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Analyzing Renewable Energy in the United States

  • ID: 1814368
  • Report
  • Region: United States
  • 1966 Pages
  • Aruvian Research
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The following renewable energy segments in the US - wind power, solar power, biomass power, biofuels, fuel cells, geothermal power, hydropower, distributed generation technologies, microgrids, combined heat and power/cogeneration, waste-to-energy, waste management, and the smart grid.

There is no doubt that the United States is a torch bearer in the renewable energy industry. In fact, 11.14 percent of the electricity produced in the US in the first six months of 2010, came from renewable energy resources itself. The US was the largest producer of electricity from wind power, solar power and geothermal sources in 2009, coming in second to China in the overall production of renewable energy.

The US has one of the largest wind power installed capacities in the world, enough to provide nearly 10 million households across the country. Following wind, solar power also has a major share to contribute to the total electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the US.

President Obama has called for doubling the amount of renewable energy being used in the next three years particularly in order to meet the challenges of climate change and energy security.

The report begins with an overview of the global energy industry in order to give the reader an idea of why the world requires renewable energy. An introduction to the US renewable energy industry includes an overview of the market, market trends, integration of renewable energy, and an analysis of the challenges facing the US energy industry as well as the factors driving the industry. The impact of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill is discussed amongst the impacts on the industry.

We also include an analysis on why the US needs renewable energy.

Moving on, we analyze the competition in the industry, policy resolutions to the US energy crisis, and many other points that will give the reader an idea of the entire landscape of the US energy and renewable energy industry.

The report analyzes the US renewable energy market in a SWOT framework analysis and also undertakes a SWOT framework analysis of the leading five renewable energy technogies in the US including wind power, solar power, geother energy, biomass power, and small hydropower.

The regulatory framework in place for promoting renewable energy resources in the US is analyzed in-depth along with their impact on the renewable energy sector. Some of the regulations analyzed in this report include state-wise analysis of feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standards, the DOE Wind Program, Fuel Cell initiatives, the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and 2005, the California Solar Initiative, the Solar America Initiative, and the most recent American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. We also analyze the provisions and impact of this Act on the energy industry.

Some of the major players in the renewable energy industry having presence across sectors are analyzed, such as GE ENergy, Bosch, Sharp Corporation, Shell Renewables, Iberdrola Renovables, and others.

Moving on the Section 2 of the research report, we carry out an in-depth analysis of the wind power market in the United States.

This section includes a market profile, market statistics, wind power generation by state, installed capacity growth, analysis of wind resources in the US, and many other points that are important for investors looking to invest in the US wind power sector.

This section also undertakes a cost analysis of wind power in the US, along with an analysis of the major market trends and challenges facing the industry.

The small wind turbines market in the US is analyzed comprehensively under this section as well and includes a market profile, market statistics, the emergence and importance of hybrid small wind turbines, very small wind turbines, wind-diesel hybrid turbine systems, and the economics of small wind turbines. The section also covers the various factors that have an impact on the US SWT market, regulations pertaining to the small wind turbine market, and market trends.

We analyze the market for micro wind generation in the US as well. This brief section includes a technical analysis of micro wind generation in the US.

Following the analysis of the overall US wind power market, we move on to analyze wind power markets in the US on a state level. States analyzed in this section include Arizona, California, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Vermont, Washington, and Wyoming.

Major wind farms in the US such as the Biglow Canyon wind farm, the Brazos wind ranch, the Fenton wind farm, and many others are also analyzed, along with an in-depth market outlook for the wind power sector in the US.

Major players in the US wind power industry including both domestic and foreign players are analyzed. Companies analyzed include Acciona SA, Airtricity, Clipper Windpower, Blue H Group Technologies, E.ON, Iberdrola, Mitsubishi Heaby Industries, REpower AG, Suzlon, Vestas, and many more.

Wrapping up the section on wind power, we move to section 3, an analysis of solar power in the United States. This section covers the solar power market starting with an analysis of solar resources in the US, growth of the industry, the impact of solar energy on the consumer energy market, etc.

A detailed analysis of the emerging technologies in the solar power market in the US is undertaken in Aruvians report. Some of the technologies analyzed include carbon nanotubes, flexible solar cells, hybrid solar cells, holographics solar concentrator technology, miniature solar cells, nanowire solar cells, organic photovoltaics, and many more.

Incentives provided for solar power in the US such as federal tax credits, feed-in tariffs, state-level incentives, the Solar America Initiative, and solar renewable energy certificates are analyzed in section 3 of the report dealing with solar power. Federal/state programs promoting solar power is also analyzed. These include the US DOE SunShot Initiative, the US DOE Solar Decathlon, the Open PV Mapping Project, amongst others.

Following on, we analyze the solar power market by states. Solar power in the following states are analyzed: Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, and Oregon.

An analysis of the solar thermal power plants in the US includes the profiles of the Blythe solar power project, the Calico solar energy project, Fort Irwin project, Ivanpah solar power facility, the Keahole solar power project, the Kimberlina solar thermal energy plant, the Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center, and many others.

A section that stands out in Aruvians report is the invest know-how segement about the US solar power industry. This section covers what every investor needs to know before investing in the US solar power industry.

Market outlook for the US solar power market and an analysis of the leading companies in this market complete this analysis of the US solar power market.

Moving on to section 4, we analysis briefly the US biomass power market. This section begins with a definition of biomass to clearly distinguish the biomass market from the biofuels market. A technical analysis of biomass and the challenges facing this industry adds to the market profile. Cost analysis and the market outlook for this renewable energy segment completes this brief profile of the US biomass power market.

Section 5 of the report Analyzing Renewable Energy in the United States analyzes the US biofuels market.

Part A of section 5 begins with an analysis of the overall biofuel market in the US. This includes production and capacity installation data for ethanol and biodiesel, the industry structure. market opportunities and issues, as well as government funding trends.

We then analyze the US ethanol market in which we undertake an analysis of the tax incentives, regulatory framework, ethanol by-products, and a market outlook of the US ethanol industry.

A brief analysis of the US biodiesel market, US methanol fuel market, and the US butanol fuel market is also included.

Ethanol and Biodiesel subsidies are analyzed along with a market outlook for the US biofuels market. Major players in the industry such as Abengoa Bioenergy, Allegro Biodiesel, American AgFuels, and many others are analyzed in the section.

Moving on to section 6 of the report, we analyze the fuel cells market in the US.

The analysis of the fuel cells market in the US includes a basic analysis of fuel cell design and technologies along with the investment profile of the industry as well. The various types of fuel cells such as alkaline, direct borohydride fuel cells, direct methanol, direct ethanol, formic acid fuel cells, and many others are profiled comprehensively in the report.

The challenges facing the US fuel cells market such as design issues, cost issues, and many other problems are analyzed, followed by an analysis of fuel cell initiatives by state.

Market outlook for the sector and an analysis of the major players in the market such as Altergy, Astris Energi, Canon, Casio, Eneos, Entegris, Cellex Power, Jadoo Power, P21, Plug Power, and many others wrap up the section on fuel cells.

Section 7 analyzes the geothermal energy industry in the US. The market is analyzed taking into account an analysis of The Geysers, the biggest geothermal energy resource in the US. Installed geothermal capacity, environmental impact of geothermal power, regulatory framework, and the management of carbon emissions from geothermal power in the US are analyzed in this section.

Market outlook and an analysis of the major players in the industry completes the section on geothermal power in the US. Some of the major players analyzed include Calpine Corporation, Enel Green Power, US Geothermal Inc, Ormat International, amongst others.

Coming to section 8 of the report, we analyze the emerging sector of hydropower in the US. The market is analyzed in terms of hydroelectric power plants int he US, US hydropower production, baseload power from hydropower, the economics of hydropower for the US, and a market outlook of this renewable energy sector.

Section 9 covers the lucrative segment of distributed generation technologies in the US as well as the emergence of Microgrids in the country.

We begin with a definition of distributed generation, and move on to the analysis the various technologies involved in the industry. We look at the importance of microturbines, PV systems, reciprocating engines, and small-scale wind power systems in generating power. Nuclear power, underwater power systems, electric vehicles, and other applications of stirling engines are also analyzed.

The relation between distributed generation and renewable energy is analyzed strategically, along with an analysis of economic dispatch.

The emergence of microgrids in the US is of great importance to the renewable energy industry and we look at the microgrids phenomenon in the following sections of this report. We analyze the many designs of microgrids in the US, the operations of a microgrid, integration of microgrids with photovoltaics, fuel cells, and energy efficiency is also discussed.

Ownership models of microgrids in the US and the relation between microgrids and the US smart grid is analyzed in-depth in this section.

The role of integrated demand side management, distributed generation, renewable energy sources, and energy storage plays an important part in the renewable energy industry and we analyze this through an understanding of the integration of DER with smart meter deployment and other business models.

Market outlook for distributed energy technologies in the US market completes this section.

Section 10 is also related to the above section as we undertake an analysis of combined heat and power in the US.

In the analysis of the CHP market in the US, we cover the analysis of CHP systems in the US such as steam turbines, gas turbines, reciprocating internal combustion engines, microturbines, and fuels cells. We also undertake an analysis of the market profile, market challenges, regulatory framework, role of CHP in district energy and district heating, and the role CHP plays in the energy situation in the US. This section takes a look at factors such as growing energy demand, climate change, restratints on existing energy sources, and others, and how CHP technologies can help in this scenario.

Mini and Micro gas turbines for CHP in the US is analyzed including the pros and cons of microturbines and CHP, the market for microturbines in the US, and others. The Market Mechanism for Energy Allocation in Micro-CHP Grids in the US is an important analysis included in this section and takes a look at the application for a market-based micro CHP grid in the US.

Emissions trading in the US and role of CHP is discussed along with why CHP is a competitive solution for the US. This includes an analysis of the economic benefits for the US, local energy issues, modernized infrastructre requirements, and other factors. CHP Regulatoions in the US and the impact they have on the overall market is also analyzed, followed by an analysis of energy portfolio standards and CHP experience by states. States analyzed in this section include Washington, New York, Pennsylvania, Nevada, Minnesota, California, Connecticut, Hawaii, and Maine.

Market outlook and an analysis of the major players in the industry such as Acumentrics, Energetix, Yanmar America, Plug Power, Husky Energy, Cogeneration Planners, and others, complete this section.

Moving to section 11, we cover the waste-to-energy market in the US. We begin with a debate on whether waste-to-energy is a source of renewable energy or not, and proceed to analyze the market including the various technologies in use, environmental regulations in the US impacting this industry, market trends, and some case studies to establish the importance of waste-to-energy technologies in the reneawble energy sector.

Major players such as Babcock Power, Covanta Energy, Interstate Waste Technologies, and others are analyzed, along with an industry outlook.

Section 12 deals with a similar segment as we briefly analyze the waste management sector in the US. The US waste management sector is analyzed through a market profile, concepts of waste management in use in the US, solid waste management techniques in the US, etc.

Section 13 of the report looks at the integration of renewable electricity on to the US Smart Grid. The section covers renewable electricity integration on the US smart grid, energy storage at the grid level in the US, transmission of renewable energy over long distances in the US, issues facing the industry and the major players in the US smart grid industry.

From section 14, we focus on the regulatory initiatives and incentives provided in the US for the growth of the renewable energy market. Under this section we analyze the federal and state-level investment incentives, the role of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 in promoting the renewable energy market, financial incentives for renewable energy by state, federal financial incentives for renewable energy, renewable energy regulations and policies by state, and federal regulations and policies for renewable energy in the US.

Section 15 analyzes the outlook for the US renewable energy industry through various viewpoints. We undertake an analysis of the following: government and institutional outlook, outlook by trade associations, outlook for the investing potential of the industry, outlook for technological innovation, long-term energy projections, wind power market outlook, solar power outlook, hydropower market outlook, geothermal energy market outlook, biomass market outlook, biodiesel and ethanol market outlook, and the future prospects for the US energy and renewable energy industry.

In conclusion, report on the Renewable Energy Industry in the United States is the most comprehensive resource available on this market that undertakes a strategic and analytical view of the US renewable energy industry.
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Executive Summary

Section 1: Overview of the Industry

B. A Look at the Global Energy Industry
B.1 Industry Profile
B.2 Looking at the Global Oil Market
B.3 Looking at the Global Natural Gas
B.4 Looking at Other Fuels
B.5 Industry Outlook

C. Introduction to the US Renewable Energy Industry
C.1 Industry Overview
C.2 Why the US Needs Renewables
C.3 Trends in the Market
C.3.1 Falling Prices of Oil and Gas
C.3.2 Modernization of the US Electrical Grid Modernization
C.3.3 2008 Financial Crisis and the Renewables Sector
C.3.4 Regulatory Support
C.3.5 Low Cost for Carbon Emissions Trading
C.3.6 Regulatory Support from President Obama
C.3.7 Role of China
C.3.8 High Cost of Renewable Energy Alternatives
C.3.9 Issue of Greenhouse Gas Emissions
C.4 Integration of Renewable Energy

D. Impacts & Barriers Facing the US Energy Industry
D.1 Industry Impacts
D.1.1 Advent of Nuclear Energy
D.1.2 Entry of Non-Major Companies
D.1.3 Hedging Instruments
D.2 Barriers Facing the Industry
D.2.1 Recent Market Trends
D.2.2 Rise in Demand Likely for Oil, Natural Gas & Propane
D.2.3 'Smart' Drilling Prototype Yields More Oil & Gas
D.2.4 Challenge of Nuclear Wastage
D.2.5 Crude Oil Proved Reserves Decline, Natural Gas Proved Reserves Up
D.2.6 Oil & Gas Industry Expenditures
D.2.7 Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill
D.2.8 Saturation of Resources in the North Sea
D.3 Industry Trends
D.3.1 Petroleum Industry Mergers and Market Concentration
D.3.2 Energy Usage
D.3.3 Venture Capital Investments in Clean Energy
D.3.4 Large Energy Imports
D.3.5 Energy Efficiency Trends
D.4 Trends in Renewable Energy
D.5 Market Growth Opportunities
D.5.1 Bio-Energy Market
D.5.2 Stationary Fuel Cells Market
D.5.3 Potential of the Ethanol Fuel Industry

E. Competition in the Industry
E.1 Overview of Competition
E.2 Nuclear Energy Facing Competition from Gas and Coal
E.3 Competition Fostering Reliability Choices

F. Policy Resolutions to the US Energy Crisis
F.1 Supply-Side Resolutions
F.2 Demand-Side Resolutions
F.3 Resolving Cost Issues
F.4 Resolving Regulatory and Legal Issues
F.5 Boosting Industry Performance through Government Programs
F.6 Conclusion

G. US Renewable Energy Market: SWOT Framework Analysis
G.1 Strengths to Build Upon
G.2 Weaknesses to Overcome
G.3 Opportunities to Exploit
G.4 Threats to Overcome

H. SWOT Framework Analysis: Top 5 Renewable Technologies in the US
H.1 Wind Power
H.1.1 Strengths to Build Upon
H.1.2 Weaknesses to Overcome
H.1.3 Opportunities to Exploit
H.1.4 Threats to Overcome
H.2 Solar Power
H.2.1 Strengths to Build Upon
H.2.2 Weaknesses to Overcome
H.2.3 Opportunities to Exploit
H.2.4 Threats to Overcome
H.3 Geothermal Power
H.3.1 Strengths to Build Upon
H.3.2 Weaknesses to Overcome
H.3.3 Opportunities to Exploit
H.3.4 Threats to Overcome
H.4 Energy from Biomass
H.4.1 Strengths to Build Upon
H.4.2 Weaknesses to Overcome
H.4.3 Opportunities to Exploit
H.4.4 Threats to Overcome
H.5 Small Hydro Power
H.5.1 Strengths to Build Upon
H.5.2 Weaknesses to Overcome
H.5.3 Opportunities to Exploit
H.5.4 Threats to Overview
H.6 Conclusion

