IP Addressing and Subnetting INC IPV6

  • ID: 1767120
  • Book
  • 529 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Internetworking Protocol (IP) addresses are the unique numeric identifiers required of every device connected to the Internet. They allow for the precise routing of data across very complex worldwide internetworks. The rules for their format and use are governed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) of the The Internet SOCiety (ISOC). In response to the exponential increase in demand for new IP addresses, the IETF has finalized its revision on IP addressing as IP Version 6, also know as IPng (ng = Next Generation). Key hardware vendors such as Cisco and major Internet Service Providers such as America Online have already announced plans to migrate to IP Version 6.
IP address allocation within an organization requires a lot of long-term planning. This timely publication addresses the administrator and engineer's need to know how IP 6 impacts their enterprise networks.
  • Easy-to-read, light technical approach to cellular technology
  • Ideal for companies planning a phased migration from IP 4 to IP 6
  • Timely publication: The IETF standard was finalized in early 1999 and will begin to be implemented in late 1999/2000. The current IP Version 4 address set will be exhausted by 2003
  • The book focuses on planning and configuring networks and devices for IP 6. Specifically, it will cover how to: Increase the IP address size from 32 bits to 128 bits; Support more levels of addressing hierarchy; Support an increased number of addressable nodes; Support simpler auto-configuration of addresses; Improve the scalability of multicast routing by adding a "scope" field to multicast addresses; Use a new "anycast address" to send a packet to any one of a group of nodes
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Preface

Why this Book is Necessary


Contents of this Book


Editor's Acknowledgment


Chapter 1 Addressing and Subnetting Basic


IP Address Basic


Classful Addressing-Structure an Size of Each Type


Address Assignment


Examples


The Purpose of Subnetting


The BasicFixed-Length Max


What the Mask Does


Components of a Mask


Binary Determination of Mask Values


Decimal Equivalent Mask Values


Creating Mask for Various Networking Problems


Addresses and Mask Interaction


Reserved and Restricted Address


Determining the range of Addresses within Subnets


Determining Subnet Addresses Given a Single Address and Mask


Interpreting Masks


Reserved Addresses


Summary


FAQs


Chapter 2 Creating an Addressing Plan for Fixed-Length Mask Networks


Introduction


Determine Addressing Requirements


Review Your Internetwork Design


How Many Subnets Do You Need?


How Many IP Addresses Are Needed in Each Subnet?


Choose the Proper Mask


Consult the Tables


Obtain IP Addresses


From Your Organization's Network Manager


From Your ISP


From Your Internet Registry


Calculate Ranges of IP Addresses for Each Subnet


Doing It the Hard Way


Worksheets


Subnet Calculators


Allocate Addresses to Devices


Assigning Subnets


Assigning Device Addresses


Document Your Work


Keeping Track of What You've Done


Paper


Spreadsheets


Databases


In Any Case


Summary


FAQs


Exercises


Subnetting Tables


Class A Subnetting Table


Class B Subnetting Table


Class C Subnetting Table


Subnet Assignment Worksheet


Chapter 3 Private Addressing and Subnetting Large Networks


Introduction


Strategies to Conserve Addresses


CIDR


VLSM


Private Addresses


Addressing Economics


An Appeal


Public vs Private Address Spaces


Can I Pick My Own?


RFC 1918~Private Network Addresses


The Three-Address Blocks


Considerations


Which to Use When


Strategy for Subnetting a Class A Private Network


The Network


The Strategy


Address Assignment


Results


Summary


FAQs


Exercises


Chapter 4 Network Address Translation


Introduction


Hiding Behind the Router/Firewall


What Is NAT?


How Does NAT Work?


Network Address Translation (Static)


How Does Static NAT Work?


Double NAT


Problems with Static NAT


Configuration Examples


Network Address Translation (Dynamic)


How Does Dynamic NAT Work?


Problems with Dynamic NAT


Configuration Examples


Port Address Translation (PAT)


How Does PAT Work?


Problems with PAT


Configuration Examples


What Are the Advantages?


What Are the Performance Issues?


