Mast Cells and Basophils

  • ID: 1767820
  • Book
  • 707 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Mast Cells and Basophils will be essential reading for immunologists, biochemists and medical researchers. Detailed chapters cover all aspects of mast cell and basophil research, from cell development, proteases, histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes, physiology and pathology to the role of these cells in health and disease. Chapters also discuss the clinical implications of histamine receptor antagonists.
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Contributors

Preface


Acknowledgments


Section One Development of Mast Cells and Basophils


Chapter 1 Regulation of Mast Cell and Basophil Development by Stem Cell Factor and Interleukin-3


Introduction


SCF, a Ligand for the c-kit Receptor


Multiple Effects of SCF in Mast Cell Biology


SCF can Regulate Mast Cell Function In Vitro and In Vivo


Interleukin-3


Using IL-3-/- Mice to Assess the Role of IL-3 in Mast Cell and Basophil Development


Summary


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 2 Gain-of-function Mutations of c-kit in Human Diseases


Introduction


Loss-of-function Mutation of c-kit


Stomach Lesions of W/Wv and SI/SId Mice


Gain-of-function Mutation of c-kit in Mast Cell Neoplasms


Sporadic Gastrointestinal Stromal Turnouts


Familial GIST


Conclusion


References


Chapter 3 Modulation of Mast Cell Development from Embryonic Haematopoietic Progenitors by Eotaxin


Chemokines and Their Receptors Play Diverse Roles as Mediators of Inflammation


Chemokines Participate in Multiple Mast Cell and Basophil Functions


Chemokine Secretion by Mast Cells


Eotaxin


Results


Discussion


References


Chapter 4 Regulation and Dysregulation of Mast Cell Survival and Apoptosis


Introduction


Regulation of Mast Cell Survival and Apoptosis by Growth Factors


Regulation of Mast Cell Survival and Apoptosis by Death Receptors


Regulation of Mast Cell Survival and Apoptosis by Perforin, Nitric Oxide and Bacterial Toxins


Regulation of Mast Cell Survival and Apoptosis by Irradiation and Chemical Agents


Perspective: Apoptosis and Mast Cell Disease


References


Section Two Phenotypic and Ultrastructural Features of Mast Cells and Basophils


Chapter 5 Ultrastructural Features of Human Basophil and Mast Cell Secretory Function


Introduction


Mechanism(s) of Histamine and CLC-P Secretion from Human Basophils, of Histamine Secretion from Human Mast Cells In Vitro and of TNF-? and Chymase Secretion from Rat Peritoneal Cells


Histamine Secretion from Human Mast Cells In Vivo


Heparin Secretion from Human Mast Cells In Vitro


The Vesiculovacuolar Organelle, a New Endothelial Permeability Structure


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 6 Human Dendritic Mast Cells


Introduction


The Morphology of Human Dendritic Mast Cells


Functional Aspects and Future Lines of Research


Concluding Remarks


References


Chapter 7 The Phenotypic Similarities and Differences between Human Basophils and Mast Cells


Introduction


Morphology


Membrane Receptors


Cytoplasmic Contents


Mast Cell Phenotypes in Tissues


The Involvement of Mast Cells and Basophils in Asthma and Drug Reactions


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 8 Interactions between Nerves and Mast Cells in Amphibians


Introduction


Morphology of Frog Mast Cells


Frog Mast Cells and Peripheral Nervous System


Occurrence of Mast Cells in the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems of Mammals


Concluding Remarks


References


Section Three Signal Transduction in Mast Cells and Basophils


Chapter 9 Sequential Protein Kinase Activation and the Regulation of Mast Cell Cytokine Production


Introduction


Signaling Through Mast Cell Surface Receptors


MAPK Family Members


Transcriptional Regulation of TNF-? Production


Stem Cell Factor Receptor (c-kit)


Differentiation Signaling and Function of Mast Cells Derived from Bone Marrow and Embryonic Stem Cells


Identification of a Critical Role for MEKK2 in JNK Activation and Cytokine Production


Summary


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 10 Fc?RI-mediated Induction of TNF-? Gene Expression in Mast Cell Lines


Introduction


Chromosomal Location and Gene Structure of TNF-?


