Particularly in an era where high quality off-the-shelf solutions are readily available, it is important for the electrophysiologist to understand how his or her equipment manages the acquisitions and analysis of low voltage biological signals. Introduction to Electrophysiological Methods and Instrumentation addresses this need. The book presents the basics of the passive and active electronic components and circuitry used in apparatuses such as (voltage-clamp) amplifiers, addressing the strong points of modern semiconductors as well as the limitations inherent to even the highest-tech equipment. It concisely describes the theoretical background of the biological phenomena. The book includes a very useful tutorial in electronics, which will introduce students and physiologists to the important basics of electronic engineering needed to understand the function of electrophysiological setups. The vast terrain of signal analysis is dealt with in a way that is valuable to both the uninitiated and the expert. For example, the utility of convolutions and (Fourier, Pascal) transformations in signal detection, conditioning and analysis is presented both in an easy to grasp graphical form as well as in a more rigorous mathematical way.
- Introduces possibilities and solutions, along with the problems, pitfalls, and artifacts of equipment and electrodes
- Presents the fundamentals of signal processing of analog signals, spike trains and single channel recordings as well as procedures for signal recording and processing
- Includes appendices on electrical safety, on the use of CRT monitors in research and foundations of some of the mathematical tools used
Components, Unwanted Properties.
Circuits, Schematics, Kirchoff's Laws.
Composition of Similar Components; Attenuators.
Voltage and Current Measurement.
Compostion of Unequal Components: Filters.
Part II: Electronics.
Vacuum Tubes and Semiconductors.
Diodes and Transistors.
Other Semiconductor Types.
Amplifiers, Gain, Decibels and Saturation.
Noise, Hum, Interference and Grounding.
Differential Amplifiers, Block Diagrams.
Operational Amplifiers, Feedback.
Power Supplies and Signal Sources.
The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope.
Digital Electronics, Logic.
A/D and D/A Conversions.
Part III: Electrochemistry.
Introduction, Properties of Electrolytes.
The Metal/Electrolyte Interface.
Liquid Junction Potentials.
Electrodes: Practical Aspects.
Volume Conduction: Electric Fields in Electrolyte Solutions.
Part IV: Signal Analysis
Analysis of Analogue Potentials.
Analysis of Action Potential Signals.
Analysis of Nerve Membrane Data.
A. Symbols, abbreviations and codes
B. Symbols for circuit diagrams
C. Electrical safety in electrophysiological set-ups
D. The use of CRT monitors in visual experiments.
E. Complex numbers and complex frequency.
F. The mathematics of Markov chains.
G. Recursive (non-causal) filters.
H. Pseudo code to calculate the macroscopic current and dwell time distributions from a transition matrix.
J. Referred and recommended literature.
Dr. Bretschneider is a neurobiologist, currently as guest researcher at Utrecht University (Utrecht, The Netherlands). His research over the years has focused on the field of sensory physiology of aquatic animals, and teaching on sensory physiology and electrophysiology. His current lab interest is in bat research, with recording methods and instrumentation as a main focus.
de Weille, Jan R.
Dr. de Weille has been an Assistant Professor at the Institut des Neurosciences at the University of Montpellier. His research, carried out at the Universities of Nice and later Montpellier, was centred for many years on the pharmacology of ion currents. He developed interests in molecular biology and fluorescence imaging. He has been a consultant with a cancer pharmacology start-up, Beta-Innov (Paris), until his retirement.