I. Regulatory Framework for Renewable Energy in the US
I.1 Overview
I.2 History of Energy Policy in the US
I.3 US Energy Independence
I.3.1 Terrorism, Embargo and Other Factors
I.3.2 Strategies Being Applied
I.3.3 Issues and Criticisms
I.4 Relations with Other Oil-Producing Countries

J. Production of Electricity from RES: State-wise Analysis

K. Regulations and their Impact on the Renewable Energy Sector
K.1 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
K.1.1 Energy Infrastructure
K.1.2 Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Research and Investment
K.1.3 Tax Incentives for Companies
K.1.4 Business Tax Provisions
K.2 Feed-in-Tariffs
K.2.1 California
K.2.2 Florida
K.2.3 Hawaii
K.2.4 Maine
K.2.5 Oregon
K.2.6 Vermont
K.2.7 Puerto Rico
K.3 Renewable Portfolio Standards
K.3.1 Additional Non-binding Goals
K.3.2 Program Coverage
K.3.3 Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)
K.3.4 Solar Renewable Energy Certificates (SRECs)
K.3.5 Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) – Multipliers
K.3.6 Tiers and Set Asides
K.3.7 Eligible Technologies
K.3.8 Penalties
K.3.9 Cost Caps
K.3.10 Cost Recovery
K.3.11 Federal RPS Programs
K.3.12 RPS Programs by State
K.3.12.1 California
K.3.12.2 Colorado
K.3.12.3 Nevada
K.3.12.4 Florida
K.3.12.5 Ohio
K.3.12.6 Pennsylvania
K.3.12.7 Texas
K.4 DOE Wind Program
K.5 DOE Geothermal Technologies Program
K.6 Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975
K.7 Clean Air Act
K.8 Energy Policy Act of 1992
K.9 Energy Policy Act of 2005
K.9.1 General Provisions of the Act
K.9.2 Energy Management
K.9.3 Criticism of the Act
K.10 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
K.11 Fuel Cell Initiatives by the US DOE
K.12 California Solar Initiative
K.13 EPA Initiatives
K.14 Green Power Partnership
K.15 Minerals Management Service's Program
K.16 New Energy Frontier
K.16.1 Renewable Energy
K.16.2 Conventional Energy and Compliance
K.16.3 Royalty Payments
K.17 Solar America Initiative
K.18 US Geological Survey's Program
K.19 Fish and Wildlife Service's Program

L. Major Players in the Renewable Energy Industry
L.1 Bosch
L.2 GE Energy
L.3 Iberdrola Renovables, SA
L.4 GreenHunter Energy, Inc
L.5 Sharp Corporation
L.6 Shell Renewables

Section 2: Wind Power in the United States

A. Wind Power Market in the US
A.1 Industry Overview
A.2 Wind Power Generation by State
A.3 Installed Capacity Growth
A.4 Wind Resources in the US
A.5 Transmission and Integration of Wind Power
A.6 Electrical Energy Generated by Wind
A.7 Ramping Up of Manufacturing Capacity
A.8 Traditional Electricity Generation versus Wind Power
A.9 Market for Wind Turbine Manufacturing
A.10 Federal Production Tax Credit for Wind Power
A.11 Offshore Wind Power Market

B. Role of Wind in the Energy Industry

C. Cost of Wind Power
C.1 Overview
C.2 Finding Alternative Investment for Wind Power

D. Wind Power in the US – Market Trends
D.1 Rising Demand for Energy
D.2 Global Climate Change
D.3 Renewable Quota System
D.4 Rising Cost Competitiveness
D.5 Offshore Wind Power Trends
D.6 Emergence of Merchant Wind Plants
D.7 Emergence of “Inside the Fence” Projects

E. Barriers Facing the US Wind Power Market
E.1 Permitting Challenges
E.2 Restrictions on Transmission
E.3 Risk Aversion

F. Small Wind Turbines Market
F.1 What is a Small Wind Turbine?
F.2 Applications of Small Wind Turbines
F.2.1 Overview
F.2.2 Grid-Connected Applications
F.3 Small Wind Turbine Market in the US
F.4 Emergence of Hybrid Small Wind Turbines
F.5 Emergence of Very Small Wind Turbines
F.6 Role of Wind-Diesel Hybrid Turbine Systems
F.7 Economics of Small Wind Turbines
F.8 Factors Affecting the US SWT Market
F.8.1 Regulatory Incentives
F.8.2 Certification Processes
F.8.3 External Investment
F.8.4 Poor Zoning/Permitting Practices
F.8.5 Better Technology for Resource Assessment
F.8.6 Consolidation in the Industry
F.8.7 Economic Conditions
F.8.8 Strong Dealer Networks
F.9 Regulatory Framework
F.9.1 FERC Ruling
F.9.2 Federal Renewable Electricity Standard
F.9.3 Government Incentives
F.10 Role of PACE Bonds in the US Market
F.11 Cost of Electricity and Role of Small Wind Turbines
F.12 Utility Policies Impacting the Market
F.13 Market Trends

G. Micro Wind Generation in the US
G.1 Overview
G.2 Microgrid and Micro Wind Generator
G.3 Measurement, Communication and Monitoring (MCM) System
G.3.1 Technical Specifications
G.4 Conclusion

H. Wind Power in the US – Analysis by State
H.1 Arizona
H.2 California
H.3 Colorado
H.4 Illinois
H.5 Indiana
H.6 Iowa
H.7 Kansas
H.8 Maine
H.9 Massachusetts
H.10 Minnesota
H.11 Montana
H.12 New Hampshire
H.13 New York
H.14 Ohio
H.15 Oregon
H.16 Pennsylvania
H.17 Texas
H.18 Vermont
H.19 Washington
H.20 Wyoming

I. Major Wind Farms
I.1 Altamont Pass Wind Farm
I.2 Alta Wind Energy Center
I.3 Benton County Wind Farm
I.4 Biglow Canyon Wind Farm
I.5 Big Horn Wind Farm
I.6 Blue Canyon Wind Farm
I.7 Blue Sky Green Field Wind Farm
I.8 Brazos Wind Ranch
I.9 Buffalo Gap Wind Farm
I.10 Buffalo Ridge Wind Farm
I.12 Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm
I.13 Cedar Creek Wind Farm
I.14 Desert Sky Wind Farm
I.15 Dutch Hill/Cohocton Wind Farm
I.16 Enbridge Ontario Wind Farm
I.17 Fenton Wind Farm
I.18 Forward Wind Energy Center
I.19 Fowler Ridge Wind Farm
I.20 Glacier Wind Farm
I.21 Green Mt. Energy Wind Farm
I.22 Gulf Wind Farm
I.23 Hackberry Wind Project
I.24 Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center
I.25 Intrepid Wind Farm
I.26 Judith Gap Wind Farm
I.27 Kibby Wind Power Project
I.28 King Mountain Wind Farm
I.29 Klondike Wind Farm
I.30 Lone Star Wind Farm
I.31 Locust Ridge Wind Farm
I.32 Maple Ridge Wind Farms I and II
I.33 Marengo Wind Farm
I.34 Meadow Lake Wind Farm
I.35 Milford Wind Corridor Project
I.36 Mount Storm Wind Farm
I.37 New Mexico Wind Energy Center
I.38 Panther Creek Wind Farm
I.39 Peetz Wind Farm
I.40 Peñascal Wind Farm
I.41 Pioneer Prairie Wind Farm
I.42 Roscoe Wind Farm
I.43 San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm
I.44 Sherbino Wind Farm
I.45 Shiloh Wind Farm
I.46 Smoky Hills Wind Farm
I.47 Stateline Wind Project
I.48 Story County Wind Farm
I.49 Streator Cayuga Ridge South Wind Farm
I.50 Sweetwater Wind Farm
I.51 Tatanka Wind Farm
I.52 Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm
I.53 Trent Wind Farm
I.54 Twin Groves Wind Farms I and II
I.55 Walnut Wind Farm
I.56 Wethersfield Wind Park
I.57 Whispering Willow Wind Farm
I.58 Windy Point/Windy Flats
I.59 White Creek Wind Power Project
I.60 Wild Horse Wind Farm
I.61 Wildorado Wind Ranch

J. Wind Power in the US: Market Outlook

K. Major Players in the US Wind Power Industry
K.1 Acciona SA
K.2 Airtricity
K.3 American Electric Power Company, Inc.
K.4 Alstom
K.6 Blue H Group Technologies Ltd
K.7 Bornay
K.8 Clipper Windpower, PLC
K.9 EDF Energies Nouvelles
K.10 Emergya Wind Technologies
K.11 Energie Baden-Wuerttenberg AG (EnBW)
K.12 Energia Hidroelectrica de Navarra (EHN)
K.13 E.ON
K.14 First Wind (Formerly UPC Wind)
K.15 Forewind Limited
K.16 Gamesa Corporación Tecnológica
K.17 GE Wind Power
K.18 Horizon Wind Energy
K.19 Iberdrola Renovables
K.20 LM Wind Power
K.21 MidAmerican Energy Holdings Company
K.22 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
K.23 NextEra Energy Resources
K.24 Nordex AG
K.25 REpower AG
K.27 Siemens Wind Power
K.28 Statkraft
K.29 Statoil ASA
K.30 Suzlon Energy Limited
K.31 Vattenfall
K.32 Vestas Wind Systems, AS
K.33 Windflow Technology, Ltd

Section 3: Solar Power in the United States

A. Market Profile
A.1 Overview
A.2 Solar Resource in the US
A.3 Growth of the Industry
A.4 Solar Thermal Plants
A.4.1 Plants under Construction
A.4.2 Proposed Plants
A.5 Solar PV Market
A.6 Industry and Growth
A.7 Polysilicon Shortage

B. Consumer Energy Market and Impact of Solar Energy

C. Emerging Technologies in the Solar Power Market
C.1 Carbon Nanotubes
C.1.1 Overview
C.1.2 Types of Carbon Nanotubes
C.1.3 Applications of Carbon Nanotubes
C.1.4 Carbon Nanotubes and Photovoltaics
C.1.4.1 Usage of Carbon Nanotubes as Transparent Electrode
C.1.4.2 Usage of Carbon Nanotubes in DSSCs
C.2 Flexible Solar Cells
C.3 Holographic Solar Concentrator Technology
C.4 Hybrid Solar Cells
C.4.1 Overview
C.4.2 Types of Hybrid Solar Cells
C.4.2.1 Polymer–Nanoparticle Composite
C.4.2.2 Carbon Nanotubes
C.4.2.3 Dye-sensitized Solar Cells
C.4.2.4 Nanostructured Inorganic–Small Molecules
C.4.3 Improving the Efficiency of Hybrid
C.5 Miniature Solar Cells
C.5.1 Overview
C.5.2 Increasing the Efficiency of Tandem Cells
C.6 Nanopillars
C.6.1 Overview
C.6.2 Relation between Nanopillars and Better Solar Cells
C.6.3 Three-Dimensional Nanopillar-Array PV
C.6.4 US DoE's Nanopillars and Solar Cells Project
C.7 Nanostructured Coating
C.8 Nanoplasmonic Solar Cells
C.9 Nanowire Solar Cells
C.10 Organic Photovoltaics
C.10.1 Overview
C.10.2 Multilayer Organic Photovoltaic Cells
C.10.3 Cost Analysis
C.11 Photoelectrochemical Cells
C.11.1 Overview
C.11.2 Types of Photoelectrochemical Cell
C.11.2.1 Photogeneration Cell
C.11.2.2 Graetzel Cell/Dye Sensitized Cell
C.12 Plasmonic Solar Cells
C.12.1 Overview
C.12.2 Applications of Plasmonic Solar Cells
C.12.2.1 Role in Space Exploration Vehicles
C.12.2.2 Role in Rural Electrification
C.12.2.3 Role in Producing High Power
C.12.2.4 Role in Consumer Electronics
C.12.3 Recent Developments
C.12.3.1 Third Generation Solar Cells
C.12.3.2 Multiple Energy Levels
C.12.3.3 Hot Carrier Cells
C.13 Polymer Solar Cells
C.13.1 Overview
C.13.2 Physical Features
C.13.3 Architecture of a Polymer Solar Cell
C.13.4 Potential Markets
C.13.5 Conclusion
C.14 Quantum Dot Solar Cells
C.14.1 Overview
C.14.2 Applications of Quantum Dots
C.14.2.1 Biological Applications
C.14.2.2 Quantum Computation Applications
C.14.2.3 Photovoltaics
C.14.2.4 Light Emitting Devices Applications
C.14.3 Quantum Wells and Superlattices
C.14.4 NASA's Research into Quantum Dots for Solar Cells
C.14.5 ‘Rainbow' Solar Cells
C.14.6 Conclusion
C.15 Quantum Well Solar Cells
C.16 Silicon Foil Technology
C.17 String Ribbon Solar Cells
C.17.1 Overview
C.17.2 Impact of String Ribbon on the Pricing of Solar Cells
C.17.3 Technological Analysis
C.18 Thin Film Solar Cells
C.18.1 Overview
C.18.2 Types of Thin Film Solar Cells
C.18.2.1 Amorphous Silicon
C.18.2.2 Cadmium Telluride
C.18.2.3 Copper Indium Gallium Selenide
C.18.2.4 Dye-sensitized Solar Cell
C.18.2.5 Organic Solar Cell
C.18.2.6 Thin-film Silicon
C.18.3 Efficiency Factor and Price of Thin Film Solar Cells
C.18.3.1 Production Method
C.18.4 Dye-Sensitized Thin Film Solar Cells
C.18.5 Nanotechnology and Thin Film Solar Cells

D. Incentives for Solar Power in the US
D.1 Introduction
D.2 Federal Tax Credits
D.3 Feed-in Tariff
D.4 Solar America Initiative
D.5 State-level Incentives
D.6 Solar Renewable Energy Certificates

E. Solar Power Market Analysis by State
E.1 Arizona
E.2 California
E.3 Hawaii
E.4 Nevada
E.5 New Jersey
E.6 New Mexico
E.7 Oregon

F. Federal/State Programs Promoting Solar Power
F.1 205 Kilowatt (kW) Installation
F.2 Open PV Mapping Project
F.3 US DOE SunShot Initiative
F.3.1 Overview
F.3.2 Photovoltaics
F.3.3 Concentrating Solar Power
F.3.4 Systems Integration
F.3.5 Market Transformation
F.4 US DOE Solar Decathlon
F.5 Utility Solar Water Heating Initiative

G. Investor Know-How about US Solar Power Industry

H. Solar Thermal Power Plants in the US
H.1 Blythe Solar Power Project
H.2 Calico Solar Energy Project
H.3 Fort Irwin
H.4 Ivanpah Solar Power Facility
H.5 Keahole Solar Power
H.6 Kimberlina Solar Thermal Energy Plant
H.7 Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center
H.8 Mojave Solar Park
H.9 Nevada Solar One
H.10 Saguaro Solar Power Station
H.11 Sierra SunTower
H.12 Solana Generating Station
H.12 Solar Energy Generating Systems
H.14 The Solar Project
H.14.1 Solar One
H.14.2 Solar Two
H.14.2 Solar Tres

