Human Neuroanatomy

  • ID: 1766258
  • Book
  • 512 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Human Neuroanatomy provides a thorough and comprehensive overview of the human brain and spinal cord for medical and graduate students as well as residents in the clinical neurosciences. Standing on the shoulders of training from outstanding scientist-teacher mentors and based on more than 30 years of experience teaching about the brain and spinal cord to medical and graduate students, this single authored text presents everything the reader would need as they begin their study of the nervous system. At the same time the experienced neuroscientist will find much useful and valuable information in these pages that is based almost exclusively on studies in experimental primates and observations in humans. Every effort has been made to present the complexities of the nervous system as simply and clearly as possible. The careful reader will discover a clarity and depth of coverage that makes the reading both instructional and enjoyable. Topics are presented logically and the text in an easy-to-read style. The accompanying line drawings emphasize important concepts in a clear and uncluttered manner.

Topics presented:

  • Neurons, glial cells, degeneration, regeneration, axonal transport
  • Review of the development of the human nervous system
  • Overview of the anatomy of the spinal cord, brain stem and forebrain
  • General sensory paths (pain, temperature, touch, pressure, proprioception)
  • Special sensory systems (auditory, vestibular, visual, olfactory and gustatory)
  • Eye movements and visual reflexes
  • Comprehensive presentation of the regions involved in motor activity including the clinical manifestation of injuries to these motor areas
  • Limbic system, hypothalamus and the autonomic nervous system
  • Lobes of the brain, clinically important cortical areas and the results of lesions in these areas
  • Blood supply to the spinal cord, brain stem, and brain including classical brain stem syndromes
  • The meninges and the ventricular system
  • Numerous helpful clinical correlations that emphasize the practical application of basic anatomical information
  • Presents the complexities of the nervous system as simply and clearly as possible
  • Written with a clarity and depth of coverage that makes the reading both instructional and enjoyable
  • Includes numerous illustrations emphasizing important concepts
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Contents

