Nutritional Aspects of Osteoporosis. Edition No. 2

  • ID: 1768936
  • Book
  • 488 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Nutritional Aspects of Osteoporosis is based on presentations given at the Fifth International Symposium on Nutritional Aspects of Osteoporosis held in Lausanne, Switzerland in 2003. Although an often neglected chapter of medical research, the nutritional influences on bone health was a discussed topic at this congress. Also discussed were new insights into the role of proteins, vitamins, potassium, vegetables, food acid load, mineral waters and calcium.
  • Based on presentations given at the Fifth International Symposium on Nutrional Aspects of Osteoporosis held in Lausanne, Switzerland in 2003
  • Medical research, the nutritional influences on bone health was covered
  • New insights into the role of proteins, vitamins, potassium, vegetables, food acid load, mineral waters and calcium
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Sponsors

Contributors


Preface


Part I Calcium in Childhood


1. Bone Mineral Density of the Skull and Lower Extremities During Growth and Calcium Supplementation


Abstract


Introduction


Method


Results


Discussion


Acknowledgments


References


2. Calcium Retention in Adolescence as a Function of Calcium Intake: Influence of Race and Gender


Abstract


Introduction


Methods for Determining Calcium Retention and Metabolism


Racial Differences in Calcium Metabolism


Gender Differences in Calcium Metabolism


Further Directions


References


3. Longitudinal Study of Diet and Lifestyle Intervention on Bone Mineral Gain in School Children and Adolescents: Effects of Asian Traditional Diet and Sitting Style on Bone Mineral


Abstract


Introduction


Subjects and Methods


Results


Discussion


Acknowledgment


References


4. A Co-Twin Calcium Intervention Trial in Premenarcheal Girls: Cortical Bone Effects by Hip Structural Analysis


Abstract


Introduction


Methods


Statistical Analyses


Results


Discussion


References


5. Calcium Carbonate Supplementation is Associated with Higher Plasma IGF-1 in 16- to 18-Year-Old Boys and Girls


Abstract


Introduction


Methods


Results


Discussion


Conclusions


Acknowledgments


References


Part II Dairy Products, Calcium Metabolism


6. Nutrients, Interactions, and Foods: The Importance of Source


Introduction


Calcium and Diet Quality


Calcium and Protein


Phosphorus and Calcium


Conclusion


References


Part III Vitamins, Flavonoids


7. Vitamin K and Bone Health


Abstract


Introduction


Sites of Vitamin K Action


Similarities Between Calcium Metabolism in Bone and Arteries


Vitamin K Status and Bone Health


Vitamin K Status and Cardiovascular Health


Vitamin K Intervention Studies


Dietary Vitamin K Requirements for Bone and Vascular Health


Safety and Potential Adverse Side Effects of Vitamin K Supplements


References


8. Dietary Vitamin A is Negatively Related Density in Postmenopausal Women


Abstract


Introduction


Methods


Results


Discussion


Summary and Conclusions


Acknowledgments


References


9. Hesperidin, a Citrus Flavanone, Improves Bone Acquisition and Prevents Skeletal Impairment in Rats


Abstract


Introduction


Methods


Results


Discussion


References


10. Vitamin B-Complex, Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphism and Bone: Potential for Gene-Nutrient Interaction


Abstract


Introduction


What is the Role of Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase(MTHFR) Enzyme?


MTHFR Polymorphism


Vitamin B-Complex


Conclusions


References


Part IV Nutrition and Bone Health Miscellaneous


11. A Placebo Controlled Randomized Trial of Chromium Picolinate Supplementation on Indices of Bone and Calcium Metabolism in Healthy Women


Abstract


Subjects


Methods


Result


Discussion


Acknowledgments


References


12. Nutrition and Teeth


Abstract


Introduction


Oral Bone Loss and Systemic Bone Mineral Density


Nutrition, Periodontal Disease and Tooth Loss


Relationship of Calcium, Vitamin D, and Phosphorus to Periodontal Disease and Tooth Loss


Conclusions


Summary


References


13. Cognitive Dietary Restraint, Cortisol and Bone Density in Normal-Weight Women: Is There a Relationship?


Abstract


Introduction


Possible Mechanism


Assessment of Dietary Restraint


Associations Between Dietary Restraint and Menstrual Disturbances


Associations Between Subclinical Menstrual Disturbances and Bone Loss


Associations Between Dietary Restraint and Cortisol


Association Between Dietary Restraint and Bone


Summary


Acknowledgments


References


Part V Vitamin D-First Part


14. Functions of Vitamin D: Importance for Prevention of Common Cancers, Type 1 Diabetes and Heart Disease


Evolution of Vitamin D


Photosynthesis and Regulation of Previtamin D3


Vitamin D and Bone Health


Metabolism and Biologic Functions of Vitamin D Prevalence and Consequences of Vitamin D Deficiency on Bone Health


Other Health Consequences of Vitamin D Deficiency: Increased Risk of Autoimmune Diseases, Solid Tumors, and Cardiovascular Heart Disease


Clinical Applications for the Antiproliferative Activity of l,25(OH)2D3 and its Analogs


Prevention and Treatment of Vitamin D Deficiency


Conclusion


Acknowledgment


References


15. Evidence for the Breakpoint of Normal Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D: Which Level Is Required in the Elderly?