I. Solar Power in the US: Market Outlook

J. Major Players in the US Solar Power Market
J.1 Abound Solar
J.2 Aleo Solar
J.3 Amonix Incorporated
J.4 Antec Solar Energy AG
J.5 Applied Solar, Inc
J.6 Ascent Solar Technologies, Inc
J.7 ASE Americas, Inc
J.8 AstroPower Inc
J.9 Atlantis Energy Systems
J.11 BP Solar
J.12 Canon
J.13 Calyxo GMBH
J.14 China Solar Energy Holdings
J.15 Citizenre
J.16 CSG Solar
J.17 Cyrium Technologies
J.18 DayStar Technologies, Inc.
J.19 EIQ Energy, Inc
J.20 Energy Conversion Devices, Inc
J.21 Entech Inc
J.22 EPV Solar
J.23 Ersol
J.24 Ertex Solar
J.25 Evergreen Solar, Inc
J.26 Ever-Q
J.27 First Solar, Inc
J.28 Global Solar
J.29 Green Energy Technologies
J.30 GT Solar
J.31 Greenshine New Energy
J.32 HelioGrid
J.33 HelioVolt
J.34 Honda Soltec
J.35 International Solar Electric Technology
J.36 Inventux Technologies AG
J.37 JA Solar Holdings
J.38 Johanna Solar
J.39 Kaneka Solartech
J.40 Konarka Technologies, Inc.
J.41 Kyocera Solar
J.42 LDK Solar Co, LTD
J.43 Miasolé
J.44 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
J.45 Moser Baer
J.46 Nanosolar
J.47 Nexpower
J.48 Odersun AG
J.49 Phoenix Solar AG
J.50 Photowatt International
J.51 Polar PV
J.52 PowerFilm, Inc.
J.53 PowerLight Corporation
J.54 PrimeStar Solar
J.55 Pyron Solar
J.56 Q-Cells
J.57 QS Solar
J.58 Quantum PV
J.59 QuNano
J.60 REC Solar
J.61 Sanyo Electric
J.62 Schott AG
J.63 Sharp Solar
J.64 Shell Solar Industries
J.65 Siemens Solar
J.66 Signet Solar
J.67 SkyFuel
J.68 Skyline Solar
J.69 Solar Electric Power Company
J.70 SoloPower
J.71 SolarWorld, AG
J.72 Solyndra
J.73 Sol Voltaics
J.74 Solterra Renewable Technologies Inc
J.75 Spectrolab, Inc.
J.76 Spire Corporation
J.77 Stirling Energy Systems
J.78 SunPower Corporation
J.79 SunEdison
J.80 Sunetric
J.81 Sungevity
J.82 Suniva
J.83 Suntech Power
J.84 TerraSolar, Inc.
J.85 Trina Solar, Ltd
J.86 United Solar Ovonic
J.87 Voxtel
J.88 Würth Solar

Section 4: US Biomass Power Market

A. Biomass Power Market in the US
A.1 Defining Biomass
A.2 Technical Analysis
A.3 Combustion Theory
A.4 Biomass Technologies
A.5 Charcoal Production
A.6 Commercialization of Biomass
A.7 Challenges Facing the Industry
A.7.1 Environment Issues
A.7.2 Others

B. Cost Analysis

C. US Biomass Power Industry: Market Outlook

Section 5: Biofuels in the US

A. Biofuels Market in the US
A.1 Introduction
A.2 Production and Capacity Utilization
A.2.1 Ethanol
A.2.2 Biodiesel
A.3 Industry Structure
A.4 Market Opportunities and Issues
A.4.1 High Fuel Prices
A.4.2 Government Support
A.4.3 Upward Pressure on Corn Prices
A.4.4 High Competition
A.5 Government Funding Trends

B. Analysis of the US Ethanol Market
B.1 Tax Incentives
B.2 Dominance of Corn
B.3 Regulatory Framework
B.3.1 Renewable Fuel Standard
B.3.2 2011 Renewable Fuels Standards
B.3.3 State Waivers
B.3.4 Ethanol Provisions
B.3.5 MTBE
B.3.6 Renewable Energy
B.3.7 Biomass Funding
B.4 Ethanol By-Products
B.5 US Ethanol Industry: Market Outlook

C. US Biodiesel Market

D. Methanol Fuel Market

E. Butanol Fuel Market

F. Ethanol and Biodiesel Subsidies
F.1 Federal Regulations
F.2 Background to Subsidization of Biofuels
F.3 Biofuel Subsidies at Present
F.3.1 Output-linked Support
F.3.2 Market Price Support
F.3.3 Renewable Fuels Standards
F.3.4 Support for Capital Used in Manufacturing Biofuels
F.3.5 Generic Subsidies to Capital
F.3.6 Accelerated Deprecation
F.3.7 Price of Intermediate Inputs
F.3.8 Subsidies for Feedstocks
F.3.9 Subsidies Based on Consumption of Biofuels
F.3.10 Subsidies to Capital Related to Fuel Distribution and Disbursement
F.4 Conclusion

G. US Biofuels Industry: Industry Outlook

H. Major Players in the US Biofuels Industry
H.1 Abengoa Bioenergy
H.2 A2BE Carbon Capture
H.3 Allegro Biodiesel Corporation
H.4 American AgFuels
H.5 ALF Industries
H.6 Archer-Daniels-Midland Company
H.7 Aventine Renewable Energy
H.8 Bay Biodiesel LLC
H.9 BEST Energies
H.10 Biodiesel Systems, LLC
H.11 Bio Fuel Systems
H.12 Biotane Fuels
H.13 BlueFire Ethanol
H.14 Blue Marble Energy
H.15 BRI Energy, LLC
H.16 Broin Companies
H.17 Colusa Biomass Energy Corporation
H.18 DuPont Danisco
H.19 Dyadic International, Inc
H.20 Evolution Fuels (Formerly Earth Biofuels)
H.21 Fuel Bio Holdings
H.22 Genencor
H.23 Green Star Products, Inc.
H.24 Iogen Corporation
H.25 Imperium Renewables
H.26 LS9, Inc
H.27 Novozymes
H.28 PetroSun
H.29 Sapphire Energy
H.30 Solazyme
H.31 West Biofuels LLC
H.32 Verenium Corporation
H.33 XL Renewables

Section 6: Fuel Cells Market in the US

A. Fuel Cells in the US
A.1 Introduction
A.2 Design of Fuel Cells
A.3 Technology behind Fuel Cells
A.3.1 Role of the Membrane Electrode Assembly
A.3.2 Role of the Catalyst
A.3.3 Primary Hardware
A.4 Research and Development & Investment in the Industry
A.4.1 VC and Public Market Investment
A.4.2 Performance of Fuel Cell Stocks

B. Types of Fuel Cells
B.1 Alkaline Fuel Cell
B.2 Direct Borohydride Fuel Cell
B.3 Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell
B.4 Direct Methanol Fuel Cell
B.5 Electro-galvanic Fuel Cell
B.6 Flow Battery
B.7 Formic Acid Fuel Cell
B.8 Fuel Cells Minus Membranes
B.9 Metal Air Fuel Cells
B.10 Metal Hydride Fuel Cell
B.11 Microbial Fuel Cell
B.12 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell
B.13 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell
B.14 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells
B.15 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
B.16 Protonic Ceramic Fuel Cell
B.17 Regenerative Fuel Cells
B.18 Reversible Fuel Cell
B.19 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
B.20 Zinc-Air Fuel Cells

C. Challenges Facing the Industry
C.1 Design Issues
C.2 Cost Issues
C.3 Reliability and Durability Issues
C.4 Storage Problems
C.5 Size and Weight Issues
C.6 Fuel Flexibility
C.7 Low Operating Temperatures of PEM Fuel Cells
C.8 Public Support

D. Analysis of Fuel Cell Initiatives by State
D.1 Alaska
D.2 Arizona
D.3 Arkansas
D.4 California
D.5 Colorado
D.6 Connecticut
D.7 Delaware
D.8 District of Columbia
D.9 Florida

D.10 Georgia
D.11 Hawaii
D.12 Idaho
D.13 Illinois
D.14 Indiana
D.15 Iowa
D.16 Louisiana
D.17 Maine
D.18 Maryland
D.19 Massachusetts
D.20 Minnesota
D.21 Mississippi
D.22 Missouri
D.23 Montana
D.24 Nebraska
D.25 Nevada
D.26 New Jersey
D.27 New Mexico
D.28 New York
D.29 North Carolina
D.30 North Dakota
D.31 Ohio
D.32 Oklahoma
D.33 Oregon
D.34 Pennsylvania
D.35 Rhode Island
D.36 South Carolina
D.37 South Dakota
D.38 Tennessee
D.39 Texas
D.40 Utah
D.41 Virginia
D.42 Washington
D.43 West Virginia
D.44 Wisconsin
D.45 Wyoming

E. US Fuel Cells Market: Market Outlook

F. Major Players in the US Fuel Cells Market
F.1 Altergy Systems
F.2 Astris Energi Inc.
F.3 Ballard Power Systems
F.4 California Fuel Cell Partnership
F.5 Canon

F.6 Casio
F.7 Ceramic Fuel Cells
F.8 Cellex Power
F.9 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
F.10 Daimler AG
F.11 Entegris, Inc.
F.12 Eneos Celltech
F.13 Fuel Cell Technologies Ltd.
F.14 FuelCell Energy, Inc.
F.15 Hitachi
F.16 IdaTech LLC
F.17 Jadoo Power
F.18 Motorola
F.19 MTI Micro Fuel Cells
F.20 NTT DoCoMo Inc.
F.21 P21
F.22 Palcan Fuel Cells
F.23 Plug Power
F.24 Proton Energy Systems

Section 7: Geothermal Energy Market in the US

A. Geothermal Energy in the US
A.1 Introduction
A.2 Geothermal Plants in the US
A.3 Installed Geothermal Capacity
A.4 High Capacity Factor of Geothermal Energy
A.5 Environmental Impact

B. Regulatory Drivers
B.1 Federal/State Renewable Standards
B.2 Federal Tax Incentives
B.3 Federal Permitting

C. Managing Carbon Emissions from Geothermal Power in US
C.1 Presence of Geothermal Resource in the US
C.2 Potential Power Production Capacity
C.3 2015 Power Production Potential - WGA Estimates
C.4 Deriving Economical Results from Technology Infusion
C.5 Geothermal Energy vs. Fossil Sources: Performance & Emission
C.6 Constraints to Developing Geothermal Energy on Mass Scale
C.7 Summing Up

D. US Geothermal Industry: Market Outlook

E. Major Players in the US Geothermal Industry
E.1 Calpine Corporation
E.2 Caithness Energy Development
E.3 Enel Green Power
E.4 Nevada Geothermal Power, Inc
E.5 Northern California Power Agency
E.6 Ormat International, Inc.
E.7 U.S. Geothermal Inc.

Section 8: Hydropower Industry in the US

A. Hydroelectricity Market in the US
A.1 Introduction
A.2 Hydroelectric Power Plants in the U.S.
A.3 Pumped Storage Systems
A.4 US Hydropower Production
A.5 Baseload Power from Hydropower in the U.S.

B. Economics of Hydropower in the US

C. Hydropower and the Environment

D. Other Hydro Resources in the U.S.
D.2 Tidal Energy
D.3 Wave Energy

E. Hydroelectric Power Stations in the U.S.
E.1 Bath County PSP
E.2 Chief Joseph Dam
E.3 Grand Coulee
E.4 Hoover Dam
E.5 John Day Dam
E.6 Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant
E.7 The Dalles Dam

F. US Hydropower Industry: Market Outlook

Section 9: Distributed Generation Technologies and Microgrids in the U.S.

A. Introduction to Distributed Generation
A.1 Defining Distributed Generation
A.2 Economies of Scale
A.3 Localized Generation
A.4 Distributed Energy Resource (DER) Systems
A.5 Cost Analysis
A.6 Emergence of Microgrids

B. Types of Power Generation
B.1 Combined Heat Power (CHP)/Cogeneration
B.2 Fuel Cells
B.3 Micro Combined Heat and Power (MicroCHP)
B.4 Microturbines
B.5 Photovoltaic Systems
B.6 Reciprocating Engines
B.7 Small-scale Wind Power Systems
B.8 Stirling Engines
B.8.1 Heating and Cooling
B.8.2 Combined Heat and Power

B.8.3 Solar Power Generation
B.8.4 Stirling Cryocoolers
B.8.5 Heat Pump
B.8.6 Marine Engines
B.8.7 Nuclear Power
B.8.8 Automotive Engines
B.8.9 Electric Vehicles
B.8.10 Aircraft Engines
B.8.11 Underwater Power Systems
B.8.12 Low Temperature Difference Engines

C. Distributed Generation and Renewable Energy
C.1 Overview
C.2 Economic Dispatch

D. Emergence of Microgrids in the US
D.1 Overview
D.2 Microgrids and Improvement in Quality of Service
D.3 Expansion Planning and Microgrids
D.4 Operating a Microgrid
D.4.1 Control Levels
D.4.2 Islanded vs. Interconnected Mode of Operation
D.4.3 Voltage and Frequency Management
D.4.4 IT Tools

E. Designs of Microgrids in the US
E.1 Technical and Commercial Protocols and Hardware Standardization
E.2 Safety and Protection
E.3 Microgrid Modeling and Simulation

F. Integrating Microgrids with Photovoltaics, Fuel Cells, and Energy Efficiency
F.1 Overview
F.2 Composition of the Microgrid
F.3 Economics of the System
F.4 Relation between Supply and Demand
F.5 System Reliability
F.6 Conclusion

G. Ownership Models of Microgrids in the US

H. Microgrids and the US Smart Grid
H.1 Overview
H.2 What is a Smart Microgrid?
H.3 Technologies for Metering and Monitoring
H.4 Visualization of Metering Data
H.5 Energy Control
H.6 Challenges for Future Smart Grid Technologies

I. Integrated Demand Side Management, Distributed Generation, Renewable Energy Sources, and Energy Storage
I.1 Overview
I.2 Integrating DER with Smart Meter Deployment
I.3 Interoperability
I.4 Automation of Distributed Energy Resources
I.5 Primary Process Feedback
I.6 Intelligent Agents and Distributed Controllers
I.7 DER/EMS Management System
I.8 Relative Costs and Benefits of Distributed Energy Businesses
I.9 Incentives and Subsidies
I.10 Business Opportunities
I.10.1 Market-based DER
I.10.2 Examples of Business Models

J. Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory

K. DER Technologies in the US: Market Outlook

Section 10: Combined Heat and Power in the U.S.

