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Nanoscience and Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Manufacturing and Industry Impacts

  • ID: 1844046
  • Book
  • 317 Pages
  • DEStech Publications, Inc
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A comprehensive account of how nanomaterials are synthesized and processed, this book presents the theory and technology of introducing nano-based materials as value-added elements into product manufacturing. The book explains the fundamentals of vapor, liquid, solid phase, and biosystem-assisted nanoparticle syntheses, with sufficient analysis of each method to permit decisions on which is most productive, energy efficient and safe. The text then confronts the problems of scaling up from lab-based syntheses to manufacturing and demonstrates how nanomaterials on the shop floor require new protocols of quality assurance and employee and environmental protection. The book concludes with case studies of individuals who endeavored to commercialize nanotechnologies for higher-volume production.

- Introduction and critical analysis of all major methods of synthesizing nanoparticles

- Nanoscale processing, nanopatterning, nanometrology

- Scaling up nanotechnologies from the laboratory to the shop floor

- How nanoparticles affect quality control, worker safety, and the environment

- Understanding challenges to nanotechnology commercialization
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1. Introduction
- References

2. Vapor-Phase Synthesis
- Vapor Condensation
- Chemical Vapor Deposition
- Flame Synthesis (Combustion Synthesis)
- Arc-Discharge Method
- Laser-Ablation Method
- References

3. Liquid-Phase Synthesis
- Chemical Precipitation
- Sol-Gel Method
- Microemulsion (Micelle/reverse Micelle) Reaction Method
- Liquid-phase Electrochemical Deposition
- Other Liquid-phase Synthesis Approaches
- References

4. Solid-Phase Synthesis
- Mechanical Milling
- Surface Modification
- References

5. Biological System-Assisted Synthesis
- References

6. Synthesis of Nanocarbon
- Synthesis of 1-D Nanocarbon (Carbon Nanofiber and Carbon Nanotube)
- Synthesis of 2-D Nanocarbon (Graphite Nanoplatelet and Graphene Single Layer)
- References

7. Nanoscale Processing and Nanopatterning Techniques
- Nanoscale Self-assembly (Bottom-up Approach)
- Lithography Techniques (Top-down Approach)
- References

8. Nanotechnology Applications in Commercial Sectors
- What Is Nanotechnology?
- Applications in Commercial Sectors
- The New Discipline Landscape
- References

9. Quality Assurance and Materials Characterizations
- Introduction
- Producing a Quality Product
- Approaches to Analytical Process Control
- Nanometrology
- Handling Data
- Current State of Affairs
- References
- Appendix: Description of Selected Analytical Techniques

10. Environmental, Health, and Safety Issues
- Introduction
- Nanomaterials, Nanocomposites, and EHS
- Life-cycle Stages
- Health and Safety Issues
- Physical Chemical Measurements of Nanoparticles for Toxicology
- Environmental Fate Issues
- Current EHS Practices
- Best Practices
- Risk Analysis as a Tool for Identifying and Managing EHS Issues
- References

11. Issues for Industry Applications
- Introduction
- Barriers to Nanotechnology Commercialization
- Product Development and Commercialization Perspective
- Governmental Certifications
- Summary
- References

12. Education, Training, and Policy for Industry
- Introduction
- Educational Need versus the Status Quo
- Nanotechnology and Capitol Hill
- A Workforce Ready for the Future
- The Need to Develop a Stem Nano Ecosystem
- Nanotechnology Education Act
- Explore Possibilities Through Collaboration
- Schematic View of the Current Nanoeducation System
- Summary and Recommendation
- Case Studies
- Summary

Further Reading

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The authors of Nanoscience and Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Manufacturing and Industry Impacts describe current nanomaterials synthesis techniques and issues related to their use in industry, including quality assurance, health and environmental concerns and workforce training. Synthesis methods account for the first half of the text and non-scientific aspects of nanotechnology appear in the last five chapters. Topics are based in part on a series of industry workshops which were attended by scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs and businesspeople from around the world. The authors intend for members of all of these communities to benefit from their book. The book is approximately 250 pages and includes many figures and diagrams in the chapters devoted to nanomaterial synthesis.

The authors cover all the techniques used to prepare nanomaterials, including some methods which were unfamiliar to me. Each section of the synthesis chapters described a different experimental method. They are brief, 5 – 10 pages each, and focus on the most noteworthy aspects. Sufficient citations are provided for the reader to explore in more detail if desired. The text is concise. Vapor, liquid and solid phase synthesis techniques are all thoroughly presented. The authors pay significantly less attention is paid to biological-assisted and green synthesis techniques. Granted, the challenges of biologically assisted formation of nanoparticles are significant and therefore may not warrant the attention of those readers interested in current, robust synthesis methods. It is still unfortunate that the authors could not provide more information about a field with such great potential. Overall, the authors do a good job of not dwelling on unnecessary minutia that would be of interest only to practitioners of a particular field of research. This leads to an efficient use of a reader's valuable time. The figures and equations are clear, helpful and appropriate. The writing is straightforward, uses correct English and, since the same authors write many chapters, there is a consistent style which makes reading easier.

As a scientist familiar with nanomaterials, I had no difficulty reading the synthesis chapters. There is no introduction for novices so I suspect that portions of the book are too technical to a reader without a science or engineering background. The authors intended their book to be a gentle introduction to nanotechnology and readers should look elsewhere for such a book before reading this one. The other chapters covering quality assurance, applications, industrial workforce training and issues related to health, safety and the environment will be educational for those readers without experience in those relatively non-technical areas. The authors describe a realistic vision of the current state of nanotechnology and its future, citing many challenges to commercialization and education.

Nanoscience and Nanomaterials provides a concise summary of the many current synthesis techniques being studied. Scientists and engineers with knowledge of nanotechnology will find the first seven chapters helpful and easy to read. Readers wishing to learn about other topics, often grouped together as “societal impacts” and industrial applications will benefit from reading the second half of the book. All chapters are well written and educational.

Dr. Kurt Winkelmann
Journal of Nano Education
Associate Professor
Department of Chemistry
Florida Institute of Technology
150 W. University Blvd
Melbourne, FL 32901

Nanoscience and nanomaterials: synthesis, manufacturing and industry impacts

Nanoscience is an enormous field of research and is growing at a phenomenal rate. It is easy to believe that there is nothing that nanoscience can’t do and no problem exists that it can’t solve! This book is an intriguing read with a focus clearly on nanomaterials and their synthesis.

The book describes the different methodologies that exist to manufacture materials and goes through chapter by chapter describing each one. It discusses methods from the ubiquitous chemical vapour deposition to the more exotic methods that involve biological systems (albeit a very short chapter!). The chapters on the methodology are perhaps not as comprehensive as a dedicated researcher in the field may want, but they give a give good overall description and are surprisingly easy to read.

The book is essentially in two parts, the first part devoted to synthesis methodology and the second part dedicated to issues that are important to commercial entities. It is the second part of the book that really makes it stand out. The authors give a really good insight into topics that concern industry such as quality assurance, environmental issues, barriers to commercialisation and health and safety. They also discuss policy, education and training the workforce. Having this second part to the book really gives it the edge over the more traditional nanomaterials or nanoscience books that seem to gloss over industrial aspects.

In summary, I think the book is very timely, easy to read and will appeal to a broad readership, in particular I would recommend companies (big or small) who are potentially interested in nano to give this book a read. It won’t quite save your life but I am sure you will be glad you read it!

Wei-hong Zhong et al
Reviewed by Karl Coleman
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