Preface


Chapter 1: Introduction to the Nervous System


1.1. Neurons


1.1.1. Neuronal Cell Body (Soma)


1.1.2. Axon Hillock


1.1.3. Neuronal Processes
Axons and Dendrites


1.2. Classification of Neurons


1.2.1. Neuronal Classification by Function


1.2.2. Neuronal Classification by Number of Processes


1.3. The Synapse


1.3.1. Components of a Synapse


1.3.2. Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators


1.3.3. Neuronal Plasticity


1.3.4. The Neuropil


1.4. Neuroglial Cells


1.4.1. Neuroglial Cells differ from Neurons


1.4.2. Identification of Neuroglia


1.4.3. Neuroglial Function


1.4.4. Neuroglial Cells and Aging


1.5. Axonal Transport


1.5.1. Functions of Axonal Transport


1.5.2. Defective Axonal Transport


1.6. Degeneration and Regeneration


1.6.1. Axon or Retrograde Reaction


1.6.2. Anterograde Degeneration


1.6.3. Retrograde Degeneration


1.6.4. Regeneration of Peripheral Nerves


1.6.5. Regeneration and Neurotrophic Factors


1.6.6. Regeneration in the Central Nervous System


1.7. Neural Transplantation


Further Reading


Chapter 2: Development of the Nervous System


2.1. First Week of Development (Fertilization, Free Blastocyst, Attaching Blastocyst)


2.1.1. Fertilization


2.1.2. From Two Cells to the Free Blastocyst


2.2. Second Week of Development (Implantation, Primitive Streak Appears, Three Layers of Cells)


2.2.1. Implantation and the Appearance of Two Distinct Layers of Cells


2.2.2. Primitive Streak and a Third Layer of Cells Appear


2.3. Third Week of Development (Neural Plate, Groove, and Folds, Three Main Divisions of the Brain)


2.3.1. Primitive Node and Notochordal Process Appear


2.3.2. Neural Plate, Groove, Folds and Neuromeres Appear


2.3.3. Three Main Divisions of the Brain Identifiable


2.3.4. Mesencephalic Flexure Appears


2.4. Fourth Week of Development (Neural Tube Forms and Closes, Neural Crest Formation Continues)


2.4.1. Formation of the Neural Tube


2.4.2. Rostral and Caudal Neuropores Remain Temporarily Open


2.4.3. Neural Crest Cells Emerge


2.4.4. Neural Canal
the Future Ventricular System


2.4.5. Neuropores Close and the Closed Neural Tube is Filled with Fluid


2.4.6. Cervical Flexure Present


2.5. Fifth Week of Development (Five Subdivisions of the Brain Identifiable)


2.5.1. Simple Tube Transforms into Complex Organ System


2.5.2. Five Subdivisions of the Brain Appear


2.5.3. Brain Vesicles vs. Brain Regions


2.6. Vulnerability of the Developing Nervous System


2.7. Congenital Malformations of the Nervous System


2.7.1. Spinal Dysraphism


2.7.2. Anencephaly


Further Reading


Chapter 3: The Spinal Cord


3.1. Embryological Considerations


3.1.1. Layers of the Developing Spinal Cord


3.1.2. Formation of Ventral Gray Columns and Ventral Roots


3.1.3. Formation of Dorsal Gray Columns


3.1.4. Dorsal and Ventral Horns vs. Dorsal and Ventral Gray Columns


3.1.5. Development of Neural Crest Cells


3.1.6. The Framework of the Adult Cord is Present at Birth


3.2. Gross Anatomy


3.2.1. Spinal Cord Weight and Length


3.2.2. Spinal Segments, Regions, and Enlargements


3.2.3. Spinal Segments in Each Region are of Unequal Length


3.2.4. Conus Medullaris, Filum Terminale, and Cauda Equina


3.2.5. Termination of the Adult Spinal Cord


3.2.6. Differential Rate of Growth: Vertebral Column vs. the Spinal Cord


3.2.7. Relationship between Spinal Segments and Vertebrae


3.3. Nuclear Groups
Gray Matter


3.3.1. General Arrangement of Spinal Cord Gray Matter


3.3.2. Gray Matter at Enlargement Levels


3.3.3. Spinal Laminae


3.3.4. Dorsal Horn


3.3.5. Lateral Horn


3.3.6. Ventral Horn


3.4. Functional Classes of Neurons


3.4.1. Four Classes of Neurons in the Spinal Cord


3.4.2. General Somatic vs. General Visceral Afferent Neurons


