting


1: Know Thy Network


2: Use the Tools of the Trade


3: Take It One Change at a Time


4: Isolate the Problem


5: Recreate the Problem


6: Don't Overlook the Obvious


7: Try the Easy Way First


8: Document What You Do


9: Practice the Art of Patience


10: Seek Help from Others


Windows 2000 Troubleshooting Resources


Microsoft Documentation


Third-Party Documentation


General Troubleshooting Models


Differential Diagnosis Model


SARA Model


Putting the Models to Work for You


The Information-Gathering Phase


Questions to Ask


Log Files


Tools of the Trade


The Problem Isolation Phase


Organizing and Analyzing the Information


Setting Priorities


Taking Corrective Measures


One Change at a Time


Order of Implementation


Monitoring Results


Using Forms and Check lists


Summary


FAQs


Chapter 4: Windows 2000 TCP/IP Internals


Introduction


RFC Compliance


Enhancements to the TCP/IP Stack in Windows 2000


RFC 1323: TCP Extensions for High Performance


RFC 2018: SACK (Selective Acknowledgment)


RFC 1577: IP over ATM


RFC 2001: TCP Fast Retransmit


RFCs 2211 and 2212: Quality of Service


RFC 2205: Resource Reservation Protocol


IPSec


NDIS.


Inside the Windows 2000 Internet Protocol (IP)


Classless Inter-Domain Routing


Multihoming


IP Multicasting


Duplicate IP Address Detection


Inside the Windows 2000 Transport Protocols (TCP and UDP)


Transmission Control Protocol


User Datagram Protocol


Understanding TCP/IP Registry Settings


Using the Registry Editing Tools


Configuring TCP/IP Behavior through the Registry


Registry Settings that Should Not Be Edited


Summary


FAQs


Chapter 5: Using Network Monitoring and Troubleshooting Tools in Windows 2000


Introduction


Windows 2000 Monitoring Tools


Basic Monitoring Guidelines


Performance Logs and Alerts


Network Monitor


Event Viewer


Using TCP/IP Utilities


PING


nslookup


PATHPING


tracert


ARP


ipconfig


netstat and nbtstat


netdiag


SNMP


Network Management Programs


Microsoft Systems Management Server


NTManage


Summary


FAQs


Chapter 6: Troubleshooting Windows 2000 NetBIOS Name Resolution Problems


Introduction to Name Resolution Services


NetBIOS Name Resolution


Windows 2000 Methods of NetBIOS Name Resolution


The Order of NetBIOS Resolution


The Windows 2000 Windows Internet Name Service (WINS)


NetBIOS Name Registration


NetBIOS Name Query Request


NetBIOS Name Release


WINS Proxy Agents


WINS Configuration Issues


Static Mappings


WINS Replication


WINS Partner Autodiscovery


WINS Network Topologies


Windows 2000 WINS Enhancements


Is WINS Ever Going to Go Away?


Troubleshooting Common NetBIOS Communication Problems


Summary


Don't Multihome Your WINS Server


Use a WINS Proxy Agent on Segments with non-WINS Clients


Avoid Static Records in the WINS Database


Define Replication Partners Based on Link Factors


Avoid Split Registration


Use the Hub and Spoke Model in Multisite Environments


Configure DNS Servers to Resolve NetBIOS Names


Don't Multihome Master Browsers


Use Manual Tombstoning Instead of Deleting Records


Consider the Ramifications before Disabling NetBT


FAQs


Chapter 7: Troubleshooting Windows 2000 DNS Problems


Introduction


The Difference between NetBIOS Names and Host Names


Flat Versus Hierarchical Namespace


NetBIOS on a TCP/IP Network


Characteristics of Host Names


The Domain Name System


A Hierarchical Naming System


Fully Qualified Domain Names


Host Name Resolution


Name Resolution Sequence


Sending the DNS Query to a DNS Server


UNC Paths and DNS Queries


Qualified versus Unqualified Names


Host Name Resolution via WINS Lookups


Naming Conventions and Issues


Windows 2000 Support for RFC 2181


Domain Naming Schemes and Implementation Problems


Same Intranet and Internet Domain Name


Different Intranet and Internet Domain Names


Corporate Mergers and Domain Management


DNS Zone Design and Troubleshooting


Standard Zones


Zone Transfer


Reverse Lookup Zones


Active Directory Integrated Zones


Zone Delegations


Special Troubleshooting Issues with Windows 2000 DDNS Servers


DNS Security and Internet Intruders


Solving WINS Client Ambiguity with WINS Lookup Zones


Interoperability Problems


Troubleshooting Tools for Windows 2000 DDNS Servers


nslookup


ipconfig


Event Viewer


Network Monitor


DNS Trace Logs


Performance


Summary


FAQs


Chapter 8: Troubleshooting Windows 2000 IP Addressing Problems


Introduction


How IP Addressing Works


Private versus Public Addresses


How IP Addresses Are Used in Network Communications


A Map for the Mail Carrier


Putting It All Together


Overview: IP Addressing Configuration Errors


Duplicate IP Addresses


Invalid IP Addresses


DHCP Configuration Problems


Common DHCP Problems


Automatic Addressing (APIPA)


Hardware Address Problems


Troubleshooting Subnetting Problems


Why Divide the Network?