Proxies and Firewall Capabilities


Packet Filters


Proxies


Stateful Packet Filters


Stateful Packet Filter with Rewrite


Why a Proxy Server Is Really Not a NAT


Shortcomings of SPF


Summary


FAQs


References & Resources


RFCs


IP Masquerade/Linux


Cisco


Windows


NAT Whitepapers


Firewalls


Chapter 5 Variable-Length Subnet Masking


Introduction


Why Are Variable-Length Masks Necessary?.


Right-sizing Your Subnets


More Addresses or More Useful Addresses?


The Importance of Proper Planning


Creating and Managing Variable-Length Subnets


Analyze Subnet Needs


Enumerate Each Subnet and Number of Required Nodes


Determine Which Mask to Use in Each Subnet


Allocate Addresses Based on Need For Each Subnet


Routing Protocols and VI~M


Class C VI~M Problem


Completing the Class C Problem


Template-based Address Assignment


Summary


FAQs


Chapter 6 Routing Issues


Introduction


Classless Interdomain Routing


From Millions to Thousands of Networks


ISP Address Assignment


Using CIDR Addresses Inside Your Network


Contiguous Subnets


IGRP


EIGRP


EIGRP Concepts


RIP-1 Requirements


Comparison with IGRP


Routing Update Impact


RIP-2 Requirements


OSPF


Configuring OSPF


Routing Update Impact


OSPF Implementation Recommendations


BGP Requirements


IBGP and EBGP Requirements


Loopback Interfaces


Summary


FAQs


Chapter 7 Automatic Assignment of IP Addresses with BOOTP and DHCP Objectives


Introduction


The Role of Dynamic Address Assignment


A Brief History


Address Management with These Tools


Field Descriptions and Comments


BOOTP Process Details


The BOOTP Server Database


How Does DHCP Work?


DHCP-Specific Options


Interoperation between DHCP and BOOTP


DHCP Address Scopes


Comparing BOOTP and DHCP


How BOOTP Works


DHCP / BOOTP Options


BOOTP, DHCP, and Routed Networks


The BOOTP Relay Agent


The Role of the GIADDR


Other Fields Involved


BOOTP Implementation Checklist


DHCP Implementation Checklist


Summary


FAQs


Chapter 8 Multicast Addressing


What Is Multicast?


Mapping IP Multicast to the Link Layer


Joining the Group


IGMP


Multicast Routing Protocols


Mbone


Multicast Addresses


Transient and Permanent Addresses


Generic Assignments


IANA Assignments


Scope of Multicast Addresses Using TTL


Administrative Scopes


IP Stacks and Multicast


Why Multicast?


Efficiency of Bandwidth Usage and Scaling


Discovering


Efficient Channel


Industry


Summary


FAQ


References


Chapter 9 IPv6 Addressing


Introduction


IPv6 Addressing Basics


IPv6 Addressing Scheme Characteristics


Version


Traffic Class


Flow Label


Payload Length


Next Header


More Bits!


A More Flexible Hierarchical Organization of Addresses


Minimizing the Size of Routing Tables


Global Addresses for the Internet and Local Addresses for Intranet


IPv6 Benefits


Increased IP Address Size


Increased Addressing Hierarchy Support


Simplified Host Addressing


Simpler Autoconfiguration of Addresses


Improved Scalability of Multicast Routing


The Anycast Address


The Need for Further Development


The Multihoming Problem


The 6Bone


Summary


FAQ


Chapter 10 The IPv6 Header


Introduction


Expanded Addressing


Simplified Header


Improved Support for Extension and Option


Flow and Flow Labeling


Authentication and Privacy


IPv6 Header


IPv4 Header


Extension Headers


Hop-by-Hop Option Header


Routing Header


Fragment Header


Authentication Header


Encapsulating Security Payload


Destination Options Header


Upper-Layer Protocol Issues


Summary


FAQs


References


Appendix A Address Assignment


Introduction


Registries


Provider-Based Assignments


Cost of an IP Address


How to Find an IPv4 Address Delegation


How to Find an IPv6 Address Delegation


Internet Governance


Summary


Index


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