The brain, and the rest of the nervous system, consists of nerve cells (neurons) and non-neuronal cells (glial cells), which by far outnumber the neurons, but in the past have received much less attention. This began to change about 30 years ago with the realization that glial cells carry out very important functions, generally in collaboration with the nerve cells. Evidence is now starting to accumulate that glial cells, especially astrocytes and microglia, may be major (in some cases the main) players in a multitude of neurological and mental diseases, and that different types of glial cells interact not only with nerve cells but also with each other and with cells lining brain tissue and controlling exchange of nutrients and other compounds between the brain and the rest of the body. Understanding of these interactions during normal function and in disease states is hampered by the fact that general knowledge of cellular interactions during brain function is limited.
These books present an attempt to remedy this situation. In the first two volumes, basic information about cell types and biochemical and physiological interactions between these cells is provided by leading experts in the field, and in the last part emerging evidence of the importance of such cellular interactions in several of the most important neurological and mental diseases is presented by leading researchers working actively in the field in question.
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Part I. Structure, Organization and Development 1. Cytoarchitectonics of non-neuronal cells in the nervous system (J.R. Wolff. T.I. Chao) 2. Oligodendrocyte phenotypical and morphological heterogeneity: a reexamination of old concepts in view of new findings (S. Szuchet, M.A. Seeger) 3. Regulation of cell cycle progression in astrocytes (Y. Naktsuji, R.H. Miller). 4. Role of neuron-glia interactions (F.C. Alcantara Gomes, S.K. Rehen) 5. Cells lining the ventricular system: evolving concepts underlying developmental events in the embryo and adult (F.G. Szele, S. Szuchet) 6. The perisynaptic astrocyte process as a glial compartment
immunolabelling for glutamine synthetase and other glial markers (A. Derouiche) 7. The astrocytic syncytium (E. Scemes, D.C. Spray) 8. Structural plasticity of non-neuronal cells in the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system: in the right place at the right time (A.K. Salm, A.E. Ayoub, B.E. Lally) 9. Glial-neuronal-endothelial interactions and the neuroendocrine control of GnRH secretion (V. Prévot, S. De Serrano, C. Estrella) 10. Meninges and perivasculature as mediators of CNS plasticity (F. Mercier, G.I. Hatton) 11. Mechanisms of infiltration of immune cells, bacteria and viruses through brain endothelium (P.O. Couraud, X. Nassif, S. Bourdolos) 12. Hydrocephalus disorders: their biophysical and neuroendocrine impact on the choroids plexus epithelium (C.E. Weaver, J.A. Duncan et al.) 13. Schwann cell interactions with axons and CNS glial cells during optic nerve regeneration (M. Dezawa). 14. Control of microglial activity by protective autoimmunity (M. Schwartz) 15. Roles of retinal macroglia in maintaining the stability of the retina (J. Stone, K. Valter) 16. Function and dysfunction of enteric glia (T.C. Savidge, J. Cabarrocas, R.S. Liblau)
Part II. Biochemistry, Physiology and Pharmacology 1. A role of lactate released from astrocytes in energy production during neural activity? (E.L. Roberts Jr., C.P. Chih) 2. Principles of the measurement of neuroglial metabolism using in vivo 13C spectroscopy (R. Gruetter) 3. Ion, transmitter and drug effect on energy metabolism in astrocytes (L. Hertz, L. Peng et al.). 4. Role of astrocytes in homeostatis of glutamate and GABA during physiological pathophysiological conditions (A. Schousboe, H.S. Waagepetersen) 5. Contributions of astrocytes to ischemia-induced neuronal dysfunction in vivo (A. Haberg, U. Sonnewald). 6. Differential vulnerability of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes to hypoxic-ischemic stresses (H. Marrif, B.H.J. Juurlink) 7. Astrocytic receptors and second messenger systems (E. Hansson, L. Rönnbäck) 8. Transactivation in astrocytes as a novel approach for neuroprotection (L. Pengj) 9. Role of glial cells in cholesterol homeostasis in the brain (J.L. Ito, S. Yokoyama) 10. Non-neuronal cells in the nervous system: sources and targets of neuroactive steroids (R.C. Melcangi, I. Azcoitia et al.) 11. Expression of neurotrophic factors and cytokines and their receptors on astrocytes in vivo (T. Nakagawa, J.P. Schwartz) 12. The nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway in CNS glial cells (A. Garcia, M.A. Baltrons) 13. Potassium homeostasis in the brain at the organ and cell level (W. Walz) 14. Potassium and glia-derived slow potential shifts in relation to behaviour (P. Laming) 15. Regulation of Ca2+ stores in glial cells (G. Scapagnini, T.J. Nelson, D.L. Alkon) 16. Decoding calcium wave signaling (A.H. Cornell-Bell, P. Jung, V. Trinkaus-Randall) 17. Mathematical modeling of intracellular and intercellular calcium signaling (J.W. Shuai, S. Nadkarni, P. Jung) 18. pH regulation in non-neuronal brain cells and interstitial fluid (M.O. Bevensee, S.D. McAlear) 19. AVP effects and water channels in non-neuronal CNS cells (Y. Chen, M. Spatz)
Part III. Pathological Conditions 1. Alexander disease: a primary disease of astrocytes (L.F. Eng, Y.L. Lee) 2. Glil reaction and reactive glia (M. Kalman) 3. Glial heme oxygenase-1 in CNS injury and disease (H. Schipper) 4. Astrocytes and microglia in Alzheimer's disease (S.W. Barger). 5. Non-neuronal cells interactions in HIV-1-associated dementia (A. Ghorpade, H.E. Gendelman) 6. Glycoprotein gp 120-mediated astrocytic dysfunction (E.Z. Kovacs, B.A. Bush, D.J. Benos) 7. The role of astrocytes and microglia im persistent pain (V. Raghavendra, J.A. DeLeo) 8. Pathogenic role of glial cells in Parkinson's disease (S. Przedborski, J.E. Goldman) 9. Upregulation of peripheral-type (mitochdrial) benzodiazepine receptors in hyperammonemic syndromes: consequences for neuronal excitability (M. Bélanger, S. Ahboucha et al.). 10. Role of the cytokine network in major psychoses (N. Müller, M.J. Schwarz) 11. Shared effects of all three conventional anti-bipolar drugs on the phosphoinositide system in astrocytes (L. Hertz, Y. Chen et al.) 12. Glial cell loss in mood disorders and schizophrenia (L. Price) 13. Non-neuronal cells in the nervous system: function and dysfunction (P. Werner, E. Brand-Schieber, C.S. Raine) 14. Role of glia in Prion disease (D.R. Brown, J. Sassoon) 15. Schwann cells in diabetic neuropathy (A.P. Mizisin) 16. Müller cells in retinopathies (A. Bringmann, M. Francke, A. Reichenbach).