3.4.3. General Somatic vs. General Visceral Efferent Neurons


3.4.4. Some Ventral Root Axons are Sensory


3.5. Funiculi/Fasciculi/Tracts
White Matter


3.6. Spinal Reflexes


3.7. Spinal Meninges and Related Spaces


3.7.1. Spinal Dura Mater


3.7.2. Spinal Arachnoid


3.7.3. Spinal Pia Mater


3.8. Spinal Cord Injury


3.8.1. Transverse Hemisection of the Spinal Cord (Brown-Séquard Syndrome)


3.8.2. Syringomyelia


3.9. Blood Supply to the Spinal Cord


Further Reading


Chapter 4: The Brain Stem


4.1. External Features


4.1.1. Medulla Oblongata


4.1.2. Pons


4.1.3. Midbrain


4.2. Cerebellum and Fourth Ventricle


4.2.1. Cerebellum


4.2.2. Fourth Ventricle


4.3. Organization of Brain Stem Neuronal Columns


4.3.1. Functional Components of the Cranial Nerves


4.3.2. Efferent Columns


4.3.3. Afferent Columns


4.4. Internal Features


4.4.1. Endogenous Substances


4.4.2. Medulla Oblongata


4.4.3. Pons


4.4.4. Midbrain


Further Reading


Chapter 5: The Forebrain


5.1. Telencephalon


5.1.1. Telencephalon Medium


5.1.2. Cerebral Hemispheres


5.1.3. Basal Nuclei


5.1.4. Rhinencephalon


5.2. Diencephalon


5.2.1. Epithalamus


5.2.2. Thalamus


5.2.3. Subthalamus


5.2.4. Hypothalamus


5.3. Cerebral White Matter


Further Reading 80


Chapter 6: Introduction to Ascending Sensory Paths


6.1. Receptors


6.2. Classification of Receptors by Modality


6.2.1. Mechanoreceptors


6.2.2. Thermoreceptors


6.2.3. Nociceptors


6.2.4. Chemoreceptors


6.2.5. Photoreceptors


6.2.6. Osmoreceptors


6.3. Sherrington's Classification of Receptors


6.3.1. Exteroceptors


6.3.2. Interoceptors


6.3.3. Proprioceptors


6.4. Structural Classification of Receptors


6.4.1. Free Nerve Endings


6.4.2. Endings in Hair Follicles


6.4.3. Terminal Endings of Nerves


6.4.4. Neurotendinous Spindles


6.4.5. Neuromuscular Spindles


6.5. Reflex Circuits


6.5.1. The Monosynaptic Reflex


6.5.2. Complex Reflexes


6.6. General Sensory Paths


6.6.1. Classification of Sensory Paths by Function


6.7. Organization of General Sensory Paths


6.7.1. Receptors


6.7.2. Primary Neurons


6.7.3. Secondary Neurons


6.7.4. Thalamic Neurons


6.7.5. Cortical Neurons


6.7.6. Modulation of Sensory Paths


Further Reading


Chapter 7: Paths for Pain and Temperature


7.1. Path for Superficial Pain and Temperature from the Body


7.1.1. Modalities


7.1.2. Receptor


7.1.3. Primary Neurons


7.1.4. Secondary Neurons


7.1.5. Position of the Lateral Spinothalamic Tract in the Brain Stem


7.1.6. Thalamic Neurons


7.1.7. Cortical Neurons


7.1.8. Modulation of Painful and Thermal Impulses


7.2. Path for Visceral Pain from the Body


7.2.1. Modalities and Receptors


7.2.2. Primary Neurons


7.2.3. Secondary Neurons


7.2.4. Thalamic Neurons


7.2.5. Cortical Neurons


7.2.6. Suffering Accompanying Pain


7.2.7. Visceral Pain as Referred Pain


7.2.8. Transection of Fiber Bundles to Relieve Intractable Pain


7.3. The Trigeminal Nuclear Complex


7.3.1. Organization of the Trigeminal Nuclear Complex


7.3.2. Organization of Entering Trigeminal Sensory Fibers


7.4. Path for Superficial Pain and Thermal Extremes from the Head


7.4.1. Modalities and Receptors


7.4.2. Primary Neurons


7.4.3. Secondary Neurons


7.4.4. Thalamic Neurons


7.5. Path for Thermal Discrimination from the Head


7.5.1. Modality and Receptors


7.5.2. Primary Neurons


7.5.3. Secondary Neurons


7.5.4. Thalamic Neurons


7.5.5. Cortical Neurons


7.6. General Somatic Afferent Components of VII, IX and X


7.7. Trigeminal and Other Neuralgias


7.7.1. Causes of Trigeminal Neuralgia 1


7.7.2. Methods of Treatment for Trigeminal Neuralgia


7.8. Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia


Further Reading


Chapter 8: Paths for Touch, Pressure, Proprioception, and Vibration


