Since biological tissues are unstable in an oxygen atmosphere, a great deal of effort is expended by organisms to metabolically limit or repair oxidative tissue damage. This volume of Methods in Enzymology and its companion Volume 233 present methods developed to investigate the roles of oxygen radicals and antioxidants in disease. It includes techniques and assays of the activity of biothiols in soluble systems, their interaction with lipids and proteins, and the various new thiol enzymes, such as thioltransferases, being elucidated. Antioxidant reactions and gene regulation are also included.
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Assay of Stress Genes/Proteins, Effects of Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants on Cell Regulatory Processes:W. Drige, S. Mihm, M. Bockstette, and S. Roth, Effect of Reactive Oxygen Intermediates and Antioxidants on Proliferation and Function of T Lymphocytes.R. Schreck and P.A. Baeuerle, Assessing Oxygen Radicals as Mediators in Activation of Inducible Eukaryotic Transcription Factor NF-(B.S. Xanthoudakis and T. Curran, Analysis of c-Fos and c-Jun Redox-Dependent DNA Binding Activity.D.R. Crawford, C.A. Edbauer-Nechaman, C.V. Lowry, S.L. Salmon, Y.K. Kim, J.M.S. Davies, and K.J.A. Davies, Assessing Gene Expression during Oxidative Stress.G. Storz and S. Altuvia, OxyR Regulon.R.M. Tyrrell and S. Basu-Modak, Transient Enhancement of Heme Oxygenase 1 mRNA Accumulation: A Marker of Oxidative Stress to Eukaryotic Cells.J.S. Bertram and L.-X. Zhang, Assays for Regulation of Gap Junctional Communication and Connexin Expression by Carotenoids.G.H.W. Wong and D.V. Goeddel, One-Day Northern Blotting for Detection of mRNA: NDGA Inhibits the Induction of Mn-SOD mRNA by Agonists of Type 1 Receptor.C.E. Cross and B. Halliwell, Evaluation of Biomolecular Damage by Ozone.B.K. Tarkington, T.R. Duvall, and J.A. Last, Ozone Exposure of Cultured Cells and Tissues.
Antioxidant Identification, Characterization, and Assay: A. Total Antioxidant Status:P.A. Motchnik, B. Frei, and B.N. Ames, Measurementof Antioxidants in Human Blood Plasma.C. Rice-Evans and N.J. Miller, Total Antioxidant Status in Plasma and Body Fluids.
B. Natural Source Antioxidants: Vitamin E:W. Schaep and R. Rettenmaier, Analysis of Vitamin E Homologs in Plasma and Tissue: High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.G. Riss, A.W. Kormann, E. Glinz, W. Walther, and U.B. Ranalder, Separation of the Eight Stereoisomers of all-rac-(-Tocopherol from Tissues and Plasma: Chiral Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Capillary Gas Chromatography.D.C. Liebler, Tocopherone and Epoxytocopherone Products of Vitamin E Oxidation.V.E. Kagan and L. Packer, Light-Induced Generation of Vitamin E Radicals: Assessing Vitamin E Regeneration.M. Yamaoka and K. Komiyama, Antioxidative Activity of Tocotrienol in Heterogeneous System: Indication of Restriction within Membrane by Fluorescence Measurement.G.T. Vatassery, Determination of Tocopherols and Tocopherolquinone in Human Red Blood Cell and Platelet Samples.
Vitamin C:G. Barja and A. Hernanz, Vitamin C, Dehydroascorbate, and Uric Acid in Tissues and Serum: High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.M. Inoue and K. Koyama, In Vivo Determination of Superoxide and Vitamin CRadicals Using Cytochrome c and Superoxide Dismutase Derivatives.
Quinones:V.E. Kagan, E.A. Serbinova, D.A. Stoyanovsky, S. Khwaja, and L. Packer, Assay of Ubiquinones and Ubiquinols as Antioxidants.E.A. Serbinova and L. Packer, Antioxidant Properties of (-Tocopherol and (-Tocotrienol.
Glutathione:M. Asensi, J. Sastre, F.V. Pallardo, J.M. Estrela, and J. Vita, Determination of Oxidized Glutathione in Blood: High Performance Lipid Chromatography.
Carotenoids and Vitamin A:M. Tsuchiya, V.E. Kagan, H.-J. Freisleben, M. Manabe, and L. Packer, Antioxidant Activity of (-Tocopherol, (-Carotene, and Ubiquinol in Membranes: cis-Parinaric Acid-Incorporated Liposomes.A.R. Sundquist, K. Briviba, and H. Sies, Singlet Oxygen Quenching by Carotenoids.W. Stahl and H. Sies, Separation of Geometrical Isomers of (-Carotene and Lycopene.M.A. Livrea and L. Tesoriere, Lipoperoxyl Radical-Scavenging Activity of Vitamin A and Analogs in Homogeneous Solution.
