The LTE / SAE Deployment Handbook

  • ID: 2077022
  • Book
  • 448 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Describing the essential aspects that need to be considered during the deployment and operational phases of 3GPP LTE/SAE networks, this book gives a complete picture of LTE systems, as well as providing many examples from operational networks. It demystifies the structure, functioning, planning and measurements of both the radio and core aspects of the evolved 3G system.

The content includes an overview of the LTE/SAE environment, architectural and functional descriptions of the radio and core network, functionality of the LTE applications, international roaming principles, security solutions and network measurement methods. In addition, this book gives essential guidelines and recommendations about the transition from earlier mobile communications systems towards the LTE/SAE era and the next generation of LTE, LTE–Advanced.

The book is especially suitable for the operators that face new challenges in the planning and deployment phases of LTE/SAE, and is also useful for network vendors, service providers, telecommunications consultancy companies and technical institutes as it provides practical information about the realities of the system.

  • Presents the complete end–to–end planning and measurement guidelines for the realistic deployment of networks
  • Explains the essential and realistic aspects of commercial LTE systems as well as the future possibilities
  • An essential tool during the development of transition strategies from other network solutions towards LTE/SAE
  • Contains real–world case studies and examples to help readers understand the practical side of the system
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List of Contributors xv

Foreword xvii

Preface xix

Acknowledgments xxi

Glossary xxiii

1 General 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 The LTE Scene 1

1.3 The Role of LTE in Mobile Communications 2

1.4 LTE/SAE Deployment Process 3

1.5 The Contents of the Book 7

References 9

2 Drivers for LTE/SAE 11

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Mobile System Generations 11

2.3 Data Service Evolution 14

2.4 Reasons for the Deployment of LTE 19

2.5 Next Steps of LTE/SAE 20

2.6 Summary of the Benefits of LTE 21

References 21

3 LTE/SAE Overview 23

3.1 Introduction 23

3.2 LTE/SAE Standards 24

3.3 How to Find Information from Specs? 25

3.4 Evolution Path Towards LTE 27

3.5 Key Parameters of LTE 28

3.6 LTE vs WiMAX 29

3.7 Models for Roaming Architecture 29

3.8 LTE/SAE Services 36

3.9 LTE–Advanced––Next Generation LTE 40

References 42

4 Performance Requirements 45

4.1 Introduction 45

4.2 LTE Key Features 45

4.3 Standards LTE Requirements 49

4.4 Effects of the Requirements on the LTE/SAE Network Deployment 60

References 62

5 LTE and SAE Architecture 63

5.1 Introduction 63

5.2 Elements 63

5.3 Interfaces 70

5.4 Protocol Stacks 71

5.5 Layer 2 Structure 75

References 77

6 Transport and Core Network 79

6.1 Introduction 79

6.2 Functionality of Transport Elements 79

6.3 Transport Network 83

6.4 Core Network 85

6.5 IP Multimedia Subsystem 86

References 93

7 LTE Radio Network 95

7.1 Introduction 95

7.2 LTE Radio Interface 95

7.3 LTE Spectrum 96

7.4 OFDM and OFDMA 96

7.5 SC–FDM and SC–FDMA 107

7.6 Reporting 108

7.7 LTE Radio Resource Management 111

7.8 RRM Principles and Algorithms Common to UL and DL 113

7.9 Uplink RRM 123

7.10 Downlink RRM 128

7.11 Intra–LTE Handover 132

References 134

8 Terminals and Applications 137

8.1 Introduction 137

8.2 Effect of Smartphones on LTE 137

8.3 Interworking 139

8.4 LTE Terminal Requirements 143

8.5 LTE Applications 149

References 155

9 Voice Over LTE 157

9.1 Introduction 157

9.2 CS Fallback for Evolved Packet System 158

9.3 SMS Over SGs 159

9.4 Voice and Other CS Services than SMS 164

9.5 Voice and SMS Over IP 169

9.6 Summary 186

References 187

10 Functionality of LTE/SAE 189

10.1 Introduction 189

10.2 States 189

10.3 End–to–End Functionality 199

10.4 LTE/SAE Roaming 200

10.5 Charging 216

References 219

11 LTE/SAE Security 221

11.1 Introduction 221

11.2 LTE Security Risk Identification 222

11.3 LTE/SAE Service Security––Case Example 234

11.4 Authentication and Authorization 238

11.5 Customer Data Safety 239

11.6 Lawful Interception 239

References 242

12 Planning and Deployment of SAE 243

12.1 Introduction 243

12.2 Network Evolution from 2G/3G PS Core to EPC 243

12.3 Entering Commercial Phase: Support for Multi–Mode LTE/3G/2G Terminals with Pre–Release 8 SGSN 245

12.4 SGSN/MME Evolution 248

12.5 Case Example: Commercial SGSN/MME Offering 249

12.6 Mobile Gateway Evolution 250

12.7 Case Example: Commercial GGSN/S–GW/P–GW Offering 251

12.8 EPC Network Deployment and Topology Considerations 252

12.9 LTE Access Dimensioning 254

13 Radio Network Planning 257

13.1 Introduction 257

13.2 Radio Network Planning Process 257

13.3 Nominal Network Planning 260

13.4 Capacity Planning 263

13.5 Coverage Planning 264

13.6 Self–Optimizing Network 271

Reference 272

14 LTE/SAE Measurements 273

14.1 Introduction 273

14.2 General 273

14.3 Principles of Radio Interface Measurements 273

14.4 LTE Field Measurements 282

14.5 Evolution Changes the Rules of Testing 289

14.6 General Test Requirements and Methods for the LTE Air Interface 292

14.7 Test Requirements in SAE 298

14.8 Throughput Testing 300

14.9 Self–Organizing Network Techniques for Test and Measurement 306

14.10 Field Testing 309

References 323

15 Recommendations 325

15.1 Introduction 325

15.2 Transition to LTE––Use Cases 326

15.3 Spectrum Aspects 327

15.4 Effect of the Advanced GSM Features on the Fluent LTE Deployment 343

15.5 Alternative Network Migration Path (Multi–Operator Case) 367

15.6 Hardware Migration Path 376

15.7 Mobile Backhaul––Towards "All–IP" Transport 381

15.8 LTE Interworking with Legacy Networks for the Optimal Voice and Data Services 384

References 405

Index 407

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Mr. Jyrki T.J. Penttinen began working in the telecommunications industry in 1994 with Telecom Finland its successors and since 2004 has worked with Nokia and Nokia Siemens Networks. He has held mobile networks research, design and technical management positions in Finland, Spain, Mexico and USA. Currently, his special interest areas are related to the radio interface of GSM/3G evolution and mobile TV and he holds the position of Senior Solutions Architect with NSN Innovation Center, Madrid, Spain.

Mr. Penttinen obtained his M.Sc., Lic.Sc. and D.Sc. degrees from Helsinki University of Technology (currently known as Aalto University, School of Science and Technology), Finland, in 1994, 1999, and 2011, respectively. He is an active lecturer, and has written various telecommunications books.
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