The one outstanding new development is definitely Northrop Grumman's LEMV (long endurance multi-purpose vehicle) which represents a dramatic development in terms of AESA size. The first prototype LEMV (2014) is planned to have >100,000 TRMs and the final two systems will each have 7M TRMs.
Further important examples of new developments include:
Artisan 3D (Europe), CAEW (Israel), CEAMOUNT(Australia), E-CAPTOR (Europe), EQ-36 (USA) and Kronos 3D (LND and NV – Europe). It should also be observed that changes resulting from defense budgetary pressures (notably in the USA and the UK) are, somewhat ironically often favorable to AESA implementations – especially upgrades onto, for example, earlier aircraft such as F-15s or F-16s.
Active, electronically steered arrays (AESAs) are increasingly being implemented into (mainly military) systems currently and there is substantial mileage for important new developments. For some decades the potential advantages have been well known in terms of having a radar beam that could be scanned at orders-of-magnitude faster rates than available mechanically.
In earlier instances the fundamental high-power signal for phased arrays was obtained from a microwave tube source such as a TWT the output of which was separated to feed typically some tens through hundreds of individual antenna elements. The advent of MMICs for both transmit and also for receive functions has transformed the technology and functionality associated with such arrays. Therefore, with this updated report, we are concentrating exclusively on AESAs.
Demand for radars is steadily increasing-both commercial and (especially) military.
The "War against Terrorism" and the campaigns in both Afghanistan and Iraq have continued to drive upwards electronics requirements in defense and security applications. This applies to airborne, battlefield, naval and (to a limited extent) space-based radars.
In this report we cover in depth a study of the various types of AESAs, their production and developmental status, specific examples of airborne, shipboard/naval, land-based, and spaceboard phased array radars. We also include a study of the components and subsystems used in such arrays and provide competitive assessments of key players in this industry-including the systems integrators and principal consortium members. Major examples are: EADS Defence Electronics (notably Cassidian), Galileo Avionica, INDRA, Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI), Northrop Grumman, Raytheon Company, Saab Microwave Systems, Selex Galileo-and Thales.
Underlying technology and impacts
Bearing in mind the importance in this segment of RF/microwave amplifiers and signal sources, specifically the modular products providing these functions, appropriate technologies are also considered from time to time in this report. This particularly includes the semiconductors GaAs, GaN (becoming very significant) and SiC and transmit-receive modules (TRMs) implementing MMICs built using selected chip-sets comprising these semiconductor materials.
Examples of references consulted for updated information include, mainly on the supply-side: exhibition-originated data (e.g. IMS/MTT-S 2010), on-going issues of the Microwave Journal, Microwaves & RF and Microwave Product Digest. On the Demand Side magazines such as Aviation Week & Space Technology and Janes Defense Weekly are regularly consulted. Important useful web links include: Military & Aerospace Electronics, Microwave Flash and RF Globalnet. Most importantly, regular contact is maintained with appropriate industry executives the majority of whom are well known to the authors.
The first report on AESAs, including the associated TRMs and MMICs, was released in February 2007. Since that time several important changes have occurred both at the AESA application and platform installation levels and also, critically, at the underlying levels of disruptive product technology. Whilst GaAs MMICs are extensively implemented in today's AESAs, GaN devices will “invade” the markets with a few years and all the AESAs3 reported data fully accounts for this disruptive trend – in detail.
Major changes since the previous report (AESAs2):
Additional AESAs/AESA plans examined in detail within AESAs3:
Artisan 3D (Europe)
Kronos 3D (LND and NV – Europe)
LEMV (USA – relatively very large arrays).
- LEMV (Northrop Grumman – long endurance multi-purpose vehicle) represents a dramatic development in terms of AESA size. The first prototype LEMV (2014) is planned to have >100,000 TRMs and the final two systems will each have 7M TRMs.
- Changes resulting from defense budgetary pressures (notably in the USA and the UK but ironically often favourable to AESA implementations – especially upgrades).
- Changes resulting from specific new announcements (one outstanding example being that of the Eurofighter Typhoon radar with the E-CAPTOR development).
- Much more detail on UVs (specifically the larger UAVs and UCAVs) having current AESA implementations or the potential for such.
- Updated pricing (monetary values – internal costs) for T/R modules (TRM) and MMICs.
- Advances in the implementation of GaAs and (later) GaN MMICs.
Major Changes Since the Previous Report (AESAs2).
Executive Summary of AESAs3.
ES.2 AESAs Currently in Production or Advanced Development.
ES.3 Shipments and Monetary Values Forecasts.
ES.3.1 AESA Shipments and TMVs.
ES.3.2 TRM Shipments and TAMs.
ES.3.3 MMIC Shipments and TAMs.
Section 1 What is an AESA?