Regulation of TNF-? Gene Expression in Non-mast Cell Lines


Fc?RI-dependent Regulation of TNF-? Production


Concluding Remarks


References


Chapter 11 Regulation of Mast Cell Degranulation by SHIP


Introduction


Structure and Binding Partners of SHIP


Biological Properties of SHIP


Properties of the SHIP Knockout Mouse


The Role of SHIP in Fc?RI-induced Degranulation of Mast Cells


The Role of SHIP in Steel Factor-induced Signaling in Mast Cells


The Role of SHIP in Thapsigargin-induced Signaling in Mast Cells


A Model of IgE-induced Degranulation


Major Questions Remaining


Summary and Conclusions


Acknowledgments


References


Section Four Regulation of Mast Cell and Basophil Signaling and Secretion


Chapter 12 Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Inhibition Motif-dependent Negative Regulation of Mast Cell Activation and Proliferation


Introduction


SIRP-? can Negatively Regulate Fc?RI-dependent Mast Cell Activation


Fc?RIIB can Negatively Regulate c-kit-dependent Mast Call Proliferation


Conclusion


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 13 Perspectives on the Regulation of Secretion from Human Basophils and Mast Cells


Introduction


Regulation of Fc?RI Expression


Desensitization


Modification of Basophil Function by IL-3


Summary


References


Chapter 14 Interactions between Secretory IgA and Human Basophils


Introduction


Structure and Metabolism of sIgA


Pathophysiology of sIgA


sIgA-mediated Basophil Activation


Receptors for sIgA


Clinical Relevance of sIgA-mediated Basophil Activation


Concluding Remarks


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 15 Regulation of Mast Cell Secretion by Interferon-? and Nitric Oxide


Introduction


Interferon and Mast Cells


Do Mast Cells Produce Interferon-??


Nitric Oxide and Nitric Oxide Synthases


Nitric Oxide Effects on Mast Cells


Do Mast Cells Produce Nitric Oxide?


How does Nitric Oxide Regulate Mast Cells?


Nitric Oxide and Mast Cells In Vivo
Clinical Implications


Conclusion: Mast Cells, Interferon-? and Nitric Oxide in Cell Interactions and Disease


Acknowledgments


References


Section Five Structure and Function of Mast Cell Proteases


Chapter 16 Human and Mouse Mast Cell Tryptases


Introduction


Identification and Cloning of Human Tryptase Genes


Identification and Cloning of Mouse Tryptase Genes


Biochemical Features of Human and Mouse Tryptases


Expression of Mouse and Human Tryptases in Cells and Tissues


Function of Human and Mouse Tryptases


Tryptase Metabolism


Concluding Remarks


References


Chapter 17 Expression, Function and Regulation of Mast Cell Granule Chymases during Mucosal Allergic Responses


Introduction


Investigating the Response of mMCP-1-/- Mice to Gastrointestinal Nematodes


Regulation of the Expression of mMCP-1 in mBMMC


Discussion


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 18 Structure and Function of Human Chymase


Introduction


General Properties


X-ray Crystal Structure of rHC


The Extended Substrate-binding Site of Human Chymase


Modeling of the Human Chymase-angiotensin I Interaction


Summary


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 19 Structure and Function of Human Mast Cell Tryptase


Introduction


Distribution and Secretion in Disease


Structure and Physicochemical Properties


Non-human Tryptases


Regulation of Tryptase Activity


Peptide Substrates


Protein Substrates


Actions on Cells and Tissues


Cellular Receptors for Tryptase


Tryptase as a Therapeutic Target


Acknowledgments


References


Section Six Nerve-Mast Cell Interactions: Physiology and Pathology


Chapter 20 Mast Cell-Nerve Interactions: Possible Significance of Nerve Growth Factor


Evidence for Mast Cell-Nerve Interactions


Possible Role of NGF


Acknowledgment


References


Chapter 21 Nerve Growth Factor, Mast Cells and Allergic Inflammation


Nerve Growth Factor: Early Discovery and Emerging Data


NGF and the Nervous System


NGF and the Endocrine System


NGF and the Immune System


NGF and Mast Cells


NGF and Inflammation


NGF and Allergic Responses


Behavioral Influence on NGF Levels and Allergic Responses


Possible Future Directions


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 22 Interactions between Neurotrophins and Mast Cells


Definition and Basic Aspects of Neurotrophins


Mast Cells as a Source of Neurotrophic Factors


Effects of Neurotrophins on Mast Cells


Evidence that NGF is also a Human Mast Cell Growth Factor


Neurotrophin Receptors on Mast Cells


Clinical Findings Suggesting Mast Cell and Neurotrophin Activity


Mast Cells and Neurotrophins: Open Issues


Acknowledgment


References


Chapter 23 Modulation of Peripheral Neurotransmission Associated with Mast Cell Activation


Sensory (Afferent) Nervous System


Enteric Nervous System


Sympathetic Nervous System


Parasympathetic Nervous System


Summary


References


Chapter 24 Regulation of Gastrointestinal Mucin Production by Nerve-Mast Cell Interactions