8.1. Path for General Tactile Sensation from the Body


8.1.1. Modalities and Receptors


8.1.2. Primary Neurons


8.1.3. Secondary Neurons


8.1.4. Thalamic Neurons


8.2. Path for Tactile Discrimination, Pressure, Proprioception, and Vibration from the Body 1


8.2.1. Modalities and Receptors


8.2.2. Primary Neurons


8.2.3. Secondary Neurons


8.2.4. Thalamic Neurons


8.2.5. Cortical Neurons


8.2.6. Spinal Cord Stimulation for the Relief of Pain


8.3. Path for Tactile Discrimination from the Head


8.3.1. Modalities and Receptors


8.3.2. Primary Neurons


8.3.3. Secondary Neurons


8.3.4. Thalamic Neurons


8.3.5. Cortical Neurons


8.4. Path for General Tactile Sensation from the Head


8.4.1. Modalities and Receptors


8.4.2. Primary Neurons


8.4.3. Secondary Neurons and Their Central Processes


8.4.4. Thalamic Neurons


8.5. Path for Proprioception, Pressure, and Vibration from the Head


8.5.1. Modalities and Receptors


8.5.2. Primary Neurons


8.5.3. Secondary Neurons


8.5.4. Thalamic Neurons


8.5.5. Cortical Neurons


8.6. Trigeminal Motor Component


8.7. Certain Trigeminal Reflexes


8.7.1. Mandibular, Masseter, or 'Jaw-Closing' Reflex


8.7.2. Corneal Reflex


Further Reading


Chapter 9: The Reticular Formation


9.1. Structural Aspects


9.1.1. Reticular Nuclei in the Medulla


9.1.2. Reticular Nuclei in the Pons


9.1.3. Reticular Nuclei in the Midbrain


9.2. Ascending Reticular System


9.3. Descending Reticular System


9.4. Functional Aspects of the Reticular Formation


9.4.1. Consciousness


9.4.2. Homeostatic Regulation


9.4.3. Visceral Reflexes


9.4.4. Motor Function


Further Reading 1


Chapter 10: The Auditory System


10.1. Gross Anatomy


10.1.1. External Ear


10.1.2. Middle Ear


10.1.3. Internal Ear


10.2. The Ascending Auditory Path


10.2.1. Modality and Receptors


10.2.2. Primary Neurons


10.2.3. Secondary Neurons


10.2.4. Tertiary Neurons


10.2.5. Inferior Collicular Neurons


10.2.6. Thalamic Neurons


10.2.7. Cortical Neurons


10.2.8. Comments


10.3. Descending Auditory Connections


10.3.1. Electrical Stimulation of Cochlear Efferents


10.3.2. Autonomic Fibers to the Cochlea


10.4. Injury to the Auditory Path


10.4.1. Congenital Loss of Hearing


10.4.2. Decoupling of Stereocilia


10.4.3. Tinnitus


10.4.4. Noise-Induced Loss of Hearing


10.4.5. Aging and the Loss of Hearing


10.4.6. Unilateral Loss of Hearing


10.4.7. Injury to the Inferior Colliculi


10.4.8. Unilateral Injury to the Medial Geniculate Body or Auditory Cortex


10.4.9. Bilateral Injury to the Primary Auditory Cortex


10.4.10. Auditory Seizures
Audenes


10.5. Cochlear Implants


10.6. Auditory Brain Stem Implants


Further Reading


Chapter 11: The Vestibular System


11.1 Gross Anatomy


11.1.1. Internal Ear


11.2. The Ascending Vestibular Path


11.2.1. Modalities and Receptors


11.2.2. Primary Neurons


11.2.3. Secondary Neurons


11.2.4. Thalamic Neurons


11.2.5. Cortical Neurons


11.3. Other Vestibular Connections


11.3.1. Primary Vestibulocerebellar Fibers


11.3.2. Vestibular Nuclear Projections to the Cerebellum


11.3.3. Vestibular Nuclear Projections to the Spinal Cord


11.3.4. Vestibular Nuclear Projections to Nuclei of the Extraocular Muscles


11.3.5. Vestibular Nuclear Projections to the Reticular Formation


11.3.6. Vestibular Projections to the Contralateral Vestibular Nuclei


11.4. The Efferent Component of the Vestibular System


11.5. Afferent Projections to the Vestibular Nuclei


11.6. Vertigo


11.6.1. Physiological Vertigo


11.6.2. Pathological Vertigo


Further Reading


Chapter 12: The Visual System


12.1. Retina


12.1.1. Pigment Layer


12.1.2. Neural Layer


12.1.3. Other Retinal Elements


12.1.4. Special Retinal Regions


12.1.5. Retinal Areas


12.1.6. Visual Fields


12.2. Visual Path