A. CHP/Cogeneration in the US
A.1 Introduction
A.2 Industry Background
A.3 Types of Cogeneration Plants
A.3.1 Micro Cogeneration
A.3.2 Mini Cogeneration
A.4 CHP Technologies in the U.S.
A.5 Applications of CHP
A.6 CHP System Products

B. CHP Systems in the U.S.
B.1 Introduction
B.2 Steam Turbines
B.3 Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines
B.4 Combustion or Gas Turbines
B.5 Microturbines
B.6 Fuel Cells

C. CHP Market in the U.S.
C.1 Market Overview
C.2 Regulatory and Market Challenges Facing CHP
C.3 CHP and District Energy
C.4 CHP and District Heating

D. CHP and the Energy Situation in the US
D.1 Introduction
D.2 Growing Energy Demand
D.3 Restraints on Existing Energy Sources
D.4 Competition in the Global Energy Markets
D.5 Climate Change
D.6 Role of Modern Infrastructure
D.7 Energy Efficiency and CHP

E. Mini and Micro-Gas Turbines for CHP
E.1 Introduction
E.2 Pros and Cons of Micro-Turbines and CHP
E.3 Market for Micro-Turbines in the U.S.
E.4 Elements of a Micro-Turbine Generator
E.5 Current and Future Status of the Technology
E.6 Conclusion

F. Market Mechanism for Energy Allocation in Micro-CHP Grids in the U.S.
F.1 Introduction
F.2 Application for a Market-based Micro CHP Grid
F.3 Market Outlook

G. CHP and Emissions Trading in the U.S.
G.1 Emissions Trading in the U.S.
G.2 Role of CHP in Emissions Trading
G.3 Challenges Facing CHP in its Role in Emissions Trading
G.3.1 Increase in Onsite Emissions and Decrease in Global Emissions
G.3.2 Distinguishing between Different Economic Sectors
G.3.3 Boundaries for Inclusion of CHP in an ETS

H. Why CHP is the Competitive Solution for the U.S.
H.1 Overview
H.2 Economic Benefits for the U.S.
H.3 Dealing with Local Energy Issues with CHP
H.3.1 Overview
H.3.2 Potential CHP Capacity
H.3.3 Increasing Role of CHP in Generation
H.4 Transition to Modernized Infrastructure
H.4.1 Overview
H.4.2 Location of Energy Resources near Demand
H.4.3 Utilities and Grid Benefits
H.4.4 Efficiency of the Power Grid
H.5 Challenges Facing the Industry
H.5.1 Regulating Fees and Tariffs
H.5.2 Problems with Grid Integration
H.5.3 Environmental Regulations
H.5.4 Taxation Issues
H.5.5 Technical Challenges
H.6 Addressing the Need for Further R&D

I. Market Growth of CHP Driven by Regulations
I.1 Interconnection
I.2 Greenhouse Gas Policy Mechanisms
I.3 Investment Tax Credits (ITCs)
I.4 CHP Emissions Treatment
I.5 Renewable Portfolio Standards

J. CHP Regulation in the U.S.
J.1 CHP and Regulations
J.2 CHP Energy Inputs
J.3 CHP Energy Outputs
J.3.1 Electricity
J.3.2 Heating & Cooling
J.4 Regulatory Framework and CHP
J.5 Traditional Regulatory Framework
J.6 Emerging Regulatory Framework
J.6.1 1992 Energy Policy Act and IPPs
J.6.2 State Electricity Restructuring Initiatives

J.7 Restructuring of Electricity at the State Level
J.8 Restructuring Initiatives
J.8.1 Implementation of Retail Choice
J.8.2 Separation of Utility Generation Functions & Divestiture of Assets
J.8.3 Open Access and Comparability for Utility Distribution Services
J.8.4 Utility's Obligation to Serve and its Status as ‘Default Provider'
J.8.5 Liability for Transition Charges
J.8.6 Special Treatment for CHP/DG, Renewables, and Other Technologies
J.8.7 Transition Charge Exemptions
J.8.8 Utility Regulatory Exemptions
J.8.9 Transitional Rate Reductions and Post-Transition Rates

K. Energy Portfolio Standards and CHP
K.1 Emergence of Energy Portfolio Standards
K.2 Role of RPS
K.3 CHP Experience by States
K.3.1 California
K.3.2 Connecticut
K.3.3 Hawaii
K.3.4 Maine
K.3.5 Minnesota
K.3.6 Nevada
K.3.7 New York
K.3.8 Pennsylvania
K.3.9 Washington

L. US DOE's Distribution and Interconnection R&D Activities
L.1 Renewable System Interconnection (RSI) Study

M. CHP Sector in the US: Market Outlook

N. Major Players in the US CHP Market
N.1 Acumentrics Corporation
N.2 Capstone Turbine Corporation
N.3 ClearEdge Power
N.4 Cogeneration Planners, LLC
N.5 Energetix
N.6 Husky Energy
N.7 Infinia
N.8 Marathon Engine Systems
N.9 Plug Power Inc
N.10 Veolia Environnement SA
N.11 Yanmar America Corporation

Section 11: Waste-to-Energy Market in the US

A. US Waste-to-Energy Market
A.1 What is Waste-to-Energy?
A.2 Incineration – Common WtE Implementation
A.3 Other WtE Technologies
A.3.1 Thermal Technologies
A.3.1.1 Gasification
A.3.1.2 Waste Gasification
A.3.1.3 Thermal Depolymerization
A.3.1.4 Pyrolysis
A.3.1.5 Plasma Arc Gasification (PGP)
A.3.2 Non-thermal Technologies
A.3.2.1 Anaerobic Digestion
A.3.2.2 Fermentation Production
A.3.2.3 Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT)
A.3.2.4 Refuse Derived Fuel
A.3.3 Chemical Technologies
A.3.3.1 Esterification
A.4 General Waste-to-Energy Power Plant
A.5 Carbon Dioxide Emissions
A.6 Environmental Regulations in the U.S.

B. US Waste-to-Energy Market Overview
B.1 Market Overview
B.2 Technological Developments
B.2.1 EnerTech – SlurryCarb™ Process
B.2.2 EcoEnergy Oy – Wabio Process
B.2.3 Centre Nationale de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) – Valgora Process
B.2.4 Convertech Group – Convertech Process
B.2.5 Martin GmbH – SynCom Process
B.3 Market Trends

C. Is Waste-to-Energy a Source of Renewable Energy?

D. Low-Btu Reciprocating Gas Engine Generators for Harnessing Waste
D.1 Overview
D.2 Potential of Methane
D.3 Reciprocating Engine Generators
D.4 Determining Site Suitability
D.5 Impact of Contaminants
D.6 Conclusion

E. Case Studies
E.1 Montgomery County Resource Recovery Facility
E.2 Waste-to-Energy Solution at U.S. Virgin Islands
E.3 Waste-to-Energy System in Baltimore, Maryland
E.4 Waste-to-Energy Plant in Pinellas County, Florida

F. US Waste-to-Energy Sector: Market Outlook

G. Major Players in the US WtE Market
G.1 Babcock Power
G.2 Covanta Energy Corporation
G.3 Energy Answers Corporation
G.4 Energy Products of Idaho
G.5 Interstate Waste Technologies
G.6 Waste Energy Solutions
G.7 Wheelabrator Technologies

Section 12: Waste Management Sector in the US

A. US Waste Management Sector
A.1 Introduction
A.2 Methods of Waste Disposal
A.2.1 Integrated Waste Management
A.2.2 Waste Landfill
A.2.3 Incineration
A.2.4 Recycling
A.2.5 Biological Reprocessing of Waste
A.2.6 Harnessing the Energy Content of Waste
A.2.7 Waste Minimization

A.3 Waste Management Technologies

B. Waste Management Concepts
B.1 Waste Hierarchy
B.2 Extended Producer Responsibility
B.3 Polluter Pays Principle

C. Solid Waste Management in the US
C.1 Overview
C.2 Solid Waste Infrastructure
C.3 Waste Generation and Composition
C.4 Techniques for Waste Management
C.4.1 Source Reduction (Waste Prevention)
C.4.2 Recycling and Composting
C.4.3 Waste-to-Energy
C.4.4 Landfills
C.5 Conclusion

Section 13: Renewable Electricity Integration on the U.S. Smart Grid

A. Renewable Electricity Integration on the U.S. Smart Grid
A.1 Introduction
A.2 Technical Challenges
A.3 Role of Forecasting
A.4 Accuracy of the System
A.5 Integrating Weather Forecasts with Power Generation Forecasts

B. Energy Storage at the Grid Level
B.1 Introduction
B.2 Feasibility of Storing Energy on a Grid Level
B.3 Scale of Grid Energy Storage
B.4 Battery Energy Storage
B.4.1 Battery Materials
B.4.1.1 Lead Acid
B.4.1.2 Sodium Sulfur
B.4.1.3 Flow Batteries
B.4.1.4 Vanadium Redox
B.4.1.5 Zinc Bromide Flow Batteries
B.4.2 Outlook for Batteries
B.5 Vehicle-to-Grid Concept

C. Transmission of Renewable Energy Over Long Distances
C.1 Overview
C.2 Types of Long Distance Transmission
C.3 Options for Direct Current Transmission
C.4 Urban Areas Power Distribution

D. Issues Facing the Industry

E. Major Players in the US Smart Grid
E.1 4Home
E.3 AT&T
E.4 Aclara
E.5 Advanced Control Systems
E.6 Advanced Telemetry
E.7 AlertMe
E.8 Ambient Corporation
E.9 Arcadian Networks
E.10 Arch Rock
E.11 Beacon Power
E.12 BPL Global
E.13 Cimetrics
E.14 Cisco Systems
E.15 Comverge
E.16 Consert
E.17 Control4 Corporation
E.18 Cooper Power Systems
E.19 Coulomb Technologies
E.20 Current Cost
E.21 Current Group
E.22 Dust Networks
E.23 Echelon Corporation
E.24 Echelon and T-Mobile USA
E.25 EcoLogic Analytics
E.26 Eka Systems
E.27 Elster Group
E.28 Ember Corp.
E.28 eMeter
E.30 EnergyHub
E.31 Energate
E.32 EnerNOC
E.33 Fat Spaniel Technologies
E.34 GE Energy
E.35 Google
E.36 Greenbox Technology
E.37 GridAgents
E.38 Grid Net
E.39 GRIDiant
E.40 GridPoint
E.41 IBM
E.42 Intelagrid
E.43 Intellon Corp.
E.44 Itron Inc
E.45 Landis+Gyr
E.46 Microsoft
E.47 Millennial Net
E.48 Onzo
E.49 OpenPeak
E.50 Oracle
E.51 PowerGrid Communications
E.52 PowerIt Solutions
E.53 REGEN Energy
E.54 Sensus
E.55 Sentilla
E.56 Sequentric
E.57 Serveron
E.58 Siemens
E.59 Silver Spring Networks
E.60 Site Controls
E.61 SmartSynch
E.62 Tantalus Systems Corp.
E.63 Tendril Networks
E.64 Trilliant Networks
E.65 Tropos Networks
E.66 Verdiem
E.67 Viridity Energy

Section 14: Federal and State Investment Incentives for Renewable Energy

A. Federal and State-Level Investment Incentives

B. Role of the Energy Policy Act of 2005

C. Financial Incentives for Renewable Energy by State
C.1 Alabama
C.1.1 Local Government Energy Loan Program
C.1.2 TVA - Generation Partners Program
C.1.3 TVA - Mid-Sized Renewable Standard
C.2 Alaska
C.2.1 Alaska Energy Authority - Renewable Energy Grant Program
C.2.2 Golden Valley Electric Association - Sustainable Natural Alternative Power (SNAP) Program
C.2.3 Local Option - Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems
C.2.4 Power Project Loan Fund

C.3 Arizona
C.3.1 APS - Renewable Energy Incentive Program
C.3.2 Chandler - Expedited Plan Review for Green Buildings
C.3.3 Energy Equipment Property Tax Exemption
C.3.4 Non-Residential Solar & Wind Tax Credit
C.3.5 Renewable Energy Business Tax Incentives
C.3.6 Property Tax Assessment for Renewable Energy Equipment
C.3.7 Renewable Energy Production Tax Credit
C.3.8 Residential Solar and Wind Energy Systems Tax Credit
C.3.9 Solar and Wind Equipment Sales Tax Exemption
C.3.10 Sulphur Springs Valley EC - SunWatts Loan Program
C.3.11 Sulphur Springs Valley EC - SunWatts Rebate Program
C.3.12 TEP - Renewable Energy Credit Purchase Program
C.3.13 Trico Electric Cooperative - SunWatts Incentive Program
C.3.14 UES - Renewable Energy Credit Purchase Program
C.4 Arkansas
C.4.1 Industrial Energy Technology Revolving Loan Fund
C.4.2 Renewable Technology Rebate Fund
C.4.3 Wind Energy Manufacturing Tax Incentive

C.5 California
C.5.1 Increased Renewable Energy Requirement
C.5.2 Burbank Water & Power - Green Building Incentive Program
C.5.3 California Feed-In Tariff
C.5.4 City of Palo Alto Utilities - Renewable Energy Credit Purchase Program
C.5.5 Emerging Renewables Program
C.5.6 Marin Clean Energy - Feed-In Tariff
C.5.7 Sales Tax Exemption for Alternative Energy Manufacturing Equipment
C.5.8 San Bernardino County - Green Building Incentive
C.5.9 Santa Monica - Expedited Permitting for Green Buildings
C.5.10 Self-Generation Incentive Program
C.6 Colorado
C.6.1 Improvement Districts for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Improvements
C.6.1 Boulder County - ClimateSmart Loan Program
C.6.2 Direct Lending Revolving Loan Program
C.6.3 Highline Electric Association - Renewable Energy Rebate Program
C.6.4 Holy Cross Energy - WE CARE Rebates
C.6.5 La Plata Electric Association - Renewable Generation Rebate Program
C.6.6 Local Option - Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems
C.6.7 New Energy Economic Development Grant Program
C.6.8 Renewable Energy Property Tax Assessment
C.6.9 Sales and Use Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Equipment
C.6.10 San Miguel Power Association - Renewable Energy Rebate Program
C.6.11 Southeast Colorado Power Association - Renewable Energy Rebate
C.6.12 United Power - Renewable Energy Rebate Program
C.7 Connecticut
C.7.1 CCEF - On-Site Renewable DG Program
C.7.2 CCEF - Operational Demonstration Program
C.7.3 CHIF - Energy Conservation Loan
C.7.4 DPUC - Low-Interest Loans for Customer-Side Distributed Resources
C.7.5 New Energy Technology Program
C.7.6 Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems
C.7.7 Sales and Use Taxes for Items Used in Renewable Energy Industries
C.8 Delaware
C.8.1 Delaware Electric Cooperative - Green Energy Program Incentives
C.8.2 Delmarva Power - Green Energy Program Incentives
C.8.3 DEMEC Member Utilities - Green Energy Program Incentives (8 utilities)
C.8.4 Research and Development Grants
C.8.5 Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU) - Efficiency Plus Homes (Green for Green)
C.8.6 Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU) - Non-Residential Efficiency Plus Financing Program
C.8.7 Technology and Demonstration Grants
C.9 District of Columbia
C.9.1 Renewable Energy Incentive Program
C.10 Florida
C.10.1 Special Districts
C.10.2 Miami-Dade County - Green Buildings Expedite Process
C.11 Georgia
C.11.1 Clean Energy Tax Credit
C.11.2 TVA - Generation Partners Program
C.11.3 TVA - Mid-Sized Renewable Standard Offer Program
C.12 Hawaii
C.12.1 Farm and Aquaculture Alternative Energy Loan
C.12.2 Hawaii Feed-in Tariff
C.12.3 High Technology Business Investment Tax Credit
C.12.4 Honolulu - Real Property Tax Exemption for Alternative Energy Improvements
C.12.5 Priority Permit Processing for Green Buildings
C.12.6 Solar and Wind Energy Credit
C.13 Idaho
C.13.1 Avista Utilities (Electric) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Incentives Program
C.13.2 Property Tax Exemption for Wind and Geothermal Energy Producers
C.13.3 Renewable Energy Equipment Sales Tax Refund
C.13.4 Renewable Energy Project Bond Program
C.13.5 Residential Alternative Energy Tax Deduction
C.14 Illinois
C.14.1 Chicago - Green Permit and Green Homes Programs
C.14.2 Commercial Wind Energy Property Valuation
C.14.3 Cultivate Illinois - Green Energy Loans (Illinois State Treasurer's Office Link Depo4it Loan Program)
C.14.5 DCEO - Solar and Wind Energy Rebate Program
C.14.6 Illinois Clean Energy Community Foundation Grants
C.14.7 Illinois Finance Authority Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Project Financing
C.14.8 Illinois State Board of Education - School Energy Efficiency Grant Program
C.14.9 Sales Tax Exemption for Wind Energy Business Designated High Impact Business
C.15 Indiana
C.15.1 Indianapolis Power & Light - Small-Scale Renewable Energy Incentive Program
C.15.2 Indianapolis Power & Light Co. - Rate REP (Renewable Energy Production)
C.15.3 Renewable Energy Property Tax Exemption
C.16 Iowa
C.16.1 Alternate Energy Revolving Loan Program
C.16.2 Energy Replacement Generation Tax Exemption