Section 2 A Selection of End-User Platforms
2.2 Some Particularly Significant Aircraft Programs.
2.2.1 F-35 JSF “Lightning II”.
2.2.2 EA-18G “Growler”.
2.2.3 Eurofighter “Typhoon” (pan-European).
2.2.4 Rafale (France).
2.2.5 Gripen (JAS-30).
2.2.7 Unmanned Vehicles (UVs).
126.96.36.199 MQ-1C (“Grey Eagle”/”Sky Warrior”).
188.8.131.52 MQ-9 Reaper.
2.3 Some Particularly Significant Ship Programs.
2.3.1 UK Royal Navy destroyers.
2.3.2 German Navy frigates.
2.3.3 Some Relevant US Ships.
2.4 Some Particularly Significant Spacecraft Programs.
2.4.2 Partial Space Tracking and Surveillance Satellites (Partial STSS).
2.4.5 Defense Surveillance Satellites.
Section 3 AESAs Currently in Production
3.1 Introduction—Some Methodological Aspects.
3.2 Airborne AESAs.
3.2.2 AN/APG-63(V)3 and AN/APG-82.
3.2.10 EP-X (P-8).
3.2.11 Erieye AEW&C.
3.2.15 Phalcon (EL/M-2075).
3.2.17 PS-05/A Mk 5.
3.2.19 RBE2 (AA Version) (Radar à Balayage Electronique 2).
3.2.21 Seaspray 7000E.
3.2.22 Seaspray 7500E.
3.2.23 Vixen 500E.
3.3 Land-based AESAs.
3.3.1 ATNAVICS (AN/TPN-31).
3.3.3 EL/M-2080 “Green Pine”.
3.3.4 EQ-36. 3.3.5 FBX-T.
3.3.7 KRONOS 3D LND.
3.3.9 MMR (Also known as the EL/M-2084).
3.4 Shipboard AESAs.
3D. 3.4.4 CEAFAR.
3.4.6 EL/M-2248 (MF-STAR).
3.4.8 KRONOS 3D NV.
3.4.12 T-AGM Cobra Judy Replacement.
3.5 Space-based (“Spaceborne”).
3.5.2 Partial Space Tracking and Surveillance Satellites (Partial STSS).
3.5.5 Defense Surveillance Satellites.
Section 4 Current and On-coming Technologies
4.1 Current (Mainstream) AESA Technology.
4.2 Transmit/Receive Modules (TRMs).
4.2.1 Detailed Descriptions Concerning TRMs.
4.2.2 MMIC Chip Count Reduction.
4.2.3 TRM Packages.
4.3 RF/Microwave Semiconductors.
4.3.4 Summary Details on a Range of LNA and Phase-Shifter MMICs.
4.4 Digital Beamforming (DBF).
4.5 Other Promising Technological Approaches.
4.5.1 Advanced interconnect technologies applicable to AESAs.
184.108.40.206 Endwave Defense Systems' MLMS™ (Multilithic MicroSystems).
220.127.116.11 Merrimac Industries' Multi-Mix® Micro-Multi-Functional Modules (MMFM®).
18.104.22.168 Nuvotronics' (originally Rohm and Haas') PolyStrata™.
4.5.2 Arrays formed onto curved structures.
4.5.3 High-Power Microwave (HPM) Weapons.
4.6 Low-cost AESA.
4.7 SiC-based AESA (Lockheed Martin).
4.8 Raytheon ONR's AESLA Project.
Section 5 The AESA Systems Supply Side Critiques of Key Systems OEMs.
Section 6 Shipments, Prices and Monetary Values Forecasts
6.2 Product Categories, Application Segments & Frequency Bands.
6.3 Geographic Regions.
6.4 Definitions, Organization of the Data, Methodology and Forecasts.
6.5 Methodological Sequence for Generating and Processing Data.
6.6 Presentation of Data and Critique Commentaries.
6.6.1 AESA Data.
22.214.171.124 Overall Worldwide AESA Data.
126.96.36.199 Europe (including Israel) AESA Data.
188.8.131.52 N. America AESA Data.
184.108.40.206 RoW AESA Data.
6.6.2 TRM Data.
220.127.116.11 TRM Unit Prices (ASPs).
18.104.22.168 Overall Worldwide TRM Data.
22.214.171.124 Europe (including Israel) TRM Data.
126.96.36.199 N. America TRM Data.
188.8.131.52 (“Free-world”-friendly) RoW TRM Data.
6.6.3 MMIC Data.
184.108.40.206 MMIC Unit Prices.
220.127.116.11 Worldwide MMIC Data.
18.104.22.168 Europe (including Israel) MMIC Data.
22.214.171.124 N. America MMIC Data.
126.96.36.199 RoW (“West-friendly”) MMIC Data.
6.6.4 Tables of Data.
Section 7 Supply Chains – Semiconductors – TRMs – AESA Systems
7.2 Specific Examples of OEMs and their Supply Scenarios.
7.3 The Role of Distributors.
7.3.4 The Netherlands.
7.3.6 The UK.
7.3.7 The USA.
7.3.8 South Africa.
7.4 Summary of Typical Supply Chains.
7.5 A Selection of TRM and MMIC OEMs/ Foundries.
Section 8 Directory of Main AESA Players
Section 9 Directory of Prime Contractors
Glossary of Acronyms
- Galileo Avionica
- Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI)
- Northrop Grumman
- Raytheon Company
- Saab Microwave Systems
- Selex Galileo-and Thales