12.2.1. Receptors


12.2.2. Primary Retinal Neurons


12.2.3. Secondary Retinal Neurons


12.2.4. Optic Nerve [II]


12.2.5. Optic Chiasma
the Union of Both Intracranial Optic Nerves 208


12.2.6. Optic Tract


12.2.7. Thalamic Neurons


12.2.8. Optic Radiations


12.2.9. Cortical Neurons


12.3. Injuries to the Visual System


12.3.1. Retinal Injuries


12.3.2. Injury to the Optic Nerve


12.3.3. Chiasmal Injuries


12.3.4. Injuries to the Optic Tract


12.3.5. Injury to the Lateral Geniculate Body


12.3.6. Injuries to the Optic Radiations


12.3.7. Injuries to the Visual Cortex


Further Reading


Chapter 13: Ocular Movements and Visual Reflexes


13.1. Ocular Movements


13.1.1. Primary Position of the Eyes


13.2. Conjugate Ocular Movements


13.2.1. Miniature Ocular Movements


13.2.2. Saccades


13.2.3. Smooth Pursuit Movements


13.2.4. Vestibular Movements


13.3. Extraocular Muscles


13.4. Innervation of the Extraocular Muscles


13.4.1. Abducent Nucleus and Nerve


13.4.2. Trochlear Nucleus and Nerve


13.4.3. Oculomotor Nucleus and Nerve


13.5. Anatomical Basis of Conjugate Ocular Movements


13.6. Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus


13.7. Vestibular Connections Related to Ocular Movements


13.7.1. Vestibular Connections Related to Horizontal Ocular Movements


13.7.2. Vestibular Nystagmus


13.7.3. Doll's Ocular Movements


13.7.4. Vestibular Connections Related to Vertical Ocular Movements


13.8. Injury to the Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus


13.9. Injury to the Vestibular Nuclei


13.10. The Reticular Formation and Ocular Movements


13.11. Congenital Nystagmus


13.12. Ocular Bobbing


13.13. Examination of the Vestibular System


13.14. Visual Reflexes


13.14.1. The Light Reflex


13.14.2. The Near Reflex


13.14.3. Pupillary Dilatation


13.14.4. The Lateral Tectotegmentospinal Tract


13.14.5. Pupillary Pain Reflex and the Spinotectal Tract


13.14.6. The Afferent Pupillary Defect (Marcus Gunn Pupillary Sign)


Further Reading


Chapter 14: The Thalamus


14.1. Introduction


14.2. Nuclear Groups of the Thalamus


14.2.1. Anterior Nuclei and the Lateral Dorsal Nucleus


14.2.2. Intralaminar Nuclei


14.2.3. Medial Nuclei


14.2.4. Median Nuclei


14.2.5. Metathalamic Body and Nuclei


14.2.6. Posterior Nuclear Complex


14.2.7. Pulvinar Nuclei and Lateral Posterior Nucleus


14.2.8. Reticular Nucleus


14.2.9. Ventral Nuclei


14.3. Injuries to the Thalamus


14.4. Mapping the Human Thalamus


14.5. Stimulation of the Human Thalamus


14.6. The Thalamus as a Neurosurgical Target


Further Reading


Chapter 15: The Motor System: Part 1
Lower Motoneurons and the Pyramidal System


15.1. Regions Involved in Motor Activity


15.2. Lower Motoneurons


15.2.1. Terms Related to Motor Activity


15.2.2. Lower Motoneurons in the Spinal Cord


15.2.3. Activation of Motoneurons


15.2.4. Lower Motoneurons in the Brain Stem


15.2.5. Injury to Lower Motoneurons


15.2.6. Examples of Lower Motoneuron Disorders


15.3. Pyramidal System


15.3.1. Corticospinal Component


15.3.2. Corticobulbar Component


15.3.3. Clinical Neuroanatomical Correlation


Further Reading


Chapter 16: The Motor System: Part 2
The Extrapyramidal System and Cerebellum


16.1. Extrapyramidal System


16.1.1. Extrapyramidal Motor Cortex


16.1.2. Basal Nuclei


16.1.3. Afferents to the Basal Nuclei


16.1.4. Cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamocortical Circuits


16.1.5. Multisynaptic Descending Paths


16.1.6. Common Discharge Paths


16.1.7. Somatotopic Organization of the Basal Nuclei


16.2. Cerebellum


16.2.1. External Features of the Cerebellum


16.2.2. Cerebellar Cortex


16.2.3. Deep Cerebellar Nuclei


16.2.4. Cerebellar White Matter


16.3. Input to the Cerebellum through the Peduncles