Introduction


Assessing the Required Serum 25(OH)D Concentration


Evidence from Epidemiological and Intervention Studies


The Influence of Calcium Intake on Serum PTH and Vitamin D Metabolism


Staging of Vitamin D Deficiency


Conclusion


References


16. What is the Optimal Amount of Vitamin D for Osteoporosis?


Introduction


Vitamin D and Osteoporosis


Dosage Considerations


Hormonal l,25(OH)2D is not an Alternative to Nutritional Vitamin D


Summary


References


Part VI Vitamin D-Second Part


17. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and the Health of the Calcium Economy


Introduction


Studies of Calcium Absorption


Osteoporotic Fractures


Comment


References


18. Defining Optimal 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Younger and Older Adults Based on Hip Bone Mineral Density


Abstract


PTH Versus BMD in Threshold Assessment for Optimal 25-OHD Levels


Rationale for Assessment of Optimal 25-OHD in the Non-White Population


Methods Applied to Study the Association Between 25-OHD and BMD in a Population-Based Sample


Results


Discussion


References


19. Vitamin D Supplementation in Postmenopausal Black Women Improves Calcium Homeostasis and Bone Turnover in Three Months


Abstract


Introduction


Methods


Results


Discussion


Acknowledgment


References


20. Adherence to Vitamin D Supplementation in Elderly Patients After Hip Fracture


Introduction


Patients and Methods


Results


Discussion


Conclusion


References


21. Vitamin D Round Table


Introduction


What is the Optimal Level of 25(OH)D for the Skeleton and Why?


How Much Vitamin D3 is Needed to Reach the Optimal Level of 25(OH)D?


References


Part VII Acid Load From Food-First Part


22. Effects of Diet Acid Load on Bone Health


Abstract


Determinants of the Setpoint at which Blood Acidity and Plasma Bicarbonate Concentration are Regulated in Normal Subjects


Chronic Metabolic Acidosis and Bone Wasting


Plasma Acid-Base Balance and Diet Acid Load in Humans


Crossing the Neutral Zone


Implications for Further Research


Acknowledgments


References


23. Effect of Various Classes of Foodstuffs and Beverages of Vegetable Origin on Bone Metabolism in the Rat


Abstract


Introduction


Materials and Methods


Results and Discussion


What Should We Eat?


References


24. A Role for Fruit and Vegetables in Osteoporosis Prevention?


Abstract


Introduction


Importance of Acid-Base Homeostasis to Optimum Health


A Link Between Acid-Base Maintenance and Skeletal Integrity?


Acidity of Foods and Skeletal Health: Concept of Potential Renal Acid Loads


Positive Link Between Fruit and Vegetables, Alkali, and Bone Health: A Review of Current Evidence


Concept of NEAP and its Potential Impact on the Skeleton


Calcium/Alkali Supplements and Optimum Bone Health


Fruit and Vegetables and Bone: Exploring Other Important Factors


Concluding Remarks


Acknowledgments


References


Part VIII Acid Load From Food-Second Part


25. The Ovine Model for the Study of Dietary Acid Base, Estrogen Depletion and Bone Health


Abstract


Introduction


Background and Significance


The Influence of Dietary Strong Ions


Determination of Dietary Acid Load


The Dairy Connection


Preliminary Studies


Effect of a Diet Low in Cation-Anion Balance on Bone Mineral Density in Mature Ovariectomized Ewes


Conclusion


Acknowledgments


References


26. The Natural Dietary Potassium Intake of Humans: The Effect of Diet-Induced Potassium-Replete, Chloride-Sufficient, Chronic Low-Grade Metabolic Alkalosis, or Stone Age Diets for the 21st Century


Abstract


Ancestral Dietary Patterns


Ancestral Potassium Intakes


Acid-Base Relationship to Bone Health and Bone Mineral Density


Conclusions


Implications for Further Research


Acknowledgments


References


Part IX Protein


27. N-Acetyl Cysteine Supplementation of Growing Mice: Effects on Skeletal Size, Bone Mineral Density, and Serum IGF-I


Abstract


Introduction


Materials and Methods


Results


Discussion


References


28. Dietary Protein Intakes and Bone Strength


Introduction


Dietary Protein and Bone Mass Gain


Dietary Protein and Bone Mineral Mass


Dietary Protein and Bone Homeostasis


Effects of Correcting Protein Insufficiency


Dietary Protein and Fracture Risk


Conclusions


Acknowledgments


References


29. Dietary Protein and the Skeleton


Abstract


Dietary Protein and Serum IGF-1


Protein and Acid-Base Balance


Protein and Urine Calcium Excretion


Protein and Calcium Absorption


Dietary Protein and Bone Turnover


Protein, Bone Loss, and Fractures


Potential Impact of Calcium Intake on Link Between Protein and Bone


References


Part X Protein-Mineral Water


30. Milk Basic Protein Increases Bone Mineral Density and Improves Bone Metabolism in Humans


Abstract


Introduction


Human Study 1


Human Study 2


Conclusion


References


31. Dietary Balance in Physically Active and Inactive Girls


Abstract


Introduction


AIMS


Subjects and Methods


Results


Discussion


References


32. Mineral Waters: Effects on Bone and Bone Metabolism


Introduction


Calcium


Sodium


Sulfates


Carbonated Beverages


Fluoride


Acid Load


Alkaline Load


Potassium


Conclusions


References


Index


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Burckhardt, Peter
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Heaney, Robert P.
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