Subnets


Subnet Masks


Tricking IP


Making the Mask


Errors in Subnet Masking


Summary


FAQs


Chapter 9: Troubleshooting Remote Access in a Windows 2000 TCP/IP Network


Introduction


Overview of Windows 2000 Remote Access Services


Types of Remote Access


Establishing a Remote Access Connection


The Remote Access Protocols


Preventing Problems Related to the WAN Protocol


Understanding Encapsulation


Tools for Troubleshooting PPP Connections


Troubleshooting Remote Access Configuration Problems


Remote Access Server Problems


Client Configuration Problems


Troubleshooting Remote Access Policy Problems


Troubleshooting NAT and ICS Configuration Problems


The Difference between ICS and NAT


Common NAT Configuration Problems


Troubleshooting VPN Connectivity Problems


The Tunneling Protocols


Troubleshooting VPN Connections


Summary


FAQs


Chapter 10: Troubleshooting Windows 2000 Connectivity Problems at the Network Interface Level


Introduction


Problems with


Network Interface Card Configuration


The Role of the NIC


Types of NICs


Driver Issues


Problems with Cable and Other Network Media


Network Cable Specifications


Cable Length Issues


The Role of Network Connectivity Devices


Understanding Layer 1 and 2 Connectivity Devices


Understanding Upper-Layer Connectivity Devices


Troubleshooting Layer 1 and 2 Connectivity Devices


Problems with Repeaters and Hubs


The 5-4-3 Rule


Passive, Active, and Intelligent Hubs


Problems with Bridges


Performance Problems


Network Monitoring Problems


Selecting a Connectivity Device


Summary


FAQs


Chapter 11: Troubleshooting Windows 2000 Connectivity Problems at the Internetwork Level


Introduction


A Routing Example


IP Routing Overview


Routing Fundamentals


Routing Interfaces


Routing Tables


Simple Routing Scenario


The Windows 2000 Router


Routing Protocols


How Static Routing Works


The Dynamic Routing Protocols


Windows 2000 as an IP Router


Installing Routing Protocols


Windows 2000 Router Management Tools


Router Configuration


Preconfiguration Check List


Configuring Windows 2000 Static IP Routing


Configuring RIP for IP


Configuring OSPF


Windows 2000 Router Logging


Troubleshooting Common Windows 2000 Routing Problems


Troubleshooting Static Routing


Troubleshooting RIP for IP


Troubleshooting OSPF


Resetting the Windows 2000 Router


Summary


FAQs


Chapter 12: Troubleshooting Selected Services on a Windows 2000 TCP/IP Network


Introduction


Troubleshooting IIS Problems


Log Files


Troubleshooting Web Server Problems


Troubleshooting FTP Server Problems


Troubleshooting NNTP Server Problems


Using Event Viewer for NNTP Troubleshooting


Common NNTP Problems


Summary


FAQs


Chapter 13: Windows 2000 TCP/IP Fast Track


Introduction


TCP/IP: What It Is (and Isn't)


TCP/IP History and Future in a Nutshell


Where TCP/IP Fits into the Networking Models


The Members of the Suite


Network Design and Planning Issues


Design and Setup of a Windows 2000 Network


Special Considerations for Windows 2000 Networks


Special Considerations when Upgrading from NT 4.0


Special Considerations when Migrating from NetWare


Special Considerations when Migrating from UNIX


Hybrid Networks


General Troubleshooting Guidelines


Troubleshooting Resources


Troubleshooting Models


Information-Gathering Tips


Organizing Information


Forms and Check Lists


Inside TCP/IP


Windows 2000 Enhancements


Inside IP


Inside TCP and UDP


TCP/IP Registry Settings


Network Monitoring Tools


Monitoring Guidelines


Performance Logs and Alerts


Network Monitor


Event Viewer


TCP/IP Utilities


Name Resolution Problems


WINS and NetBIOS Name Resolution


DNS and Host Name Resolution


IP Addressing Issues


The IP Address


How IP Addresses Are Assigned


ARP


Common IP Addressing Errors


Subnetting Problems


Remote Access Connectivity


Remote Access Versus Remote Control


Remote Access Links


Remote Access Protocols


RRAS Configuration Problems


NAT and ICS


Virtual Private Networking (VPN)


The Network Interface Level


Connectivity Devices


The 5-4-3 Rule


The 80/20 Rule


Looping


The Internetwork Level


Routing Tables


Features of the Windows 2000 Router


Routing Protocols


Windows 2000 Router Logging


Selected Services


Site Logging


Web Server


FTP Server


NNTP Server


Summary


Appendix A: TCP/IP Troubleshooting Secrets


Lesser-Known Shortcuts


Finding the Consoles


Control the Index Server


Windows 2000 Telnet Client and Server


Under-Documented Features and Functions


The FTP Command Set


The nslookup Utility


Using ipconfig Switches


For Experts Only


The Future of IP Communications


IP Telephony


Planning the Transition to IPv


Securing IP: IPSec


Index


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