Quantum Coherence Correlation and Decoherence in Semiconductor Nanostructures

  • ID: 1770294
  • Book
  • 496 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Semiconductor nanostructures are attracting a great deal of interest as the most promising device with which to implement quantum information processing and quantum computing. This book surveys the present status of nanofabrication techniques, near field spectroscopy and microscopy to assist the fabricated nanostructures. It will be essential reading for academic and industrial researchers in pure and applied physics, optics, semiconductors and microelectronics.

- The first up-to-date review articles on various aspects on quantum coherence, correlation and decoherence in semiconductor nanostructures

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Preface

List of Contributors


Chapter 1 Coherent Nonlinear Pulse Propagation on a Free-Exciton Resonance in a Semiconductor


1.1 Introduction


1.2 Theoretical Background


1.3 Samples and Experimental Techniques


1.4 Results and Discussion


Excitation-Induced Suppression of Temporal Polariton Beating


Self-Induced Transmission and Multiple Pulse Breakup


Phonon-Induced Dephasing of the Excitonic Polarization


1.5 Conclusions


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 2 Carrier-Wave Rabi Flopping in Semiconductors


2.1 Introduction


2.2 Carrier-Wave Rabi Flopping


Experiments


Theory


2.3 Conclusions


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 3 High-Field Effects in Semiconductor Nanostructures


3.1 Introduction


3.2 General Theory


3.3 High-Field Electo-Optics in Quantum Wells and Wires


Real Space Theoretical Approach to Electon-Hole Wave Packets


Electro-Magneto-Optical Simulations in Quantum Wells


Static Franz-Keldysh Effect in Quantum Wires


Dynamic Franz-Keldysh Effect in Quantum Wires


3.4 Excitonic Trapping, Ultrafast Population Transfer, and Rabi Flopping


Theory of High Optical Field Effects in Quantum Wells


Excitonic Trapping and Ultrafast Population Transfer


3.5 Carrier-Wave Rabi Flopping


Theory and Computation of Sub-Optical-Carrier Pulse Propagation


Breakdown of the Area Theorem in a Two-Level Atom


Carrier-Wave Rabi Flopping in Semiconductors


3.6 Conclusions


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 4 Theory of Resonant Secondary Emission: Rayleigh Scattering versus Luminescence


4.1 Introduction


4.2 Disorder Eigenstates of Excitons


4.3 Exciton Hamiltonian and Density-Matrix Approach


4.4 Exciton Kinetics with Acoustic Phonon Scattering


4.5 Coherent and Incoherent Emission in the Time Domain


4.6 Speckle Measurement and Interferometry


4.7 Frequency-Resolved Secondary Emission


4.8 Signatures of Level Repulsion


4.9 Enhanced Resonant Backscattering


4.10 Spin- and Polarization-Dependent Emission


4.11 Polariton Effects in the Secondary Emission


Appendix A: Potential Variance


Appendix B: Weak-Memory and Markov Approximation


Appendix C: Radiative Rates


References


Chapter 5 Higher-Order Coulomb Correlation Effects in Semiconductors


5.1 Introduction


5.2 Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductor Nanostructures as Probes of Coulomb Correlations


Overview of the Semiconductor Equations of Motion with Optical Excitation


Non-Interacting and Hartree-Fock Approximations


Beyond the Coherent SBE: Screening and Scattering


Ultrafast Optical Measurement Techniques


5.3 Beyond the Screened HF Approximation
Theoretical Approaches to Many-Body Correlations


Biexcitons and Few-Level Theories


The Dynamics-Controlled Truncation Scheme


The Coherent Limit


Interpreting and Solving the Equations of the DCT


The Effective Polarization Model


Phonons


5.4 Experimental Studies of High-Order Coulomb Correlations


The Fully Coherent Regime


Contributions from Incoherent Densities


Contributions beyond the Four-Particle Level


Contributions beyond the x (3) Truncation


5.5 Future Directions


References


Chapter 6 Electronic and Nuclear Spin in the Optical Spectra of Semiconductor Quantum Dots