16.3.1. Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle


16.3.2. Middle Cerebellar Peduncle


16.3.3. Superior Cerebellar Peduncle


6.4. Input to the Cerebellum


16.4.1. Incoming Fibers to the Cerebellum


16.5. Cerebellar Output


16.5.1. Output from the Fastigial Nuclei


16.5.2. Output from the Globose and Emboliform Nuclei


16.5.3. Output from the Dentate Nuclei


16.6. Cerebellar Circuitry


16.7. Common Discharge Paths


16.8. Cerebellar Functions


16.8.1. Motor Functions of the Cerebellum


16.8.2. Nonmotor Functions of the Cerebellum


16.8.3. Studies Involving the Human Cerebellum


16.8.4. Localization in the Cerebellum


16.9. Manifestations of Injuries to the Motor System


16.9.1. Injury to the Premotor Cortex


16.9.2. Injuries to the Basal Nuclei


16.9.3. Injury to the Subthalamic Nucleus


16.9.4. Injury to the Cerebellum


16.9.5. Localization of Cerebellar Damage


16.10. Decorticate Versus Decerebrate Rigidity


16.10.1. Decerebrate Rigidity


16.10.2. Decorticate Rigidity


16.11. Epilogue


Further Reading


Chapter 17: The Olfactory and Gustatory Systems


17.1. The Olfactory System


17.1.1. Receptors


17.1.2. Primary Neurons


17.1.3. Olfactory Fila and the Olfactory Nerve


17.1.4. Olfactory Bulb
Secondary Olfactory Neurons


17.1.5. Olfactory Stalk


17.1.6. Medial Stria


17.1.7. Lateral Stria


17.1.8. Thalamic Neurons


17.1.9. Cortical Neurons


17.1.10. Efferent Olfactory Connections


17.1.11. Injuries to the Olfactory System


17.2. The Gustatory System


17.2.1. Receptors


17.2.2. Primary Neurons


17.2.3. Secondary Neurons


17.2.4. The Ascending Gustatory Path


17.2.5. Thalamic Neurons


17.2.6. Cortical Neurons


17.2.7. Injuries to the Gustatory System


Further Reading


Chapter 18: The Limbic System


18.1. Historical Aspects


18.2. Anatomy of the Limbic System


18.2.1. Olfactory System


18.2.2. Septal Area


18.2.3. Mamillary Bodies of the Hypothalamus


18.2.4. Anterior Nuclei of the Thalamus


18.2.5. The Hippocampal Formation


18.2.6. The Amygdaloid Body


18.2.7. Cingulate Gyrus and Cingulum


18.2.8. Cortical Areas


18.3. Cyclic Paths of the Limbic System


18.4. Synaptic Organization of Human Limbic System


18.5. Descending Limbic Paths


18.6. Functional Aspects of the Human Limbic System


18.6.1. Emotion


18.6.2. Memory


18.7. Limbic System Disorders


18.8. Injuries to Limbic Constituents


18.8.1. Septal Area


18.8.2. Hippocampal Formation


18.8.3. Amygdaloid Body


18.8.4. Seizures Involving the Limbic System


18.9. Psychosurgery of the Limbic System


18.9.1. Drug Resistant Epilepsy


18.9.2. Violent, Aggressive, or Restless Behaviors


18.9.3. Schizophrenia


18.9.4. Intractable Pain


18.9.5. Psychiatric Disorders and Abnormal Behavior


Further Reading


Chapter 19: The Hypothalamus


19.1. Hypothalamic Regions


19.2. Hypothalamic Zones


19.3. Hypothalamic Nuclei


19.3.1. Anterior Hypothalamic Region


19.3.2. Dorsal Hypothalamic Region


19.3.3. Intermediate Hypothalamic Region


19.3.4. Lateral Hypothalamic Area


19.3.5. Posterior Hypothalamic Region


19.3.6. Posterior Nucleus of the Hypothalamus


19.4. Fiber Connections


19.4.1. Medial Forebrain Bundle


19.4.2. Stria Terminalis


19.4.3. Fornix


19.4.4. Diencephalic Periventricular System (DPS)


19.4.5. Dorsal Longitudinal Fasciculus


19.4.6. Anterior and Posterior Hypothalamotegmental Tracts 3


19.4.7. Pallidohypothalamic Tract


19.4.8. Mamillothalamic Tract


19.4.9. Hypothalamo-hypophyseal Tract


19.4.10. Vascular Connections


19.5. Functions of the Hypothalamus


19.5.1. Water Balance
Water Intake and Loss


19.5.2. Eating
Food Intake


19.5.3. Temperature Regulation


19.5.4. Autonomic Regulation


19.5.5. Emotional Expression


19.5.6. Wakefulness and Sleep (Biological Rhythms)


