Each chapter represents a separate unit which taken together create a better understanding of the whole subject. Topics include the causal agents of postharvest diseases of fruits and vegetables, their sources and their ways of penetration into the host; factors that may accelerate the development of the pathogen in the host - and those that suppress them; a list of the main pathogens of fruits and vegetables, their hosts and the diseases elicited by them; and a detailed description of the major diseases of selected groups of fruits and solanaceous vegetable fruits. Attack mechanisms of pathogens and defense mechanisms of the host are examined as are treatments aimed at suppressing postharvest diseases. The search for natural and safe chemical compounds and the variety of alternative physical and biological methods for use in postharvest disease control are emphasized.
Teachers and students who focus on postharvest pathology, scientists in research institutes, companies dealing with fruit and vegetable preservation technologies and for all those striving to improve the quality of harvested fruits and vegetables will find this book of great interest.
Chapter 1. Introduction.
Chapter 2. Postharvest Disease Initiation.
The pathogens. The origin of the pathogens. Spore germination. Pathogen penetration into the host. Chapter 3. Each Fruit or Vegetable and its Characteristic Pathogens. Host-pathogen combinations in postharvest diseases. The main pathogens of harvested fruits and vegetables. Chapter 4. Factors Affecting Disease Development. Preharvest factors, harvesting and handling. Inoculum level. Storage conditions. Conditions pertaining to the host tissues. Host-pathogen interactions. Chapter 5. Attack Mechanisms of the Pathogen. Enzymatic activity. Toxin production. Detoxification of host-defense compounds by pathogens. Chapter 6. Host Protection and Defense Mechanisms. The cuticle as a barrier against invasion. Inhibitors of cell-wall degrading enzymes. Preformed inhibitory compounds. Phytoalexins
induced inhibitory compounds. Wound healing and host barriers. Active oxygen. Pathogenesis-related proteins. Chapter 7. Physiological and Biochemical Changes Following Infection. Changes in fruit respiration and ethylene evolution. Ethylene source in infected tissue. Pectolytic activity and its source in infected tissue. Stimulation of fruit softening and changes in the pectic compound contents. Changes in biochemical constituents of infected tissues. Chapter 8. Means for Maintaining Host Resistance. Cold storage. Modified and controlled atmospheres. Growth regulators. Calcium application. Chapter 9. Chemical Control. Preharvest chemical treatments. Sanitation. Postharvest chemical treatments. Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) compounds. Natural chemical compounds. Lectins. Chapter 10. Physical Means. Heat treatments. Ionizing radiation. Ultraviolet illumination. Chapter 11. Biological Control. Isolation and selection of antagonists. Introduction of antagonists for disease control. Mode of action of the antagonist. Antagonist mixtures to improve disease biocontrol. Combined treatments to improve disease control. Integration into postharvest strategies. Chapter 12. Novel Approaches for Enhancing Host Resistance. Induced resistance. Genetic modification of plants. Manipulation of ethylene biosynthesis and genetic resistance in tomatoes.
Prof. Rivka Barkai-Golan received her Ph.D in 1956 from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. She has been a Senior Research Scientist in Postharvest Pathology and Mycology at the Volcani Center, Bet Dagan and a Professor of Postharvest Pathology at the Faculty of Agriculture of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, where she has been honored a Distinguished Professor.
Prof. Barkai-Golan has been a pioneer in the research on ionizing radiation as a means for prolongation of the postharvest life of fruits and vegetables; Chairman of the microbiological Group of the Institute of Technology and Storage of Agricultural Products (1979); Chairman of the Food Technology Committee of the United States - Israel Binational Agricultural Research and Development (BARD) (1984); Chairman of the Steering Committee for Radiation Applications in Agriculture, and a Delegate
of the Israeli Ministry of Agriculture for the International Conference on Food Irradiation in Geneva (1988) for the preparation of International Document on the Acceptance, Control and Trade in Irradiated Food.
Prof. Barkai-Golan has been the recipient of search grants from BARD (1985, 1987) and from the CDR US-Israel Cooperative Development Research Fund (1988).
She has published over 150 scientific papers as well as invited reviews and chapters. She wrote 4 books in the field of postharvest diseases. She was invited to present introductory and review lectures at International Congresses and Workshops, was the organizer and chairman of postharvest sessions in Israel, Wageningen Holland, Pretoria S.A., Caracas Venezuela, Kyoto Japan, Belgerate Italy, and presided over the Third Israeli-Italian Phytopathological Symposium, Tel Aviv (1994).
Her current research interests are host-pathogen interactions, non-chemical means for postharvest disease suppression and factors involved in mycotoxin production in harvested fruits and vegetables.