These waste materials can partly be used, or processed, to produce materials suitable as aggregates or fillers in concrete. These can also be used as clinker raw materials, or processed into cementing systems. New grinding and mixing technology will make the use of these secondary materials simpler. Developments in chemical admixtures: superplasticizers, air entraining agents, etc., help in controlling production techniques and, in achieving the desired properties in concrete.
Use of waste products is not only a partial solution to environmental and ecological problems; it significantly improves the microstructure, and consequently the durability properties of concrete, which are difficult to achieve by the use of pure portland cement. The aim is not only to make the cements and concrete less expensive, but to provide a blend of tailored properties of waste materials and portland cements suitable for specified purpose. This requires a better understanding of chemistry, and materials science.
There is an increasing demand for better understanding of material properties, as well as better control of the microstructure developing in the construction material, to increase durability. The combination of different binders and modifiers to produce cheaper and more durable building materials will solve to some extent the ecological and environmental problems.
Production and Use of By-Product Gypsum in the Construction Industry
Fly Ash In Concrete
The Use of Rice Husk Ash in Concrete
Blast Furnace Slag
The Ultimate Binder
Red Mud and Phosphogypsum and their Fields of Application
Use of Lignin-Based Products in Concrete
Recycling of Waste as an Alternative Raw Material and Fuel in Cement Manufacturing
Use of Silica Fume in Concrete
Palm Oil Shell Aggregate for Lightweight Concrete