Introduction


Neuronal Mediation of Mucin Secretion


Effects of Stress on Colonic Mucin and Prostaglandin Release


Role of Corticotropin-releasing Factor in Stress-induced Colonic Mucin Secretion


Neurotensin is an Important Mediator of Colonic Stress Responses


Mast Cells as a Major Link of Stress-mediated Mucin Secretion


CRF and NT as Mediators of Intestinal Mast Cell Activation During Stress


Clinical Implications


References


Section Seven Mast Cells and Basophils in Homeostasis and Host Defense


Chapter 25 Mast Cell-Enterobacteria Interactions during Infection


Introduction


Protective Role of Mast Cells Against Bacterial Infection


Mast Cell Phagocytosis of Bacteria


Molecular Basis for Mast Cell-Enterobacteria Recognition


Mast Cell Activation Via CD48


Interactions of Human Mast Cells with Enterobacteria


Final Thoughts


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 26 Human Mast Cells and Basophils in Immune Responses to Infectious Agents


Introduction


Mast Cells in Host Defense Against Bacterial Infections


Mast Cells and Basophils in Helicobacterpylori Infection


Leukotrienes in the Defence against Bacterial and Viral Infections


Activation of Human Basophils and Mast Cells by Protein A


Activation of Human Basophils and Mast Cells by Protein L


Activation of Human Basophils by Pepstatin A


Endogenous Superallergen Protein Fv in Viral Hepatitis


Activation of Human Basophils and Mast Cells by HIV- 1 Glycoprotein gp120


The 'Three Faces' of Mast Cells and Basophils in the Immune Response to Infectious Agents


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 27 Differential Regulation of Mast Cell Mediator Secretion by Bacterial Products


Introduction


Receptors for Bacteria on Mast Cells


Selective Mast Cell Responses to Specific Bacterial Products


Combined Signals Alter and Enhance Mast Cell Responses


Bacteria- and Bacterial Product-mediated Signaling Events in Mast Cells


Conclusions


References


Chapter 28 The Role of Mast Cells, Basophils and Interleukin-3 (IL-3) in Immune Responses to Parasites: Studies with Mast Cell- and IL-3-Deficient Mice


Studies of Parasite Infection in Genetically Mast Cell-deficient Mice


Assessing the Role of IL-3 in Host Responses to Nematodes using IL-3-/-Mice


KitW/KitW-v, IL-3-/-Mice Exhibit a Profound Impairment of Basophilia, Mucosal Mast Cell Development and Immunity During Infection with Strongyloides venezuelensis


Summary


Acknowledgments


References


Section Eight Mast Cells in Atherosclerosis and Cardiac Diseases


Chapter 29 Human Heart Mast Cells: Immunological Characterization In Situ and In Vitro


Introduction


Isolation of HHMC and Their Characterization In Situ


Histamine, Proteolytic Enzymes and Proteoglycans Synthesized by HHMC


Prostaglandins and Cysteinyl Leukotrienes Synthesized De Novo by HMMC


Immunological and Non-immunological Stimuli that Activate HHMC In Vitro


Mast Cells and Regulation of Coagulation and Fibrinogenolysis


HHMC in Systemic and Cardiac Anaphylaxis and in Anaphylactoid Reactions


HHMC and Atherosclerosis


HHMC in Patients with Myocarditis and Hyper-eosinophilia


HHMC and Angiogenesis in the Heart


HHMC and Myocardial Ischaemia


HHMC in Idiopathic and Ischaemic Cardiomyopathy


Perspective and Conclusions


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 30 Mast Cells in Atherosclerotic Human Coronary Arteries: Implications for Coronary Fatty Streak Formation, Plaque Ulceration and Control of Local Haemostatic Balance


Introduction


Atherosclerosis is a Disorder of Lipid Metabolism in the Arterial Intima with a Strong Inflammatory Component


Circulating Mast Cell Progenitors also find Their way in to the Arterial Intima


Immunohistochemical Observations on Mast Cells in the Human Coronary


Arterial Intima


Potential Mechanisms by Which Mast Cells may Play a Role in Atherogenesis


Conclusion and Future Directions


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 31 Role of Mast Cells in Endogenous Fibrinolysis and Related (Patho)physiological Processes


Introduction


Contribution of Mast Cells to Fibrinogen Extravasation and Fibrin Formation


Mast Cell-dependent Fibrinolysis: Role of Tryptase and Chymase


The Mast Cell as Site of tPA Expression


Human Mast Cells Express the Urokinase Receptor (uPAR, CD87)