C.16.3 Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Renewable Energy Purchase Rate
C.16.4 Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Renewable Energy Rebates
C.16.5 Interstate Power and Light (Alliant Energy) - Residential Renewable Energy Rebates
C.16.6 Iowa Building Energy $mart Program
C.17 Kansas
C.17.1 Efficiency Kansas Revolving Loan Program
C.17.2 Renewable Electricity Facility Tax Credit
C.17.3 Renewable Energy Property Tax Exemption
C.17.4 Solar and Wind Manufacturing Incentive
C.18 Kentucky
C.18.1 Green Bank of Kentucky - Energy Efficiency Loans for State Government Agencies
C.18.2 Mountain Association for Community Economic Development - Energy Efficient Enterprise Loan Program
C.18.3 Renewable Energy Tax Credit
C.18.4 Tax Credit for Renewable Energy Facilities
C.18.5 Tax Exemption for Large-Scale Renewable Energy Projects
C.19 Louisiana
C.19.1 Sustainable Energy Financing Districts
C.19.2 Tax Credit for Solar and Wind Energy Systems on Residential Property
C.20 Maine
C.20.1 Community Based Renewable Energy Production Incentive (Pilot Program)
C.20.2 Efficiency Maine - Small Business Low-Interest Loan Program
C.20.3 Efficiency Maine - Solar and Wind Energy Rebate Program
C.20.4 Local Option - Property Assessed Clean Energy
C.20.5 Sales and Use Tax Refund for Qualified Community Wind Generators
C.20.6 Voluntary Renewable Resources Grants
C.21 Maryland
C.21.1 Anne Arundel County - High Performance Dwelling Property Tax Credit
C.21.2 Baltimore County - Property Tax Credit for High Performance Buildings and Homes
C.21.3 Carroll County - Green Building Property Tax Credit
C.21.4 Clean Energy Grant Program - Windswept
C.21.5 Clean Energy Production Tax Credit
C.21.6 Howard County - High Performance Building Property Tax Credit
C.21.7 Income Tax Credit for Green Buildings
C.21.8 Jane E. Lawton Conservation Loan Program
C.21.9 Local Option - Property Tax Credit for High Performance Buildings
C.21.10 Montgomery County - High Performance Building Property Tax Credit
C.21.11 Property Tax Exemption for Solar and Wind Energy Systems
C.21.12 Sales and Use Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Equipment
C.21.13 State Agency Loan Program
C.22 Massachusetts
C.22.1 Alternative Energy and Energy Conservation Patent Exemption
C.22.2 DOER - Green Communities Grant Program
C.22.3 Excise Tax Deduction for Solar- or Wind-Powered Systems
C.22.4 Excise Tax Exemption for Solar- or Wind-Powered Systems
C.22.5 MassCEC - Commonwealth Wind Incentive Program – Micro Wind Initiative
C.22.6 Reading Municipal Light Department - Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program
C.22.7 Renewable Energy Equipment Sales Tax Exemption
C.22.8 Renewable Energy Property Tax Exemption
C.22.8 Residential Renewable Energy Income Tax Credit
C.23 Michigan
C.23.1 Alternative Energy Personal Property Tax Exemption
C.23.2 Energy Efficiency Grants
C.23.3 Energy Revolving Loan Fund - Clean Energy Advanced Manufacturing
C.23.4 Local Option - Property Assessed Clean Energy
C.23.5 Nonrefundable Business Activity Tax Credit
C.23.6 Renewable Energy Renaissance Zones
C.24 Minnesota
C.24.1 Agricultural Improvement Loan Program
C.24.2 Commercial Small Wind Rebate Program
C.24.3 Local Option - Energy Improvement Financing Programs
C.24.4 MHFA Fix-up Fund
C.24.5 Sustainable Agriculture Loan Program
C.24.6 Value-Added Stock Loan Participation Program
C.24.7 Wind and Solar-Electric (PV) Systems Exemption
C.24.8 Wind Energy Sales Tax Exemption
C.25 Mississippi
C.25.1 Mississippi Clean Energy Initiative
C.26 Missouri
C.26.1 Energy Revolving Fund Loans
C.26.2 Jefferson City - Property Assessed Clean Energy
C.26.3 Clean Energy Development Boards
C.27 Montana
C.27.1 Alternative Energy Investment Tax Credit
C.27.2 Corporate Property Tax Reduction for New/Expanded Generating Facilities
C.27.3 Generation Facility Corporate Tax Exemption
C.27.4 NorthWestern Energy - USB Renewable Energy Fund
C.27.5 Property Tax Abatement for Production and Manufacturing Facilities
C.27.6 Renewable Energy Systems Exemption
C.27.7 Residential Alternative Energy System Tax Credit
C.28 Nebraska
C.28.1 Dollar and Energy Savings Loans
C.28.2 Sales and Use Tax Exemption for Community Wind Projects
C.29 Nevada
C.29.1 Local Option - Special Improvement Districts
C.29.2 NV Energy - RenewableGenerations Rebate Program
C.29.3 Portfolio Energy Credits
C.29.4 Property Tax Abatement for Green Buildings
C.29.5 Renewable Energy Producers Property Tax Abatement
C.29.6 Renewable Energy Sales and Use Tax Abatement
C.29.7 Renewable Energy Systems Property Tax Exemption
C.30 New Hampshire
C.30.1 Community Development Finance Authority - Enterprise Energy Fund (Grant)
C.30.2 Local Option - Energy Efficiency & Clean Energy Districts
C.30.3 Local Option - Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy
C.30.4 Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Business Loan
C.30.5 Renewable Energy Rebate Program
C.31 New Jersey
C.31.1 Assessment of Farmland Hosting Renewable Energy Systems
C.31.2 Edison Innovation Clean Energy Manufacturing Fund - Grants and Loans
C.31.3 Grid-Connected Renewables Program
C.31.4 New Jersey Renewable Energy Incentive Program
C.31.5 Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems
C.31.6 Wind Manufacturing Tax Credit
C.32 New Mexico
C.32.1 Alternative Energy Product Manufacturers Tax Credit
C.32.2 El Paso Electric Company - Small and Medium System Renewable Energy Certificate Purchase Program
C.32.3 Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Bond Program
C.32.4 Gross Receipts Tax Exemption for Sales of Wind and Solar Systems to Government Entities
C.32.5 Local Option - Renewable Energy Financing District/Solar Energy Improvement Special Assessments
C.32.6 Renewable Energy Production Tax Credit
C.32.7 Sustainable Building Tax Credit
C.33 New York
C.33.1 Local Option - Municipal Sustainable Energy Programs
C.33.2 Energy Waste Improvement Districts
C.33.3 Energy Conservation Improvements Property Tax Exemption

C.33.4 Local Option - Solar, Wind & Biomass Energy Systems Exemption
C.33.5 Long Island Power Authority - Wind Energy Rebate Program
C.33.6 NYSERDA - Clean Energy Business Growth and Development
C.33.7 NYSERDA - Green Residential Building Program
C.33.8 NYSERDA - On-Site Small Wind Incentive Program
C.33.9 NYSERDA - Renewable, Clean Energy, and Energy Efficient Product Manufacturing Incentive Program
C.34 North Carolina
C.34.1 Asheville - Building Permit Fee Waiver
C.34.2 Duke Energy - Standard Purchase Offer for RECs
C.34.3 Energy Improvement Loan Program (EILP)
C.34.4 Local Option - Financing Program for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency
C.34.5 Local Option - Green Building Incentives
C.34.6 NC GreenPower Production Incentive
C.34.7 North Carolina Green Business Fund
C.34.8 PSNC Energy (Gas) - Green Building Rate Discount
C.34.9 Renewable Energy Equipment Manufacturer Tax Credit
C.34.10 Renewable Energy Tax Credit
C.35 North Dakota
C.35.1 Large Wind Property Tax Reduction
C.35.2 Renewable Energy Property Tax Exemption
C.35.3 Renewable Energy Tax Credit
C.36 Ohio
C.36.1 Cincinnati - Property Tax Abatement for Green Buildings
C.36.2 City of Cleveland - Residential Property Tax Abatement for Green Buildings
C.36.3 Energy Conservation for Ohioans (ECO-Link) Program
C.36.4 Energy Conversion Facilities Sales Tax Exemption
C.36.5 Hamilton County - Home Improvement Program
C.36.6 Local Option - Municipal Alternative Energy Revolving Loan Program
C.36.7 Local Option - Special Energy Improvement Districts
C.36.8 Ohio Job Stimulus Plan (Advanced Energy Program)
C.36.9 Qualified Energy Property Tax Exemption for Projects 250 kW or Less
C.36.10 Qualified Energy Property Tax Exemption for Projects over 250 kW (Payment in Lieu)
C.36.11 Tax Incentives for Improving Air Quality in Ohio (Ohio Air Quality Development Authority)
C.37 Oklahoma
C.37.1 Community Energy Education Management Program
C.37.2 Energy Loan Fund for Schools
C.37.3 Higher Education Energy Loan Program
C.37.4 Tax Credit for Manufacturers of Small Wind Turbines
C.37.5 Zero-Emission Facilities Production Tax Credit
C.38 Oregon
C.38.1 Business Energy Tax Credit
C.38.2 Community Renewable Energy Feasibility Fund Program
C.38.3 Energy Trust - Community Wind Incentive Program
C.38.4 Energy Trust - Small Wind Incentive Program
C.38.5 Renewable Energy Systems Exemption
C.38.6 Residential Energy Tax Credit
C.38.7 Small-Scale Energy Loan Program
C.38.8 Tax Credit for Renewable Energy Equipment Manufacturers
C.39 Pennsylvania
C.39.1 DCED - Alternative and Clean Energy Program
C.39.2 DCED - High Performance Building Incentives Program
C.39.3 DCED - Wind and Geothermal Incentives Program
C.39.4 High Performance Green Schools Planning Grants
C.39.5 Metropolitan Edison Company SEF Grants (FirstEnergy Territory)
C.39.6 Penelec SEF of the Community Foundation for the Alleghenies Grant Program (FirstEnergy Territory)
C.39.7 Pennsylvania Energy Development Authority (PEDA) - Grants
C.39.8 Pennsylvania Green Energy Loan Fund
C.39.9 PPL Electric Utilities - LEED Certification Partnership Program
C.39.10 Property Tax Assessment for Commercial Wind Farms
C.39.11 Small Business Advantage Grant Program
C.39.12 Sustainable Development Fund Financing Program (PECO Territory)
C.39.13 Sustainable Energy Fund (SEF) Loan Program (PPL Territory)
C.39.14 West Penn Power SEF Commercial Loan Program
C.40 Puerto Rico
C.40.1 Economic Development Incentives for Renewables
C.40.2 Excise Tax Exemption for Farmers
C.40.3 Property Tax Exemption for Solar and Renewable Energy Equipment
C.40.4 Sales and Use Tax Exemption for Green Energy
C.40.5 State Energy Program - Agricultural Renewable Energy Rebate Program
C.40.6 State Energy Program - Wind Energy Rebate Program
C.40.7 Tax Deduction for Solar and Wind Energy Systems
C.41 Rhode Island
C.41.1 Local Option - Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems
C.41.2 Renewable Energy Sales Tax Exemption
C.41.3 Residential Renewable Energy Tax Credit
C.41.4 RIEDC - Renewable Energy Fund Grants
C.42 South Carolina
C.42.1 Duke Energy - Standard Purchase Offer for RECs
C.42.2 Palmetto Clean Energy (PaCE) Program
C.42.3 Santee Cooper - Renewable Energy Resource Loans
C.43 South Dakota
C.43.1 Large Commercial Wind Exemption and Alternative Taxes
C.43.2 Renewable Energy System Exemption
C.43.3 Small Commercial Wind Energy Property Tax Assessment
C.43.4 Wind and Transmission Construction Tax Refund
C.44 Tennessee

C.44.1 Sales and Use Tax Credit for Emerging Clean Energy Industry
C.44.2 Wind Energy Systems Exemption

C.45 Texas
C.45.1 Department of Rural Affairs - Renewable Energy Demonstration Pilot Program
C.45.2 Guadalupe Valley Electric Cooperative - Renewable Energy Rebates
C.45.3 LoanSTAR Revolving Loan Program
C.45.4 Renewable Energy Systems Property Tax Exemption
C.45.5 Solar and Wind Energy Business Franchise Tax Exemption
C.45.6 Solar and Wind Energy Device Franchise Tax Deduction
C.46 Utah
C.46.1 Alternative Energy Development Incentive
C.46.2 City of St. George - Solar and Wind Rebate Program
C.46.3 Renewable Energy Sales Tax Exemption
C.46.4 Renewable Energy Systems Tax Credit
C.47 Vermont
C.47.1 Clean Energy Development Fund (CEDF) Loan Program

C.47.2 Local Option - Clean Energy Finance Districts
C.47.3 Local Option - Property Tax Exemption
C.47.4 Renewable Energy Systems Sales Tax Exemption
C.47.5 Vermont Small-Scale Renewable Energy Incentive Program
C.47.6 Vermont Standard Offer for Qualifying SPEED Resources
C.48 Virgin Islands
C.48.1 U.S. Virgin Islands - Discretionary Grant Program
C.48.2 U.S. Virgin Islands - Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Rebate Program
C.49 Virginia
C.49.1 Arlington County - Green Building Incentive Program
C.49.2 Commonwealth's Energy Leasing Program
C.49.3 Green Jobs Tax Credit
C.50 Washington
C.50.1 Avista Utilities (Electric) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Incentives Program
C.50.2 Chelan County PUD - Sustainable Natural Alternative Power Producers Program
C.50.3 King County - Commercial Green Building Grants Program
C.50.4 Okanogan County PUD - Sustainable Natural Alternative Power Program
C.50.5 Orcas Power & Light - Production Incentive
C.50.6 Renewable Energy Sales and Use Tax Exemption
C.50.7 Seattle - Density Bonus for Green Buildings
C.50.8 Washington Renewable Energy Production Incentives
C.51 West Virginia
C.51.1 Special Assessment for Wind Energy Systems
C.51.2 Tax Exemption for Wind Energy Generation
C.52 Wisconsin
C.52.1 Clean Energy Business Loan Program
C.52.2 Focus on Energy - Renewable Energy Grant Programs
C.52.3 Focus on Energy - Renewable Energy Incentives
C.52.4 Renewable Energy Sales Tax Exemptions
C.52.5 River Falls Municipal Utilities - Renewable Energy Finance Program
C.52.6 Solar and Wind Energy Equipment Exemption
C.52.7 We Energies - Direct Financial Incentives for Renewable Energy Projects
C.52.8 Xcel Energy - Renewable Energy Buy-Back Rates
C.53 Wyoming
C.53.1 Powder River Energy Corporation - Renewable Energy Loan Program
C.53.2 Renewable Energy Sales Tax Exemption