19.5.7. Control of the Endocrine System


19.5.8. Reproduction


Further Reading


Chapter 20: The Autonomic Nervous System


20.1 Historical Aspects


20.2. Structural Aspects


20.2.1. Location of Autonomic Neurons of Origin


20.2.2. Manner of Distribution of Autonomic Fibers


20.2.3. Termination of Autonomic Fibers


20.3. Comparison of the Somatic Efferents and Visceral Efferents


20.4. General Visceral Afferents


20.5. Regulation of the Autonomic Nervous System


20.6. Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System


Further Reading


Chapter 21: General Features of the Cerebral Hemispheres


21.1. Facts and Figures


21.2. Cortical Neurons


21.3. Cortical Layers


21.4. Cortical Columns (Microarchitecture)


21.5. Functional Aspects of the Cerebral Cortex


21.6. Cerebral Dominance, Lateralization, and Asymmetry


21.7. Frontal Lobe


21.7.1. Primary Motor Cortex


21.7.2. Premotor Cortex


21.7.3. Supplementary Motor Area (SMA)


21.7.4. Cingulate Motor Areas


21.7.5. Frontal Eye Fields


21.7.6. Motor Speech Region


21.7.7. Prefrontal Cortex


21.8. Parietal Lobe


21.8.1. Primary Somatosensory Cortex (SI)


21.8.2. Secondary Somatosensory Cortex


21.8.3. Superior Parietal Lobule


21.8.4. Inferior Parietal Lobule: Language Areas


21.8.5. Primary Vestibular Cortex (2v)


21.8.6. Mirror Representation of Others' Actions


21.8.7. Preoccipital Areas Involved in Following Ocular Movements


21.9. Occipital Lobe


21.9.1. Primary Visual Cortex (V1)


21.9.2. Secondary Visual Cortex


21.10. Temporal Lobe


21.10.1. Primary Auditory Cortex (AI)


21.10.2. Wernicke's Region


21.10.3. Temporal Vestibular Cortex


21.10.4. Midtemporal Areas Related to Memory


21.10.5. Anomia


21.10.6. Prosopagnosia


21.10.7. Psychomotor Seizures


21.11. Insular Lobe


21.12. Aphasia


21.12.1. Historic Aspects of Aphasia


21.12.2. Broca's Aphasia


21.12.3. Wernicke's Aphasia


21.12.4. Conductive Aphasia


21.12.5. Global Aphasia


21.13. Alexia


21.14. Apraxia


21.15. Gerstmann's Syndrome


21.16. Agnosia


21.17. Dyslexia


Further Reading


Chapter 22: Blood Supply to the Central Nervous System


22.1. Cerebral Circulation


22.2. Aortic Arch, Brachiocephalic Trunk, and Subclavian Vessels


22.3. Vertebral-Basilar Arterial System


22.3.1. Branches of the Vertebral Arteries


22.4. Blood Supply to the Spinal Cord


22.4.1. Extramedullary Vessels


22.4.2. Intramedullary Vessels


22.4.3. Spinal Veins


22.5. Blood Supply to the Brain Stem and Cerebellum


22.5.1. Extrinsic or Superficial Branches


22.5.2. Branches of the Basilar Arteries


22.5.3. Intrinsic or Penetrating Branches


22.5.4. Classical Brain Stem Syndromes


22.6. Common Carotid Artery


22.6.1. External Carotid Artery


22.6.2. Internal Carotid Artery: Cervical, Petrous, and Cavernous Parts


22.7. Blood Supply to the Cerebral Hemispheres


22.7.1. Internal Carotid Artery: Cerebral Part


22.7.2. Branches of the Internal Carotid Artery


22.7.3. Posterior Cerebral Artery and its Cerebral Supply


22.8. Cerebral Arterial Circle


22.8.1. Types of Arteries Supplying the Brain


22.9. Embryological Considerations


22.10. Vascular Injuries


22.10.1. Brain Stem Vascular Injuries


22.10.2. Visualization of Brain Vessels


Further Reading393


Chapter 23: The Meninges, Ventricular System and Cerebrospinal Fluid


23.1. The Cranial Meninges and Related Spaces


23.1.1. Cranial Dura Mater


23.1.2. Cranial Arachnoid


23.1.3. Cranial Pia Mater


23.1.4. Dural Projections


23.1.5. Intracranial Herniations


23.2. Ventricular System


23.2.1. Introduction


23.2.2. Lateral Ventricles


23.2.3. Third Ventricle


23.2.4. Aqueduct of Midbrain


23.2.5. Fourth Ventricle


23.3. Cerebrospinal Fluid


Further Reading


References


Index


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