Functional Significance of MC-tPA: Mast Cells are 'Pro-fibrinolytic' Cells


Molecular Basis of Mast Cell Dependent Fibrinolysis: Role of Inhibitors (PAIs)


Fibrin-independent Plasminogen Activation


Clinical Significance


Mast Cells Accumulate at the Site of Thrombosis


SCF Regulates Expression and Release of tPA in Mast Cells


Concluding Remarks and Future Directions


Acknowledgment


References


Chapter 32 Mast Cells in Myocardial Ischaemia and Reperfusion


Introduction


Mast Cells in Normal Hearts


The Mast Cell as a Source of Cytokines


Mast Cell Degranulation Following Myocardial Ischaemia


Mast Cells in Healing Myocardial Infarcts


Mast Cell Precursors Infiltrate the Healing Heart


SCF Induction Following Myocardial Ischaemia/Reperfusion


Macrophages are the Main Source of SCF Following Myocardial Ischaemia


Potential Role of Mast Cells in Healing


The Mast Cell in Myocardial Ischaemia/Reperfusion: Friend or Foe?


Acknowledgment


References


Section Nine Leukotrienes, Cytokines and Chemokines in Allergic Disorders


Chapter 33 Lipid Mediators from Mast Cells and Basophils in Allergic Diseases


Introduction


Arachidonic Acid Pools in Human Mast Cells and Basophils


Phospholipase A 2 in Human Mast Cells and Basophils


Extracellular Effects of Mast Cell-derived Secretory PLA 2


PAF and Related Phospholipids


Concluding Remarks


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 34 Regulation and Function of Human Intestinal Mast Cells


Introduction


Effector Functions of Human Intestinal Mast Cells


Regulation of Human Intestinal Mast Cell Functions


Clinical Implications


Future Directions


References


Chapter 35 Differential Regulation of Basophil Functions by Chemokines


Basophil Phenotype and Functions


Chemokines


Acknowledgment


References


Chapter 36 Chemokine Receptors on Human Mast Cells


Chemokines


Mast Cells


Chemokine Receptors on MC


Concluding Remarks


Acknowledgment


References


Chapter 37 Release and Cleavage of Stem Cell Factor by Human Mast Cells


Introduction


Stem Cell Factor Expression in Human Mast Cells


Stem Cell Factor-Protease Interactions


Biological Effects of SCF1-166 and SCF1-159 Oil HLMC and HSMC


Conclusions


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 38 SCF-Induced Chemokine Production, Allergic Airway Inflammation and Airway Hyper-reactivity


Introduction


SCF-Induced Mast Cell Activation, Inflammation and Airway Hyper-reactivity


Regulation of SCF Production


Initiation of Cytokine/Chemokine Production by SCF in Mast Cells and Eosinophils


Structural Cell-derived SCF Contributes to Disease Progression: Differential Activation of Mast Cells by Soluble versus Membrane SCF


Summary


References


Section Ten Clinical Implications of Histamine H1 Receptor Antagonists


Chapter 39 Pharmacological Profile of Mizolastine, a Novel Histamine H1 Receptor Antagonist


Histamine and Its Receptor Subtypes


Specificity and Selectivity of Mizolastine for H1 Histamine Receptor Subtypes


Antihistaminergic Effects of Mizolastine


Allergic Reaction


Anti-anaphylactic Properties of Mizolastine


Immune System-mediated Inflammatory Reaction in Allergy


Anti-allergic Effects of Mizolastine


Other Pharmacological Effects of Mizolastine


Conclusion


Acknowledgment


References


Chapter 40 Adenosine-Induced Enhancement of Mast Cell Mediator Release in Asthma and COPD


Introduction


The Bronchoconstrictor Effect of Adenosine in Asthma


The Airway Response to Adenosine in COPD


Adenosine Receptors on Mast Cells


Concluding Comments


References


Chapter 41 Neural Activation and Inflammation in Allergic Rhinitis


Introduction


Neurogenic Inflammation


Neural Hyper-responsiveness


Nerve Growth Factor


Summary and Conclusion


References


Chapter 42 Antihistaminic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Mizolastine


Introduction


Pharmacokinetics of Mizolastine


Clinical Efficacy of Mizolastine


Anti-inflammatory effects of Mizolastine


Concluding Remarks


References


Chapter 43 Electrophysiological and Molecular Basis for the Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Histamine H, Receptor Antagonists


Introduction


Cardiotoxicity of Second-generation Antihistamines


Conclusions


Acknowledgments


References


Index


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Marone, Gianni
Lichtenstein, Lawrence M.
Galli, Federica J.
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