D. Federal Financial Incentives for Renewable Energy
D.1 Energy-Efficient Commercial Buildings Tax Deduction
D.2 Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS) + Bonus Depreciation (2008-2012)
D.3 Residential Energy Conservation Subsidy Exclusion (Corporate)
D.4 Business Energy Investment Tax Credit (ITC)
D.5 Energy-Efficient New Homes Tax Credit for Home Builders
D.6 Renewable Electricity Production Tax Credit (PTC)
D.7 Tribal Energy Program Grant
D.8 U.S. Department of Treasury - Renewable Energy Grants
D.9 USDA - High Energy Cost Grant Program
D.10 USDA - Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Grants
D.11 Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (CREBs)
D.12 Energy-Efficient Mortgages
D.13 Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs)
D.14 U.S. Department of Energy - Loan Guarantee Program
D.15 Energy-Efficient Appliance Manufacturing Tax Credit
D.16 Renewable Energy Production Incentive (REPI)
D.17 Residential Energy Efficiency Tax Credit
D.18 Residential Renewable Energy Tax Credit

E. Renewable Energy Regulations and Policies by State
E.1 Alaska
E.1.1 Net Metering
E.2 Arizona
E.2.1 Net Metering
E.2.2 Chandler - Green Building Requirement for City Buildings
E.2.3 Interconnection Guidelines
E.2.4 Renewable Energy and Green Building Standards in New State Buildings
E.2.5 Renewable Energy Standard
E.2.6 Scottsdale - Green Building Policy for Public Buildings
E.2.7 Solar & Wind Equipment Certification
E.2.8 SRP - Net Metering

E.3 Arkansas
E.3.1 Arkansas - Net Metering
E.3.2 Green Building Standards for State Facilities
E.3.3 Interconnection Guidelines
E.4 California
E.4.1 Green Building Action Plan for State Facilities
E.4.2 Berkeley - Green Building Standards for City Owned and Operated Projects
E.4.3 California - County Wind Ordinance Standards
E.4.4 California - Net Metering
E.4.5 City of Palo Alto - Green Building Requirement

E.4.6 Interconnection Standards
E.4.7 Marin County - Green Building Requirements
E.4.8 Public Benefits Funds for Renewables & Efficiency
E.4.9 Renewables Portfolio Standard
E.5 Colorado
E.5.1 Boulder - ClimateSmart Solar Grant Program
E.5.2 Boulder County - EnergySmart Residential Energy Efficiency Loan Program
E.5.3 Boulder County - EnergySmart Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program
E.5.4 City of Aurora – Main Street Commercial Energy Efficiency & Conservation Rebate Program
E.5.5 City of Aurora – Solar Domestic Water Heater Rebate
E.5.6 City of Aurora – Solar Permit Offset and Energy Audit Rebate
E.5.7 City of Lakewood - DIY Attic Insulation Rebate
E.5.8 City of Lakewood - Solar Permit Fee Rebate
E.5.9 Denver - Small Business Energy Program
E.5.10 Roaring Fork Valley - Energy Efficient Appliance Program
E.5.11 Roaring Fork Valley - Renewable Energy Rebate Program
E.5.12 Local Option - Improvement Districts for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Improvements
E.5.13 Boulder County - ClimateSmart Loan Program
E.5.14 Local Option - Property Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Systems
E.5.15 Property Tax Exemption for Residential Renewable Energy Equipment
E.5.16 Renewable Energy Property Tax Assessment
E.5.17 Boulder - Solar Sales and Use Tax Rebate
E.5.18 Sales and Use Tax Exemption for Renewable Energy Equipment
E.5.19 New Energy Economic Development Grant Program
E.5.20 Direct Lending Revolving Loan Program
E.5.21 Colorado - Commercial Renewable Energy Rebate Program
E.5.22 Colorado - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program
E.5.23 Colorado - Residential Renewable Energy Rebate Program
E.5.24 Holy Cross Energy - Commercial and Industrial Grant Program
E.5.25 Longmont Power & Communications - Residential Energy Efficiency Grant Program
E.5.26 Colorado Springs Utilities – Home Improvement Financing
E.5.27 Fort Collins Utilities - ZILCH (Zero Interest Loans for Conservation Help) Program
E.5.28 Atmos Energy - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program
E.5.29 Black Hills Energy (Electric) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Program
E.5.30 Black Hills Energy (Electric) - Residential Efficiency Program for Builders
E.5.31 Black Hills Energy - On-Site Solar PV Rebate Program
E.5.32 City of Aspen - Energy Assessment Rebate Program
E.5.33 Colorado Natural Gas - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program
E.5.34 Colorado Springs Utilities - Energy Efficient Builder Program
E.5.35 Colorado Springs Utilities - Renewable Energy Rebate Program
E.5.36 Delta-Montrose Electric Association - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program
E.5.37 Empire Electric Association - Energy Efficiency Credit Program
E.5.38 Estes Park Light and Power Department - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program
E.5.39 Fort Collins Utilities - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program
E.5.40 Fort Collins Utilities - Home Efficiency Program
E.5.41 Fort Collins Utilities - Residential and Small Commercial Appliance Rebate Program
E.5.42 Gunnison County Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program
E.5.43 Highline Electric Association - Renewable Energy Rebate Program
E.5.44 Holy Cross Energy - Appliance Rebate
E.5.45 Holy Cross Energy - WE CARE Rebates
E.5.46 La Plata Electric Association - Energy Efficient Equipment Rebate Program
E.5.47 La Plata Electric Association - Renewable Generation Rebate Program
E.5.48 Longmont Power & Communications - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program
E.5.49 Longmont Power & Communications - Residential and Commercial Appliance Rebate Program
E.5.50 Loveland Water & Power - Refrigerator Recycling Program
E.5.51 Mountain View Electric Association, Inc - Energy Efficiency Credit Program
E.5.52 Poudre Valley REA - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program
E.5.53 Poudre Valley REA - Photovoltaic Rebate Program
E.5.54 San Miguel Power Association - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program
E.5.55 San Miguel Power Association - Renewable Energy Rebate Program
E.5.56 Sangre De Cristo Electric Association - Energy Efficiency Credit Program
E.5.57 SourceGas - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program
E.5.58 Southeast Colorado Power Association - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program
E.5.59 Southeast Colorado Power Association - Renewable Energy Rebate
E.5.60 United Power - Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

E.5.61 United Power - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program
E.5.62 United Power - Renewable Energy Rebate Program
E.5.62 Xcel Energy (Electric) - Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs
E.5.63 Xcel Energy - Residential ENERGY STAR Rebate Program
E.5.64 Xcel Energy - Solar*Rewards Program
E.6 Connecticut
E.6.1 Connecticut - Green Power Purchase Plan
E.6.2 Connecticut - Net Metering
E.6.3 Connecticut Building Energy Code with Green Building Provisions
E.6.4 Connecticut Municipalities - SmartPower 20% by 2010 Campaign
E.6.5 Green Building Standards for State Facilities
E.6.6 Interconnection Standards
E.6.7 Renewables Portfolio Standard
E.6.8 Solar and Wind Contractor Licensing
E.7 Delaware
E.7.1 Delaware - Net Metering
E.7.2 Delaware Electric Cooperative - Green Energy Fund
E.7.3 DEMEC - Green Energy Fund
E.7.4 Energy Conservation Standards for State Facilities
E.7.5 Green Energy Fund
E.7.6 Interconnection Guidelines
E.7.7 Renewables Portfolio Standard
E.7.8 Wind Access and Permitting Law
E.8 District of Columbia
E.8.1 District of Columbia - Net Metering
E.8.2 Green Building Requirement
E.8.3 Interconnection Standards
E.8.4 Renewables Portfolio Standard
E.8.5 Sustainable Energy Trust Fund
E.9 Florida
E.9.1 Florida - Net Metering
E.9.2 Interconnection Standards
E.9.3 JEA - Clean Power Program
E.9.4 Renewable Energy Easements & Rights Laws
E.10 Georgia
E.10.1 Atlanta - Sustainable Development Design Standards
E.10.2 Chamblee - LEED Requirement for Public and Commercial Buildings
E.10.3 Georgia - Net Metering
E.10.4 Interconnection Guidelines
E.11 Hawaii
E.11.1 Hawaii - Net Metering
E.11.2 Interconnection Standards
E.11.3 Renewable Portfolio Standard
E.11.4 Renewables and Efficiency in State Facilities & Operations
E.12 Idaho
E.12.1 Avista Utilities - Net Metering
E.12.2 Idaho Power - Net Metering
E.12.3 Rocky Mountain Power - Net Metering
E.13 Illinois
E.13.1 Chicago - Green Power Purchasing
E.13.2 Energy Efficiency in State Government
E.13.3 Illinois - Interconnection Standards
E.13.4 Illinois - Net Metering
E.13.5 Renewable Energy Resources Trust Fund
E.13.6 Renewable Portfolio Standard
E.13.7 Statewide Renewable Energy Setback Standards
E.14 Indiana
E.14.1 Bloomington - Green Building Requirements for Municipal Buildings
E.14.2 Energy Efficient State Building Initiative
E.14.3 Indiana - Net Metering
E.14.4 Interconnection Standards
E.15 Iowa
E.15.1 Alternative Energy Law (AEL)
E.15.2 Interconnection Standards
E.15.3 Iowa - Net Metering
E.15.4 Mandatory Utility Green Power Option
E.16 Kansas
E.16.1 Greensburg - Green Building Requirement for New Municipal Buildings
E.16.2 Interconnection Guidelines
E.16.3 Kansas - Net Metering
E.16.4 Renewables Portfolio Standard
E.17 Louisiana
E.17.1 City of New Orleans - Net Metering
E.17.2 Interconnection Guidelines
E.17.3 Louisiana - Net Metering
E.17.4 Renewable Energy Pilot Program
E.18 Maine
E.18.1 Efficiency Maine Trust - Renewable Resource Fund
E.18.2 Energy-Efficient Building Standards for State Facilities
E.18.3 Interconnection Standards
E.18.4 Maine - Green Power Purchasing
E.18.5 Maine - Net Energy Billing
E.18.6 Maine Model Wind Energy Facility Ordinance
E.18.7 Mandatory Utility Green Power Option
E.18.8 Renewables Portfolio Standard
E.19 Maryland
E.19.1 Energy Conservation in State Buildings
E.19.2 Interconnection Standards
E.19.3 Maryland - Clean Energy Procurement
E.19.4 Maryland - Net Metering
E.19.5 Montgomery County - Green Power Purchasing
E.19.6 Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard
E.20 Massachusetts
E.20.1 Boston - Green Power Purchasing
E.20.2 Energy Reduction Plan for State Buildings
E.20.3 Interconnection Standards
E.20.4 Massachusetts - Green Power Purchasing Commitment
E.20.5 Massachusetts - Net Metering
E.20.6 Model As-of Right Zoning Ordinance or Bylaw: Allowing Use of Wind Energy Facilities
E.20.7 Renewable Energy Trust Fund
E.20.8 Renewable Portfolio Standard
E.21 Michigan
E.21.1 Energy Efficiency in State Buildings
E.21.2 Grand Rapids - Green Building Requirements for Municipal Buildings
E.21.3 Grand Rapids - Green Power Purchasing Policy
E.21.4 Interconnection Standards
E.21.5 Low-Income and Energy Efficiency Fund (LIEEF)
E.21.6 Michigan - Net Metering
E.21.7 Model Ordinance for Wind Energy Systems
E.21.8 Renewable Energy Standard
E.22 Minnesota
E.22.1 Community-Based Energy Development (C-BED) Tariff
E.22.2 Interconnection Standards
E.22.3 Minnesota - Net Metering
E.22.4 Renewable Development Fund (RDF)
E.22.5 Renewables Portfolio Standard
E.22.6 Solar and Wind Easements & Local Option Rights Laws
E.22.7 Sustainable Building Guidelines for New State Construction and Renovations
E.22.8 Xcel Energy Wind and Biomass Generation Mandate
E.23 Missouri
E.23.1 Columbia - Renewables Portfolio Standard
E.23.2 Interconnection Guidelines
E.23.3 Life-Cycle Analysis and Energy Efficiency in State Buildings
E.23.4 Missouri - Net Metering
E.23.5 Renewable Electricity Standard
E.24 Montana
E.24.1 Interconnection Guidelines
E.24.2 Mandatory Utility Green Power Option
E.24.3 Montana - Net Metering
E.24.4 Montana Electric Cooperatives - Net Metering
E.24.5 Renewable Resource Standard
E.24.6 Solar and Wind Easements
E.24.7 Universal System Benefits Program
E.25 Nebraska
E.25.1 Interconnection Guidelines
E.25.2 Nebraska - Net Metering
E.25.3 Solar and Wind Easements
E.26 Nevada
E.26.1 Energy Portfolio Standard
E.26.2 Interconnection Standards
E.26.3 Nevada - Net Metering
E.26.4 Nevada State Energy Reduction Plan
E.26.5 Valley Electric Association - Net Metering
E.26.6 Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws
E.27 New Hampshire
E.27.1 Interconnection Standards
E.27.2 New Hampshire - Net Metering
E.27.3 New Hampshire - Standards for Municipal Small Wind Regulations and Small Wind Model Wind Ordinance
E.27.4 Renewables Portfolio Standard
E.28 New Jersey
E.28.1 High Performance Building Standards in New State Construction
E.28.2 High Performance Schools Policy
E.28.3 Interconnection Standards

E.28.4 New Jersey - Net Metering
E.28.5 Renewables Portfolio Standard
E.28.6 Societal Benefits Charge
E.28.7 Solar and Wind Permitting Laws
E.29 New Mexico
E.29.1 Albuquerque - Green Power Purchasing
E.29.2 Farmington Electric Utility System - Net Metering
E.29.3 Interconnection Standards
E.29.4 Mandatory Utility Green Power Option
E.29.5 New Mexico - Net Metering
E.29.6 Renewables Portfolio Standard
E.30 New York
E.30.1 Energy Efficiency Standards for State Facilities
E.30.2 Guidance for Local Wind Energy Ordinances
E.30.3 Interconnection Standards
E.30.4 Long Island Power Authority - Net Metering
E.30.5 Long Island Power Authority - Renewable Electricity Goal
E.30.6 New York - Net Metering
E.30.7 New York - Renewable Power Procurement Policy
E.30.8 New York City - Green Building Requirements for Municipal Buildings

E.30.9 Renewable Portfolio Standard
E.30.10 Suffolk County - Green Power Purchasing Policy
E.30.11 System Benefits Charge
E.31 North Carolina
E.31.1 North Carolina Model Wind Ordinance
E.31.2 Ashe County - Wind Energy System Ordinance
E.31.3 Asheville - Efficiency Standards for City Buildings
E.31.4 Camden County - Wind Energy Systems Ordinance
E.31.5 Carteret County - Wind Energy System Ordinance
E.31.6 Currituck County - Wind Energy Systems Ordinance
E.31.7 Durham County - High-Performance Building Policy
E.31.8 Hyde County - Wind Energy Facility Ordinance
E.31.9 Interconnection Standards
E.31.10 Kill Devil Hills - Wind Energy Systems Ordinance
E.31.11 Madison County - Wind Energy Systems Ordinance
E.31.12 North Carolina - Net Metering
E.31.13 Pitt County - Wind Energy Systems Ordinance
E.31.14 Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard
E.31.15 Tyrrell County - Wind Energy Facility Ordinance
E.31.16 Watauga County - Wind Energy System Ordinance
E.32 North Dakota
E.32.1 North Dakota - Net Metering
E.32.2 Renewable and Recycled Energy Objective
E.32.3 Wind Easements
E.33 Ohio
E.33.1 Alternative Energy Resource Standard
E.33.2 Interconnection Standards
E.33.3 Ohio - Net Metering
E.34 Oklahoma

