Landmark Papers addresses:
*The origin of the home pregnancy test available today in every drugstore
*The woman who invented a billion dollar technology, refused to patent it and went on to win a Nobel Prize
*The scientists who worked on the US Government's crash program at the start of WWII to find a substitute for the malaria drug quinine
*The blood test used to monitor the effectiveness of cholesterol lowering drugs that today are taken by over 20 million patients
*The graduate student who invented a technology for testing for infectious diseases, took it to Africa to screen people for malaria for the first time and which is now used to test for HIV infection world-wide
*The invention of molecular diagnostics by Linus Pauling and the road to individualized medicine
*The development of the glucose meter used by diabetics up to six times a day to monitor their metabolic control
*First book of this kind dedicated to clinical chemistry
*Thirty-nine articles that have shaped the field today
*A survey of the major developments in the field clinical chemistry in the 20th century
Section I IMMUNOASSAY TECHNOLOGY
1. Yalow, R.S., Berson, S.A. (1960: Assay of plasma insulin in man.
FPIA (Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay)
2. Dandliker, W.B., Feigen, G.A. (1961): Quantification of the antigen-antibody reaction by the polarization of fluorescence.
CPB (Competitive Protein Binding)
3. Murphy, B.E.P., Pattee, C.J. (1964): Determination of thyroxine utilizing the property of protein-binding.
ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay)
4. Engvall, E., Perlmann, P. (1972): Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA. III.
EMITä (Enzyme Immunoassay Technique)
5. Rubenstein, K.E., Schneider, R. S., Ullman, E.F. (1972): "Homogeneous" enzyme immunoassay.
Section II THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING (TDM)
6. Wuth, O. (1927): Rational bromide treatment.
7. Bratton, A.C., Marshall, E.K., Jr., (1939): A New Coupling Component for Sulfanilamide Determination.
Quinine and Quinidine
8. Brodie, B.B., Udenfriend, S. (1943): The estimation of quinine in human plasma with a note on the estimation of quinidine.
9. Smith, T.W., Butler, V.P., Haber, E. (1969): Determination of therapeutic and toxic serum digoxin concentrations by radioimmunoassay.
10. Thompson, R.D., Nagasawa, H.T., Jenne, J.W. (1974): Determination of theophylline and its metabolites in human urine and serum by high-pressure liquid chromatography.
Section III ENZYMOLOGY
ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase, EC 18.104.22.168))
11. Bessey, O.A., Lowry, O.H., Brock, M.J. (1946): A method for the rapid determination of alkaline phosphatase with five cubic millimeters of serum.
AST (Aspartate Aminotransferase, EC 22.214.171.124)
12. Karmen, A., Wroblewski, F., LaDue, J.S. (1955): Transaminase activity in human blood.
CK (Creatine Kinase, EC 126.96.36.199)
13. Mercer, D.W. (1974): Separation of tissue and serum creatine kinase isoenzymes by ion-exchange column chromatography.
Section IV SPECIFIC ANALYTES
Colorimetric Analysis with the Duboscq
14. Folin, O., Wu, H. (1919): A system of blood analysis.
Blood Gases by Manometer
15. Van Slyke, D.D. (1924): The determination of gases in blood and other solutions by vacuum extraction and manometric measurement. I.
Bilirubin, Total and Direct With the Filter Photometer
16. Malloy, H.T., Evelyn, K.A. (1937): The determination of bilirubin with the photometric colorimeter.
Proteins by the Biuret Reaction
17. Gornall, A. G., Bardawill, C. J., David, M. M. (1949): Determination of serum proteins by means of the Biuret reaction.
Methods for Pediatric and Neonatal Samples
18. Natelson, S. (1951): Routine use of ultramicro methods in the clinical laboratory.
19. Huggett, A.S., Nixon, D.A. (1957): Use of glucose oxidase, peroxidase, and o-dianisidine in determination of blood and urinary glucose.
HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) by Immunoassay
20. Wide, L., Gemzell, C.A. (1960): An immunological pregnancy test.
21. Rahbar, S. (1968): An Abnormal Hemoglobin in Red Cells of Diabetics.
LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) Cholesterol by Calculation
22. Friedewald, W.T., Levy, R.I., Fredrickson, D.S. (1972): Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge.
Section V INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNIQUES
23. Durrum, E.L. (1950): A microelectrophoretic and microionophoretic technique.
24. Skeggs, L.T. (1957): An automatic method for colorimetric analysis.
Enzymatic Glucose, Dry Reagents on Pads
25. Free, A.H., Adams, E.C., Kercher, M.L., Free, H. M., Cook, M. H., (1957): Simple Specific Test for Urine Glucose.
Blood Gas Elelctrodes
26. Severinghaus, J., Bradley, A.F. (1958): Electrodes for blood pO2 and pCO2 determination.
Specific Ion Electrodes
27. Friedman, S.M., Nakashima, M. (1961): Single sample analysis with the sodium electrode.
28. Anderson, N.G. (1969): Analytical techniques for cell fractions. XII. A multiple-cuvet rotor for a new microanalytical system.
Immunoassays on Membranes
29. Glad, C., Grubb, A.O. (1978): Immunocapillary migration- A new method for immunochemical quantitation.
30. Towbin, H., Stachelin, T., Gordon, J. (1979): Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: Procedure and some applications.
Capillary Electrophoresis (CE)
31. Jorgenson, J.W., Lukacs, K. DeA. (1981): Zone electrophoresis in open-tubular glass capillaries.
Section VI CHEMOMETRICS
Quality Control Charts
32. Levey, S., Jennings, E.R. (1950): The Use of Control Charts in the Clinical Laboratory.
Interferences in Analytical Accuracy
33. Caraway, W. (1962): Chemical and Diagnostic Specificity of Laboratory Tests.
Predictive Value Theory
34. Vecchio, T.J. (1966): Predictive value of a single diagnostic test in unselected populations.
Standards and Calibrators
35. Radin, N. (1967): What is a standard?
36. Barnett, R.N., Cash, A.D., Junghams, S.P. (1968): Performance of "kits" used for clinical chemical analysis of cholesterol.
Section VII MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS
37. Pauling, L., Itano, H.A., Singer, S.J., Wells., I.C. (1949): Sickle cell anemia, a molecular disease.
Nucleic Acid Probes
38. Hyypia, T., Jalava, A., Larsen, S.H., Terho, P., Hukkanene, V. (1985): Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in clinical specimens by nucleic acid spot hybridization.
39. Maskos, U., Southern, E.M. (1992): Oligonucleotide hybridizations on glass supports: A novel linker for oligonucleotide synthesis and hybridization properties of oligonucleotide synthesized in situ.
Following a 25-year career in clinical chemistry, R M Rocco currently teaches graduate courses in the biomedical laboratory sciences at San Francisco State University. Landmark Papers grew out of a graduate seminar in landmark papers in biotechnology. Dr Rocco has extensive experience in directing pharmaceutical and clinical chemistry research and development groups.