6.1 Introduction to Spin in the Optical Spectrum


6.2 Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Quantum Dots


Natural (Interface Fluctuation) QDs


Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Single QDs


PL Excitation Spectroscopy of Single QDs


6.3 Exciton Fine-Structure (Spin and Sublevels)


Exchange Interaction


Long-Range Exchange Interaction


Zeeman Interaction


Pseudo-Spin Model


Relaxation


Polarization Including Finite Relaxation


Hanle Effect


6.4 Trions (Singly Charged Excitons)


Trions in Natural QDs


Fine Structure in Single Trion Spectroscopy


Optical Orientation of Negatively Charged Excitons


6.5 Hyperfine Interaction


Hyperfine Interaction: Static and Dynamic


Dynamical Polarization of Nuclei: Overhauser Effect


Nuclear Dipole-Dipole Interactions


Optical Nuclear Magnetic Resonance


6.6 Spin Relaxation


Spin Relaxation: Spin-Orbit Interactions


Spin Relaxation: Hyperfine Interaction


Hanle Effect for Localized Electrons


6.7 Conclusions


Acknowledgments


Appendix Relaxation of the Nuclear Spin Due to the Fluctuating Electronic Spin


References


Chapter 7 Coherent Optical Spectroscopy and Manipulation of Single Quantum Dots


7.1 Introduction


Semiconductor QDs


Excitons and Biexcitons


Modeling Single QDs


Quantum Coherence and Quantum Computing Based on Optically Driven QDs


Single QD Optical Spectroscopy


7.2 Single Exciton Optical Spectroscopy


PL and PLE


Linear Absorption from Single QD Excitons


CW and Transient Nonlinear Optical Response from Single QD Excitons


Magneto-Excitons


7.3 Coherent Optical Control of Single Exciton States


7.4 Rabi Oscillations of Single Quantum Dots


Rabi Oscillation Theory for Two-Level Systems


Strong-Field Differential Transmission: Rabi Oscillations of Single QD Excitons


Understanding the Decay: Coupling to Delocalized Excitons


7.5 Biexcitons in Single QDs


Excitation of Single QD Biexcitons Using CW Fields


Dephasing of Biexcitons


Direct Measurement of Biexciton Lifetime


Biexcitonic Transition Dipole Moment


Optical Selection Rules


7.6 Optically Induced Two Exciton-State Entanglement


7.7 Single Quantum Dot as a Prototype Quantum Computer


Basic Operations for Quantum Computation


The Deutsch-Jozsa Problem


Fast Quantum Computing by Pulse Shaping


Examples of Pulse Design


Fast Control Applied to the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm


7.8 Summary


References


Chapter 8 Cavity QED of Quantum Dots with Dielectric Microspheres


8.1 Introduction


8.2 Whispering Gallery Modes in a Dielectric Microsphere


8.3 Composite System of Dielectric Microsphere and MBE-Grown Nanostructure


8.4 Composite System of Dielectric Microsphere and Semiconductor Nanocrystals


Coupling Nanocrystals to a Dielectric Microsphere: Low-Q Regime


Coupling Nanocrystals to a Dielectric Microsphere: High-Q Regime


Dephasing in Semiconductor Nanocrystals


8.5 Summary


Acknowledgments


References


Chapter 9 Theory of Exciton Coherence and Decoherence in Semiconductor Quantum Dots


9.1 Introduction


9.2 Exciton Rabi Splitting in a Single Quantum Dot


9.3 Dressed Exciton State


9.4 Exciton Rabi Oscillation in a Single Quantum Dot


9.5 Bloch Vector Model


9.6 Numerical Results and Discussion


9.7 Wave Packet Interferometry


9.8 Effect of Two-Photon Coherence


9.9 Exciton Dephasing in Semiconductor Quantum Dots


9.10 Green Function Formalism of Exciton Dephasing Rate


9.11 Exciton-Phonon Interactions


9.12 Excitons in Anisotropic Quantum Disk


9.13 Temperature-Dependence of the Exciton Dephasing Rate


9.14 Elementary Processes of Exciton Pure Dephasing


9.15 Mechanisms of Population Decay of Excitons


Phonon-Assisted Population Relaxation


Phonon-Assisted Exciton Migration


9.16 Recent Progress in Studies on Exciton Decoherence


9.17 Theory of Dephasing of Nonradiative Coherence


9.18 Summary


Acknowledgments


References


Index
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Takagahara, Toshihide
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