E.34.1 High Performance Building Standards in State Buildings
E.34.2 Oklahoma - Net Metering
E.34.3 Renewable Energy Goal
E.34.4 Requirements for Wind Development
E.35 Oregon
E.35.1 Ashland Electric - Net Metering
E.35.2 Energy Trust of Oregon
E.35.3 Interconnection Standards
E.35.4 Mandatory Utility Green Power Option
E.35.5 Model Ordinance for Renewable Energy Projects
E.35.6 Oregon - Net Metering
E.35.7 Portland - Green Building Policy and LEED Certification
E.35.8 Renewable Energy Contractor Licensing
E.35.9 Renewable Portfolio Standard
E.35.10 Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights Law
E.36 Pennsylvania
E.36.1 Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard
E.36.2 Interconnection Standards
E.36.3 Model Wind Ordinance for Local Governments
E.36.4 Montgomery County - Wind Power Purchasing
E.36.5 Pennsylvania - Green Power Purchasing
E.36.6 Pennsylvania - Net Metering
E.36.7 Philadelphia - Green Power Purchasing
E.36.8 Public Benefits Programs
E.37 Puerto Rico
E.37.1 Puerto Rico - Interconnection Standards
E.37.2 Puerto Rico - Net Metering
E.37.3 Puerto Rico - Renewable Energy Equipment Certification
E.37.4 Puerto Rico - Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard
E.37.5 Puerto Rico - Solar and Wind Contractor Certification
E.38 Rhode Island
E.38.1 Green Building Standards for State Facilities
E.38.2 Renewable Energy Standard
E.38.3 Rhode Island - Net Metering
E.38.4 Rhode Island Renewable Energy Fund (RIREF)
E.39 South Carolina
E.39.1 Duke Energy - Net Metering
E.39.2 Interconnection Guidelines
E.39.3 Progress Energy - Net Metering
E.40 South Dakota
E.40.1 High-Performance Building Requirements for State Buildings
E.40.2 Interconnection Standards
E.40.3 Model Ordinance for Siting of Wind-Energy Systems
E.40.4 Renewable, Recycled and Conserved Energy Objective
E.40.5 Wind Easements
E.41 Texas
E.41.1 Alternative Energy in New State Construction
E.41.2 Austin - Commercial and Residential Green Building Requirements
E.41.3 Austin - Green Building Requirement for City Projects
E.41.4 Austin - Green Power Purchasing
E.41.5 Austin - Renewables Portfolio Standard
E.41.6 Austin Energy - Net Metering
E.41.7 City of Brenham - Net Metering
E.41.8 Dallas - Green Building Requirements for Municipal Buildings
E.41.9 Dallas - Green Energy Purchasing
E.41.10 Green Mountain Energy Renewable Rewards Program
E.41.11 Houston - Green Building Requirements for New Municipal Structures
E.41.12 Houston - Green Power Purchasing
E.41.13 Interconnection Standards
E.41.14 Mandatory Renewable Energy Educational Materials
E.41.15 Plano - LEED Standard for Public Buildings
E.41.16 Renewable Generation Requirement
E.41.17 San Antonio City Public Service (CPS Energy) - Renewables Portfolio Goal
E.42 Utah
E.42.1 City of St. George - Net Metering
E.42.2 Interconnection Standards
E.42.3 Murray City Power - Net Metering Pilot Program
E.42.4 Renewables Portfolio Goal
E.42.5 Salt Lake City - Green Power Purchasing
E.42.6 Salt Lake City - High Performance Buildings Requirement
E.42.7 Utah - Net Metering
E.42.7 Washington City Power - Net Metering

E.43 Vermont
E.43.1 Clean Energy Development Fund (CEDF)
E.43.2 Interconnection Standards
E.43.3 Line Extension Alternatives
E.43.4 Renewable Energy Rights
E.43.5 Sustainably Priced Energy Enterprise Development (SPEED) Goals
E.43.6 Vermont - Net Metering
E.44 Virgin Islands
E.44.1 U.S. Virgin Islands - Net Metering
E.44.2 U.S. Virgin Islands - Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws
E.45 Virginia
E.45.1 Fairfax County - Green Power Purchase
E.45.2 Interconnection Standards
E.45.3 Mandatory Utility Green Power Option
E.45.4 Rockingham County - Small Wind Ordinance
E.45.5 State Buildings Energy Reduction Plan
E.45.6 Virginia - Net Metering
E.45.7 Voluntary Renewable Energy Portfolio Goal
E.46 Washington
E.46.1 Clark County - Green Power Purchasing
E.46.2 Grays Harbor PUD - Net Metering
E.46.3 Green Building and Energy Reduction Standards for State Agencies
E.46.4 Interconnection Standards
E.46.5 Mandatory Utility Green Power Option
E.46.6 Renewable Energy Standard
E.46.7 Seattle - Sustainable Building Policy
E.46.8 Washington - Net Metering
E.47 West Virginia
E.47.1 Alternative and Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard
E.47.2 Interconnection Standards
E.47.3 West Virginia - Net Metering
E.48 Wisconsin
E.48.1 Energy Efficiency and Green Building Standards for State Buildings
E.48.2 Focus on Energy Program
E.48.3 Interconnection Standards
E.48.4 Madison - Green Power Purchasing
E.48.5 Madison - Solar & Wind Access and Planning Laws
E.48.6 Net Metering
E.48.7 Renewable Portfolio Standard
E.48.8 Solar and Wind Rights
E.48.9 Wisconsin - Green Power Purchasing
E.48.10 Wisconsin - Wind Siting Rules and Model Small Wind Ordinance
E.49 Wyoming
E.49.1 Interconnection Guidelines
E.49.2 Wyoming - Net Metering
E.49.3 Wyoming Wind Energy Permitting Law

F. Federal Regulations and Policies for Renewable Energy
F.1 Federal Appliance Standards
F.2 Energy Goals and Standards for Federal Government
F.3 U.S. Federal Government - Green Power Purchasing Goal
F.4 Interconnection Standards for Small Generators

Section 15: Outlook for the US Renewable Energy Industry

A. Government and Institutional Outlook
A.1 Energy Information Administration
A.2 National Renewable Energy Laboratory
A.3 Electric Power Research Institute
A.4 Western Governor's Association
A.5 University of California at Berkeley

B. Outlook by Industry Trade Associations
B.1 American Wind Energy Association
B.2 Solar Energy Industries Association
B.3 National Hydropower Association and Ocean Energy Council
B.4 Geothermal Energy Association
B.5 Biomass Coordinating Council and U.S. Combined Heat & Power Association
B.6 Renewable Fuels Association

C. Outlook for the Investing Potential of the Industry

D. Outlook for Technological Innovation
D.1 Bioenergy
D.2 Geothermal Power
D.3 Hydrogen Power
D.4 Solar Power
D.5 Wind Power

E. Long-Term Energy Projections

F. Sustainable Electric Generation Portfolio through Renewables

G. Wind Power Market Outlook

H. Solar Power Market Outlook
H.1 Photovoltaics (PV)
H.2 Concentrating Solar Power
H.3 Solar Water Heating
H.4 Regulatory Requirements to Boost the Solar Power Industry
H.4.1 67% Growth Scenario
H.4.2 40% Growth Scenario

I. Hydropower Market Outlook

J. Geothermal Energy Market Outlook
J.1 Regulatory Requirements to Boost the Geothermal Energy Industry

K. Biomass Market Outlook

L. Biodiesel Market Outlook

M. Future of the Ethanol Industry

N. Future of the U.S. Energy Industry

O. Future Prospects for Renewable Energy

P. U.S.' 25x'25 Vision

Section 16: Conclusion

A. Appendix
A.1 US Energy Industry: SWOT Framework Analysis
A.1.1 Strengths to Build Upon
A.1.2 Weaknesses to Overcome
A.1.3 Opportunities to Exploit
A.1.4 Threats to Overcome
A.2 US Energy Industry: PEST Framework Analysis
A.2.1 Political Aspects
A.2.2 Economic Aspects
A.2.3 Social Aspects
A.2.4 Technological Aspects
A.3 US Energy Industry: Porter's Five Forces Strategy Analysis
A.3.1 Bargaining Power of Buyers
A.3.2 Bargaining Power of Suppliers
A.3.3 Competitive Rivalry in the Industry

A.3.4 Threat of New Entrants
A.3.5 Threat of Substitutes
A.3.6 Conclusion

B. Glossary of Terms

List of Figures

Figure 1: Proved Reserves of Oil at end of 2011
Figure 2: Proved Reserves of Natural Gas at 2011 (Trillion Cubic Meters)
Figure 3: Control over Production of Remaining Commercial Reserves of Natural Gas
Figure 4: Proved Reserves of Coal at end of 2011
Figure 5: Global Energy Consumption Forecast (2003-2030)
Figure 6: Global Energy Consumption Forecast by Fuel Type (1980-2030)
Figure 7: US Capacity and Generation from all Renewable Sources, 2000-2011
Figure 8: Renewable Electricity Generating Capacity in the US by Source, 2000-2011
Figure 9: Annual Installed Renewable Electric Capacity Growth in the US, 2001-2011
Figure 10: US Renewable Electricity Generation, 2000-2011
Figure 11: U.S. Renewable Electricity Generation by Sources, 2000-2011
Figure 12: Cost-competitiveness of Selected Renewable Power Technologies
Figure 13: US Power Supply (April 2012 - April 2013)
Figure 14: US Natural Gas Production and Imports to 2030
Figure 15: Top States for Renewable Electricity Installed Capacity (2011)
Figure 16: Renewable Electricity Installed Capacity in US Northeast (MW) (2011)
Figure 17: Renewable Electricity Installed Capacity in US Midwest (MW) (2011)
Figure 18: Renewable Electricity Installed Capacity in US South (MW) (2011)
Figure 19: Renewable Electricity Installed Capacity in US West (MW) (2011)
Figure 20: Evolution of the US Commercial Wind Technology
Figure 21: Three Evolution Pathways for Wind Technology Development
Figure 22: US Wind Supply Curve, no Transmission Cost (with PTC)
Figure 23: Wind Energy Supply Curve, Including Transmission Costs (2005 Costs and Performance, with PTC)
Figure 24: Wind Resource, Transmission, and Load Centers in the US
Figure 25: US Total Installed Wind Electricity Capacity and Generation, 2000-2011
Figure 26: Wind Power Capacity Growth, 2001-Q1 2013
Figure 27: Wind Power Capacity Installations by State in the US, Q1, 2013
Figure 28: Growth Projection for the US Wind & Solar Industries
Figure 29: Wind Power Capacity in the US (in MW), 2000-2011
Figure 30: Annual Wind Power Installed in the US (in MW), 2000-2011
Figure 31: Supply Curve for Wind Energy - Current Bus-Bar Energy Costs
Figure 32: Supply Curve for Wind Energy - Energy Costs Including Connection to 10% of Existing Transmission Grid Capacity
Figure 33: 46 States with Substantial Wind Development by 2030
Figure 34: New Electrical Generation Including Wind Energy would require Expansion of US Transmission by 2030
Figure 35: Conceptual Transmission Plan to Accommodate 400 GW of Wind Energy
Figure 36: US Electrical Energy Mix
Figure 37: US Wind Turbine Market Share, 2011
Figure 38: Annual US Wind Turbine Installations, by Manufacturer (MW), 2005-2011
Figure 39: Average Installed Turbine Size in the US
Figure 40: Cost of Wind Energy Varying with Wind Speed and Rate of Return on Capital
Figure 41: Wind Power Turbine Sizes
Figure 42: Basic Parts of a Traditional, Horizontal-Axis Small Wind System
Figure 43: Vertical Axis Turbine
Figure 44: Skystream 1.8kW Turbine Dual-Use on Lamppost
Figure 45: Top Venture Capital Clean-Tech Sectors
Figure 46: State Policies and Incentives
Figure 47: US Residential Electricity Price Trends
Figure 48: Microgrid of University of Salerno Campus
Figure 49: Control Panel
Figure 50: Active Power vs. Wind Speed
Figure 51: Active Power vs. Rotor Speed
Figure 52: Phase Grid Voltage
Figure 53: Phase Current Injected into the Grid
Figure 54: Wind Resources in Arizona
Figure 55: California Wind Generation in 2011
Figure 56: Colorado Wind Generation Capacity by Year (MW), 2001-2011
Figure 57: Colorado Wind Generation in 2011
Figure 58: Illinois Wind Generation Capacity by Year (MW), 2003-2012
Figure 59: Illinois Wind Generation in 2011
Figure 60: Wind Resources in Indiana
Figure 61: Iowa Wind Generation in 2012
Figure 62: Wind Resources in Kansas
Figure 63: Wind Generation in Kansas in 2011
Figure 64: Maine Wind Generation in 2011
Figure 65: Minnesota Wind Generation in 2011
Figure 66: Wind Resources in Ohio
Figure 67: Blue Sky Green Field Wind Farm
Figure 68: Brazos Wind Ranch
Figure 69: Desert Sky Wind Farm
Figure 70: Dutch Hill/Cohocton Wind Farm
Figure 71: Fenton Wind Farm
Figure 72: Forward Wind Energy Center
Figure 73: Kibby Wind Power Project
Figure 74: Turbines at Wild Horse
Figure 75: PV Solar Radiation in the US
Figure 76: US Total Installed Solar Electricity Capacity and Generation, 2000-2011
Figure 77: Solar Electricity Installed Capacity (2011) – Select Countries
Figure 78: Nanotechnology Thin-film Solar Cells Publications by Countries
Figure 79: Location of the Blythe Solar Power Project
Figure 80: Ivanpah Solar Power Facility
Figure 81: Location of the Mojave Solar Park
Figure 82: Panels at the Mojave Solar Park
Figure 83: Nevada Solar One
Figure 84: Sierra SunTower
Figure 85: Location of the Solana Generating Station
Figure 86: Solana Generating Station
Figure 87: Four of the Five SEGS III–VII Plants Located at Kramer Junction
Figure 88: Solar Tres Power Tower
Figure 89: Biomass Cost per Unit Output
Figure 90: Distance Fixed vs. Distance Variable Costs
Figure 91: Pipeline Cost vs. Scale
Figure 92: Comparison of Ethanol Production & Gasoline Consumption in the U.S.
Figure 93: Geography of the U.S. Ethanol Industry
Figure 94: Estimated Corn Requirement to Support RFS Goals Under Current Yields
Figure 95: U.S. Milk Cow Inventories 2009
Figure 96: U.S. Marketings of Cattle on Feed, 2009
Figure 97: Workings of a Fuel Cell
Figure 98: Alkaline Fuel Cell
Figure 99: Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell
Figure 100: PAFC Fuel Cell
Figure 101: Structure of a SOFC Fuel Cell
Figure 102: Global Fuel Cell Market Revenues (in $ billions)
Figure 103: States Producing Geothermal Energy in the US, 2012
Figure 104: Power Generated from Geothermal Resources in the US (GWh), 2002-2022
Figure 105: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power in the US (MW), 2002-2022
Figure 106: Renewable Power Generation in the US by Share of Technologies (%), 2011
Figure 108: Geothermal Temperatures at 6 Kilometer Depth
Figure 109: Recoverable EGS Energy Distribution with Depth
Figure 110: WGA Supply Curve for Geothermal Power Generation, Alternate Cases, LCOE versus Cumulative Generating Capacity
Figure 111: Carbon Emissions Displaced by Geothermal Power
Figure 111: Hydropower Plant
Figure 112: U.S. Electricity Production
Figure 113: Chief Joseph Dam
Figure 114: Grand Coulee Dam
Figure 115: Hoover Dam
Figure 116: John Day Dam
Figure 117: Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant
Figure 118: The Dalles Dam
Figure 119: Local Microgrid
Figure 120: Structure of Operation of DER has Several Interconnections
Figure 121: Microgrid Control Architecture
Figure 122: Frequency and Voltage Control via Droops
Figure 123: Current System
Figure 124: Proposed System
Figure 125: Cost of Electricity Costs and PG&E Rates
Figure 126: Annual Match between Supply and Demand
Figure 127: Monthly Match between Supply and Demand
Figure 128: Hourly Match between Supply and Demand for Representative Days
Figure 129: Peak Load vs. Number of Customers in Microgrid
Figure 130: A Typical Smart Grid with Associated Components
Figure 131: Localized Co-Generation and Storage of Energy for the UCSD Microgrid
Figure 132: Graphic Showing the UCSD Microgrid Increasing Energy Production and Reducing Energy Consumption to Feed Back to the Main Grid during a Power Emergency in San Diego
Figure 133: Breakdown of Energy Usage in the CSE Building at UCSD
Figure 134: Real-time Energy Consumption Map of the UCSD Campus
Figure 135: Wind Power Production (2400 MW Wind Power) and Load in Western Denmark
Figure 136: Impacts of Wind Power on Power Systems, Divided into Different Time Scales
Figure 137: Impact of a smart grid on the need for energy system capacity. Two basic alternatives for the future electric systems: “Fit and forget” and “Integrated DG&DSM/DR”
Figure 138: Examples of some Smart Grid Related Architectures
Figure 139: Comparison of the Concepts Mentioned in the Figure Above
Figure 140: Architecture of a Virtual Power Plant
Figure 141: Existing CHP Capacity by Application
Figure 142: CHP Sites by System Type
Figure 143: CHP Capacity by System Type
Figure 144: Efficiency Advantage in a CHP System
Figure 145: Energy Productivity (Billion Real $ GDP/QBTU)
Figure 146: Schematic of Recuperated Micro-Turbine System
Figure 147: Schematic Layout of a Micro CHP Grid
Figure 148: Remaining Technical CHP Potential
Figure 149: HTCW reactor, one of several proposed waste gasification processes. According to the sales and sales management consultants KBI Group a pilot plant in Arnstadt implementing this process has completed initial tests.
Figure 150: RDF Manufacturing Process Outline. Product is then Compacted or Briquetted for Use
Figure 151: Plant Schematic Showing Major Equipment and Sampling Locations
Figure 152: Top Five Countries in WTE Utilization
Figure 153: Composition of MSW Generated in the United States (2012)
Figure 154: Methods of Managing Solid Waste in the United States
Figure 155: Estimated Recovery Rates of Selected Material Types
Figure 156: Wind generation and system load over a two week period in the Xcel system in Minnesota. Wind provides 1500 MW capacity on a 10000 MW peak capacity system
Figure 157: Power Output of a Turbine Varies with Wind Speed, Turning Off at High Speed to Protect from Damage
Figure 158: Three forecasts for wind power in the Alberta Electric System Operator wind system. Only one of the three predicted the four-hour morning lull, and none predicted the range of variability.
Figure 159: Reduction in the Error of Forecasts Aggregated Over Large Areas
Figure 160: Compressed air energy storage system. Compressed air mixed with natural gas is stored in a geological formation, to be released and ignited to drive a turbine to produce electricity.
Figure 161: Energy Storage Options
Figure 162: Principle of the Flow Battery, where Energy is Stored in Liquid Electrolytes and Recovered as Electricity
Figure 163: Large Separation between Renewable Sources and Demand Centers Requires New Long Distance Transmission Lines
Figure 164: Superconducting Cables made from Tapes Like Those Shown on the Right Carry Up to Five Times the Power of Conventional Copper in the Same Cross Sectional Area
Figure 165: Proposed DC Superconductor Electricity Pipeline for Carrying Large Amounts of Renewable Power Long Distances. Network Provides an Interstate Highway System for Electricity
Figure 166: U.S. Primary Energy Consumption by Fuel, 1960-2030 (quadrillion Btu)
Figure 167: Wind Availability under 20% Wind Energy Vision
Figure 168: Potential Scenario of Wind Supplying 20% of U.S. Electricity
Figure 169: Dollar per Barrel Oil Prices (2004-2006)
Figure 170: Renewable Energy Expected From State Standards

