More than two billion people worldwide have currently no access to grid electricity or other efficient energy supply. This is one third of humanity and the majority live in rural areas. The productivity and health of these people are diminished by reliance on traditional fuels and technologies, with women and children suffering most. Energy is the key element to empower people and ensure water, food and fodder supply as well as rural development. Therefore access to energy should be treated as the fundamental right to everybody. Renewable energy has the potential to bring power, not only in the literal sense, to communities by transforming their prospects.
This book offers options that meet the needs of people and communities for energy and engage them in identifying and planning their own provision. It describes updated renewable energy technologies and offers strategies and guidelines for the planning and implementation of sustainable energy supply for individuals and communities.
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2. Overview of energy requirements for rural communities.
2.1 Heat. 2.2 Electric power. 2.3 Water. 2.4 Lighting. 2.5 Cooking. 2.6 Health and sanitation. 2.7 Communications. 2.8 Transportation. 2.9 Agriculture. 2.10 Basic and extended needs.
3. Calculating energy and food production potential and requirements.
3.1 Modelling approaches. 3.2 Data acquisition. 3.3 Determination of energy and food requirements. 3.4 Energy potential analysis. 3.5 Data collection and processing for energy utilization. 3.6 Wind energy. 3.7 Biomass. 3.8 Energetic use of biomass.
4. Planning of integrated energy systems for rural communities.
4.1 Scenario 1. 4.2 Scenario 2. 4.3 Case study I: Implementation of IEF under climatic conditions of Central Europe. 4.4 Case study II: Arid and semi arid regions.
5. Renewable energy resources and technologies.
5.1 Biomass and bioenergy. 5.2 Regional availability. 5.3 Deployment of biogas: Denmark as a case study. 5.4 Plant oils. 5.5 Ethanol. 5.6 Combustion. 5.7 Gasification. 5.8 Pyrolysis. 5.9 Cogeneration. 5.10 Wind energy. 5.11 Solar energy. 5.12 Hydropower. 5.13 Geothermal energy. 5.14 Marine energy (general). 5.15 Ocean thermal energy. 5.16 Tidal energy. 5.17 Wave energy. 5.18 Hydrogen. 5.19 Fuel cells. 5.20 Stirling engines for power and heat generation. 5.21 Tractors as power generator (dual uses). 5.22 Batteries. 5.23 Alternative transportation fuels.
6. Applications of renewable energy technologies.
6.1 Cookers and stoves. 6.2 Air conditioning, cooling, refrigeration and ice making. 6.3 Solar powered village scale potable water system. 6.4 Telecommunication. 6.5 Mobility and alternative fuel vehicles.
7. System integration.
7.1 The integrated energy farm. 7.2 New achievement in the utilization of biomass for energy in China.
8. Buildings and energy saving.
9. Environmental assessment.
10. Economic dimensions.
10.1 Economic aspects. 10.2 Recent and future market. 10.3 Financing and investment. 10.4 Development. 10.5 Marketing strategy.
11. Legislative structures.
1. Glossary. 2. Abbreviations and acronyms. 3. Conversion factors. 4. Inventory of PV systems for sustainable agriculture and rural development. 5. Solar restaurant in Chile. 6. Biomass turbo stove BAFOB 5KW. 7. Illuminating the path. 8. Renewables and tourism. Sources of figures and tables. Subject index. References.
Dr. El Bassam is Director, International Research Center for Renewable Energy in Germany in close cooperation with UN, EU and other national and international organizations. Its mission is the integration and application of renewable energy resources for electricity, water and food supply and development of renewable energy management strategies. Dr. El Bassam has won several awards for his work in this area including the World Pioneer in Renewable Energies award in 2003 from UNESCO and the Award in Science and Technology for Sustainable Rural Development of Energy and Water Supply from the Chinese Science Academy. He is currently the Editor of Springer's Journal "Sustainability Science and American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences (AJEAS).
Dr. Maegaard is Director of the Nordic Folkecenter for Renewable Energy, an institute for the development and implementation of renewable energies located in Denmark. The center has, under his leadership, provided transfer of renewable energy technology to many countries. Dr. Maegaard was appointed the first president of the World Wind Energy Institute, first president of the World Wind Energy Association, and has served as a Renewable Energy Adviser to the President of Mali. For over three decades, Dr. Maegaard has been a director, organizer, and speaker at numerous international seminars, workshops and conferences. He has authored numerous reports, books, and articles in Danish, English, German and Japanese on renewables and sustainable development.