Flavonoids:D.K. Das, Overview of Naturally Occurring Flavonoids: Structure, Chemistry, and High Performance Lipid Chromatography Methods for Separation and Characterization.W. Bors, C. Michel, and M. Saran, Flavonoid Antioxidants: Rate Constants for Reactions with Oxygen Radicals.A.E. Hagerman and L.G. Butler, Assay of Condensed Tannins or Flavonoid Oligomers and Related Flavonoids in Plants.I. Morel, G. Lescoat, P. Cillard, and J. Cillard, Role of Flavonoids andIron Chelation in Antioxidant Action.J.R.S. Hoult, M.A. Moroney, and M. Paya, Actions of Flavonoids and Coumarins on Lipoxygenase and Cyclooxygenase.
(-Lipoic Acid:Y.J. Suzuki, M. Tsuchiya, and L. Packer, Determination of Structure-Antioxidant Activity Relationships of Dihydrolipoic Acid.
Extracts from Natural Products:L. Marcocci, L. Packer, M.-T. Droy-Lefaix, A. Sekaki, and M. Gardos-Albert, Antioxidant Action of Ginkgo biloba Extract EGb 761.
C. Synthetic Antioxidants: Drugs:H. Sies, Ebselen: A Glutathione Peroxidase Mimic.P. Moldeus and I.A Cotgreave, N-Acetylcysteine.M.E. Anderson, E.J. Levy, and A. Meister, Preparation and Use of Glutathione Monoesters.E.J. Levy, M.E. Anderson, and A. Meister, Preparation and Properties of Glutathione Diethyl Ester and Related Derivatives.S.J.T. Mao, M.T. Yates, and R.L. Jackson, Antioxidant Activity and Serum Levels of Probucol and Probucol Metabolites.D.M. Lee, (-Phenyl N-tert-Butylnitrone as Antioxidant for Low Density Lipoproteins.J.M. Carney and R.A. Floyd, Brain Antioxidant Activity of Spin Traps in Mongolian Gerbils.L. Marcocci, Y.J. Suzuki, M. Tsuchiya, and L. Packer, Antioxidant Activity of Nitecapone and Its Analog OR-1246: Effect of Structural Modification on Antioxidant Action.M. Miki, Penicillamine as Antioxidant.E.D. Hall and J.M. McCall, Antioxidant Action of Lazaroids.A.M. Miles and M.B. Grisham, Antioxidant Properties of Aminosalicylates.L. Horakova, H. Sies, and S. Steenken, Antioxidant Action of Stobadine.M.C. Krishna and A. Samuni, Nitroxides as Antioxidants.H. Wiseman, Tamoxifen and Estrogens as Membrane Antioxidants: Comparison with Cholesterol.O.H. Morand, Reactivity of Plasmalogens to Singlet Oxygen and Radicals.I.T. Mak and W.B. Weglicki, Antioxidant Activity of Calcium Channel Blocking Drugs.T.G. Gantchev, J.E. van Lier, D.A. Stoyanovsky, J.C. Yalowich, and V.E. Kagan, Interactions of the Phenoxyl Radical of Antitumor Drug, Etoposide, with Reductants in Solution and in Cell and Nuclear Homogenates: Electron Spin Resonance and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.
Simon, Melvin I.
Helmut Sies is an Honorary Member of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. He received an Honorary Ph.D. from the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1996. Dr. Sies is a member of the Northrhine-Westphalian Academy of Sciences, Germany, and a Corresponding Member of both the Academy of Sciences of Heidelberg, Germany, and the Academy of Medicine, Buenos Aires, Argentina. He has received many awards and prizes, including the FEBS Anniversary Prize awarded by the Federation of European Biochemical Societies, 1978; the Distinguished Foreign Scholar award, MASUA, 1985; the Silver Medal, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, 1986; the Ernst Jung Preis fur Medizin, 1988; the Claudius-Galenus-Preis, 1990; and the ISFE-Preis, 1994. Dr. Sies sereves on the editorial board and advisory committee for twelve journals, has edited numerous books, and has published more than 400 original articles and chapters. He received his M.D. at the University of Munich in 1967 and currently serves as Full Professor and Chairman of the Department of Physiological Chemistry at the University of D?sseldorf.