The effects of global warming on human health factors with special regards to our brain function are still not well understood. There is an urgent need to expand our knowledge on the effects of hot environment on our brain functions in healthy and in diseased populations. It is still unclear whether infectious events, traumatic injuries, metabolic diseases, carcinogenic events, cardiovascular and respiratory functions will be adversely affected by the rise in global temperature or whether environmental pollutants, such as nanoparticles entered into our body system will produce more damage at high ambient temperatures. This book aims to answer these questions based on recent research carried out by top experts in the field from the USA (11 chapters), Europe (8) chapters), the Middle East (3 chapters), Asia (2 chapters) and Canada (1).
These chapters are written in review style and embedded with the author's new and original data in relation to the current knowledge in the field. The book is highly interesting to the first time readers, beginners and students alike as well as provides in-depth knowledge to the professionals. In addition, prospects for future research and recommendations are clearly indicated in each chapter for future growth of the subject in this highly emerging new discipline.
- Describes the importance of brain temperature and hyperthermia in disease processes
- Presents research on the first observations on Nanoparticles that worsen the outcome of hyperthermia
- Discusses the effects of hyperthermia on the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers
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1. The onset of fever: new insights into its mechanism.
2. Eicosanoids in non-febrile thermoregulation.
Section II. Physiological Mechanisms in Hyperthermia.
3. Exercise and heat stress: cerebral challenges and consequences.
4. Neuropsychological determinants of exercise tolerance in the heat.
Section III. Drugs and Hyperthermia.
5. Thermophysiological responses to hyperthermic drugs: extrapolating from rodent to human.
6. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome and serotonin syndrome.
Section IV. Therapeutic Hypertermia and Consequences.
7. Radio frequency electromagnetic fields: mild hyperthermia and safety standards.
8. The effect of induced hyperthermia on the immune system.
9. Cerebral pathophysiology and clinical neurology of hyperthermia in humans.
Section V. Hyperthermia and Brain Pathology
10. Methods to produce hyperthermia induced brain dysfunction.
11. Hyperthermia and central nervous system injury.
12. Physiological and pathological brain hyperthermia.
13. Nanoparticles aggravate heat stress induced cognitive deficits, blood-brain barrier disruption, edema formation and brain pathology.
Section VI. Neurochemicals and Hyperthermia.
14. Neuropeptides in hyperthermia.
15. Interaction between amino acids neurotransmitters and opioid receptors in hyperthermia induced brain pathology.
Section VII. Hyperthermia and Gene Expression.
16. Exertional heat illness and human gene expression.
17. Cellular mechanisms of neuronal damage from hyperthermia.
18. Heat acclimation and cross-tolerance against novel stressors: genomic
Section VIII. Heat Shock Proteins in Hyperthermia.
19. Heat shock protein expression in brain: a protective role spanning intrinsic thermal resistance and defense against neurotoxin viruse.
20. Cerebral neurons and glial cell types inducing heat shock proten Hsp70 following heat stress in the rat.
21. Heat shock proteins and the heat shock response during hyperthermia and its modulation by altered physiological conditions.
Section IX. Hyperthermia and Cerebrospinal Fluid.
22. Changes in CSF composition during heat stress and fever in conscious rabbits.
23. Blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier in hyperthermia.
Section X. Heat Stroke and Hyperthermia.
24. Heat stroke and cytokines.
25. Oxidative stress and ischemic injuries in heat stroke.
Dr. Hari Shanker Sharma, Professor of Neurobiology (MRC), Docent in Neuroanatomy (UU) is currently working in Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Surgical Sciences, Division of Anesthesiology & Intensive Care Medicine, Uppsala University, Sweden. Dr Sharma obtained his Masters Degree from Bihar University with special expertise in Cell Biology in 1976 and was awarded the Gold Medal of Bihar University for securing 1st position in the 1st Class. Dr Sharma joined the group of Professor Prasanta Kumar Dey, a neurophysiologist, by training in the Department of Physiology, Institute of Medical; Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi in 1977 to obtain his Doctor of Philosophy Degree (D.Phil.) in Neurosciences and was awarded his Ph.D. in 1982 on "Blood-Brain Barrier in Stress. After carrying out a series of Government of India funded Research Projects on the BBB and brain dysfunction (1982-1987), Dr Sharma joined the lab of Neuropathology at Uppsala University with Professor Yngve Olsson in 1988 to investigate passage of tracer transport across the BBB caused by stress or traumatic insults to the Brain and Spinal cord at light and electron microscopy. Dr Sharma was awarded the prestigious Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Fellowship of German Government (1989-1991) to work on hyperthermia induced BBB dysfunction at the ultrastructural level in the laboratory of Professor Jorge Cervós-Navarro (a living "Legend in Neuropathology in Europe). Dr Sharma again joined Uppsala University and established a network of collaboration on "Experimental CNS Injury Research Group as a lead investigator with eminent collaborators in various parts of Europe, USA, and Australia (1991-). On his work on hyperthermia Dr Sharma received the prestigious Neuroanatomy award "Rönnows Research prize of Uppsala University for "best neuroanatomical research of the year 1996 followed by the Award of the Degree of Doctor of Medical Sciences of Uppsala University in Neuroanatomy in 1999 and selected for the Best Thesis Award of the Medical faculty, "The Hwassers Prize of 1999. On his meticulous works on the Blood Brain barrier and Brain edema (2000-2003) Dr. Sharma earned the prestigious title of "Docent in Neuroanatomy of Medical Faculty, Uppsala University in April 2004. Currently his main research interest is Neuroprotection and Neuroregeneration, in relation to the Blood-brain barrier in stress, trauma, and drugs of abuse in health and disease. Dr. Sharma on his research on brain pathology and neuroprotection in different models received the prestigious award from The Laerdal Foundation of Acute Medicine, Stavanger, Norway, in 2005 followed by Distinguished International Scientists Collaboration Award by National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), Baltimore, MD (2006-2008). His recent work on 5-HT3 receptor mediated neuroprotection in morphine withdrawal induced neurotoxicity won the coveted prize of Best Investigator Award 2008 and Best Scientific Presentation by European Federation of the International Association for Study of Pain (ISAP), and Awarded during their VI Annual Meeting in Lisbon, September 9-12, 2008. His recent research is aimed to find out the role of nanoparticles in Neurodegeneration and Neuroprotection using various treatment strategies that is supported by European Aerospace Research and Development (EOARD), London, UK and US Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Oh, USA. On his works on Blood-brain barrier in hypertension and diabetes together with Romanian colleagues, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Iuliu Hatieganu, Cluj-Napoca, Romania awarded Dr. Sharma with Honorary Doctorate of Medical Sciences in 2009. Dr Sharma's work over 30 years on the blood-brain barrier and brain edema won him the US Neurosurgeon Dr Anthony Marmarou Award (2011) by the International Brain Edema Society at their 15th Congress in Tokyo, Japan, November 2011. His works on Nanoneuroscience and development of nanomedicine to treat the CNS injuries has won accolades at various Government and International Scotties or Organization across the World. Accordingly Dr Sharma was decorated with the most prestigious Hind Rattan Award 2012 on the eve of Republic Day of India in January 2012 and Mahatma Gandhi Pravasi Gold Medal in October 2012 in House of Lords, London, UK. Dr Sharma was also invited to organize and chair Nanosymposium in Society for Neuroscience meetings in Chicago (2009), San Diego (2010), Washington DC (2011) and New Orleans (2012). Dr Sharma has published over 380 research papers, 75 reviews, 12 monographs, and 70 international book chapters and edited 15 book volumes.