List of Tables

Table 1: Renewable Electricity Nameplate Capacity Added in the US (MW), 2001-2011
Table 2: Renewable Electricity Nameplate Capacity in the US (MW) & % Increase Annually, 2001-2011
Table 3: Renewable Electricity Capacity as a % of Total Electricity Generating Capacity in the US, 2001-2011
Table 4: US Renewable Electricity Generation as a Percent of Total US Generation, 2000-2011
Table 5: Renewable Electricity Generation (Million kWh) & % Increase Annually in the US, 2000-2011
Table 6: Power Generation Costs for Various Energy Sources in 2012
Table 7: Capability to Switch from Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources
Table 8: List of US States Sorted by Renewable Electricity Production (MW-h per year)
Table 9: Renewable Electricity Installed Capacity in US Northeast (MW) (2011)
Table 10: Renewable Electricity Installed Capacity in US Midwest (MW) (2011)
Table 11: Renewable Electricity Installed Capacity in US South (MW) (2011)
Table 12: Renewable Electricity Installed Capacity in US West (MW) (2011)
Table 13: Feed-in Tariffs - Wind & Hydropower in Hawaii
Table 14: Feed-in tariffs - Photovoltaics (PV) & Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) in Hawaii
Table 15: RPS Programs by State
Table 16: Go Solar California Campaign by Program Component, 2007-2016
Table 17: Green Power Community Rankings
Table 18: Classification of Small Wind Turbines
Table 19: Applications for Small Wind Turbines
Table 20: Mandatory Power Quality limits in standard EN 50160
Table 21: Installed Capacity of Wind Power (in MW) in Arizona
Table 22: Wind Power Nameplate Capacity (in MW) for California
Table 23: California Wind Generation (GWh, Million kWh), 2009-2012
Table 24: Wind Power Installed Nameplate Capacity in Colorado
Table 25: Colorado Wind Generation (GWh, Million kWh), 2009-2012
Table 26: Illinois Wind Generation (GWh, Million kWh), 2009-2013 Q1
Table 27: Installed Nameplate Capacity in MW for Indiana
Table 28: Iowa Wind Generation (GWh, Million kWh), 2009-Q1 2013
Table 29: Kansas Wind Generation (GWh, Million kWh), 2009-2012
Table 30: Installed Capacity of Wind Power in Kansas
Table 31: Maine Wind Generation (GWh, Million kWh), 2009-2012
Table 32: Wind Power Installed Nameplate Capacity in MW for Massachusetts, 2000-2011
Table 33: Minnesota Wind Generation (GWh, Million kWh), 2009-2012
Table 34: Montana Wind Generation (GWh, Million kWh), 2009-Q1 2013
Table 35: Wind Power Installed Capacity (MW) in New York
Table 36: New York Wind Generation (GWh, Million kWh), 2009-2012
Table 37: Wind Power Installed Capacity (MW) in Ohio
Table 38: Wind Power Installed Nameplate Capacity (in MW) in Oregon
Table 39: Oregon Wind Generation (GWh, Million kWh), 2009 - Q1 2013
Table 40: Large Wind Farms in Texas
Table 41: Wind Power Capacity (in MW) in Washington
Table 42: Distribution of Solar Energy Produced per Island
Table 43: Efficiencies of Some Biomass Energy Conversion Systems
Table 44: U.S. Fuel Ethanol Capacity as of April 2008 (mmgy)
Table 45: Final Volumes for 2011
Table 46: Final Percentage Standards for 2011
Table 47: Exemption from Motor Fuels Excise Tax for Alcohol Blends
Table 48: Estimated Ethanol Industry Subsidies, 1979-1986
Table 49: Historical Data on Federal Credit Support for Ethanol Production Prior to 1988
Table 50: Subsidy Magnitude and Intensity in 1989 by Fuel
Table 51: Power Generated from Geothermal Resources in the US (GWh), 2002-2022
Table 52: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power in the US (MW), 2002-2022
Table 53: Renewable Power Generation in the US by Share of Technologies (%), 2011
Table 54: State/Federal Renewable Standards
Table 55: Major Geothermal Projects in the US
Table 56: Major Geothermal Projects Under Development in the US (2010-2015)
Table 57: Estimates of U.S. Geothermal Resource Base Total Stored Thermal Energy Content
Table 58: Projected New Hydrothermal Power Capacities in the Western U.S. through 2015
Table 59: Relative Flashed-Steam Power Plant Emissions per Megawatt of Capacity
Table 60: Installed Capacity (in MW) for DG and Renewables
Table 61: Economic Data and Electricity Costs
Table 62: DER Related Solution Options at Different Time Scales
Table 63: Renewable Energy Incentives
Table 64: Business Models
Table 65: Key Restructuring Issues Affecting CHP/DG
Table 66: Heating Values (in Btu/lb.) of Various Fuels and Components of Municipal Solid Waste
Table 67: Typical landfill gas analysis showing concentrations of the contaminants hydrogen sulfide, silicon, nitrogen oxide, chlorine and fluorine in parts per million and milligrams per cubic meter
Table 68: Estimated Number of Solid Waste Management Systems in the United States
Table 69: Power Applications
Table 70: Energy Applications
Table 71: Commercial and Multi-family Residential (income producing, 50+ units)
Table 72: Residential Homes
Table 73: Scenario for Hydropower in the Future
Table 74: Geothermal Contribution by 2025
Table 75: USCHPA Projected Biomass Power Generating Capacity, by Sector (Year 2025)
Table 76: Projected Biomass Power Generation Capacity, by Sector (Year 2025)
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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4 of 4
A2BE Carbon Capture
Abengoa Bioenergy
Abound Solar
Acciona SA
Acumentrics Corporation
Advanced Control Systems
Advanced Telemetry
Aleo Solar
ALF Industries
Allegro Biodiesel Corporation
Altergy Systems
Ambient Corporation
American AgFuels
American Electric Power Company, Inc.
Amonix Incorporated
Antec Solar Energy AG
Applied Solar, Inc
Arcadian Networks
Arch Rock
Archer-Daniels-Midland Company
Ascent Solar Technologies, Inc
ASE Americas, Inc
Astris Energi Inc.
AstroPower Inc
Atlantis Energy Systems
Aventine Renewable Energy
Babcock Power
Ballard Power Systems
Bay Biodiesel LLC
Beacon Power
BEST Energies
Bio Fuel Systems
Biodiesel Systems, LLC
Biotane Fuels
Blue H Group Technologies Ltd
Blue Marble Energy
BlueFire Ethanol
BP Solar
BPL Global
BRI Energy, LLC
Broin Companies
Caithness Corporation
California Fuel Cell Partnership
Calpine Corporation
Calyxo GMBH
Capstone Turbine Corporation
Cellex Power
Ceramic Fuel Cells
China Solar Energy Holdings
Cisco Systems
ClearEdge Power
Clipper Windpower, PLC
Cogeneration Planners, LLC
Colusa Biomass Energy Corporation
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
Control4 Corporation
Cooper Power Systems
Coulomb Technologies
Covanta Energy Corporation
CSG Solar
Current Cost
Current Group
Cyrium Technologies
Daimler AG
DayStar Technologies, Inc.
DuPont Danisco
Dust Networks
Dyadic International, Inc
Echelon and T-Mobile USA
Echelon Corporation
EcoLogic Analytics
EDF Energies Nouvelles
EIQ Energy, Inc
Eka Systems
Elster Group
Ember Corp.
Emergya Wind Technologies
Enel Green Power
Eneos Celltech
Energia Hidroelectrica de Navarra (EHN)
Energie Baden-Wuerttenberg AG (EnBW)
Energy Answers Corporation
Energy Conversion Devices, Inc
Energy Products of Idaho
Entech Inc
Entegris, Inc.
EPV Solar
Ertex Solar
Evergreen Solar, Inc
Evolution Fuels
Fat Spaniel Technologies
First Solar, Inc
First Wind
Forewind Limited
Fuel Bio Holdings
Fuel Cell Technologies Ltd.
FuelCell Energy, Inc.
Gamesa Corporación Tecnológica
GE Energy
GE Wind Power
Global Solar
Green Energy Technologies
Green Star Products, Inc.
Greenbox Technology
GreenHunter Energy, Inc
Greenshine New Energy
Grid Net
GT Solar
Honda Soltec
Horizon Wind Energy
Husky Energy
Iberdrola Renovables
IdaTech LLC
Imperium Renewables
Intellon Corp.
International Solar Electric Technology
Interstate Waste Technologies
Inventux Technologies AG
Iogen Corporation
JA Solar Holdings
Jadoo Power
Johanna Solar
Kaneka Solartech
Konarka Technologies, Inc.
Kyocera Solar
LDK Solar Co, LTD
LM Wind Power
LS9, Inc
Marathon Engine Systems
MidAmerican Energy Holdings Company
Millennial Net
Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Moser Baer
MTI Micro Fuel Cells
Nevada Geothermal Power, Inc
NextEra Energy Resources
Nordex AG
Northern California Power Agency
NTT DoCoMo Inc.
Odersun AG
Ormat International, Inc.
Palcan Fuel Cells
Phoenix Solar AG
Photowatt International
Plug Power Inc
Polar PV
PowerFilm, Inc.
PowerGrid Communications
PowerIt Solutions
PowerLight Corporation
PrimeStar Solar
Proton Energy Systems
Pyron Solar
QS Solar
Quantum PV
REC Solar
REGEN Energy
REpower AG
Sanyo Electric
Sapphire Energy
Schott AG
Sharp Corporation
Sharp Solar
Shell Renewables
Shell Solar Industries
Siemens Solar
Siemens Wind Power
Signet Solar
Silver Spring Networks
Site Controls
Skyline Solar
Sol Voltaics
Solar Electric Power Company
SolarWorld, AG
Solterra Renewable Technologies Inc
Spectrolab, Inc.
Spire Corporation
Statoil ASA
Stirling Energy Systems
Suniva Inc
SunPower Corporation
Suntech Power
Suzlon Energy Limited
Tantalus Systems Corp.
Tendril Networks
TerraSolar, Inc.
Trilliant Networks
Trina Solar, Ltd
Tropos Networks
U.S. Geothermal Inc.
United Solar Ovonic
Veolia Environnement SA
Verenium Corporation
Vestas Wind Systems, AS
Viridity Energy
Waste Energy Solutions
West Biofuels LLC
Wheelabrator Technologies
Windflow Technology, Ltd
Würth Solar
XL Renewables
Yanmar America Corporation
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