Rosin-based Chemicals and Polymers

  • ID: 2102134
  • Book
  • Smithers Information Ltd
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Rosin is an abundantly available natural product composed of around 90% acidic and 10% neutral compounds. Rosin and its derivatives have long been used as tackifiers in adhesives. They have also found other niche applications in inks, varnishes, paints, sealing wax, some soaps, paper sizing; soldering, plasters, food additives, etc. However, many of the conventional applications of rosin mainly utilize the inherent physical properties in various practices.

In recent years there has been a growing interest in using rosin acid-derivatives as building blocks in the synthesis of polyesters, polyurethanes, epoxies and curing agents. In addition, rosin acid derived chemicals are also used as nucleating agents, surfactants, drugs and other special applications.

This book brings together a collection of scientific articles on recent research and development of utilizing natural chemicals from pine resin as feedstock for polymers and new industrial chemicals. It focuses mainly on the new use of rosin acids, but also covers the applications of other chemicals from tree sap such as terpinenes.

This book will provide considerable material for researchers in both academia and industry with the latest developments in the utilization of rosin and terpinenes.
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1. Use of Rosin Acids as Rigid Building Blocks in the Synthesis of Curing Agents for Epoxies
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Curing of Anhydride Type Derivatives of Rosin Acid with Epoxy
1.3 Rosin-derived Rigid Curing Agents
1.4 Regulation of the Flexibility
1.5 Conclusions

2. Preparation and Characterisation of Epoxy Binders Based on Rosin
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Modification of Rosin to Prepare Epoxy Resins
2.2.1 Chemical Composition of Rosin
2.2.2 Preparation of Epoxy Resins from Rosin
2.2.3 Synthesis of Epoxy Binders from Rosin Hydroxyl Derivatives
2.2.3.1 Production of Epoxy Resins from Diels-Alder Rosin Adducts
2.2.3.2 Production of Epoxy Binders by the Condensation of Rosin Acid with formaldehyde
2.3 Modification of Rosin Epoxy Binders
2.4 Characterisation of Uncured Rosin Epoxy Binders
2.4.1 Characterisation of Epoxy Binders Based on Rosin Adducts
2.4.2 Characterisation of Glycidyl Ethers and Esters of Condensed Rosin Formaldehyde Derivatives
2.4.3 Characterisation of Glycidyl Ether of Diabiety Ketone
2.5 Preparation of Epoxy Curing Agents Based on Rosin
2.6 Curing of Epoxy Binders Based on Rosin
2.6.1 Effect of Epoxy Molecular Structures on Curing Exotherms
2.6.2 Effect of Hardener Structures on Curing Exotherms
2.7 Coating Applications of Modified Rosin Epoxy
2.7.1 Relationships Between the Structures of Cured Epoxy Resin and their Mechanical Properties
2.7.2 Evaluation of Chemical Resistance for Cured Resins
2.7.3 Testing the Corrosion Resistance of Coatings

3. Thermosetting Polymers based on Rosin and Turpentine Feedstock Chemicals
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Terpene Epoxy Resins and their Polyol Derivatives
3.3 Rosin-Based Polyol used in Polyurethanes
3.4 Rosin and Turpentine Interpenetrating Polymer Network
3.5 Conclusions
4 Rosin-derived Polymers and their Progress in Controlled Polymerisation
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Rosin Chemical Compositions
4.3 Gum Rosin-derived Polymers
4.3.1 Main Chain Rosin-based Polymers
4.3.2 Side Chain Rosin-based Polymers
4.4 Controlled/Living Radical Polymerisation
4.4.1 Synthesis of Acrylic Monomers
4.4.2 Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation of Acrylic Monomers
4.4.3 Properties of Resin Acid-derived Acrylic Polymers Prepared by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation
4.5 Reversible Addition Fragmentation Chain Transfer of Acrylic Monomers.
4.6 Rosin Acid-Caprolactone Block Copolymers
4.6.1 Two-step Sequential Polymerisation
4.6.2 Degradability and Thermal Properties of Diblock Copolymers of 2-Acryloyloxyethyl Dehydroabieticcarboxylate and Caprolactone
4.7 Outlook and Conclusions

5. Synthesis and Application of Rosin-Based Surfactants
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Synthesis of Rosin-based Surfactants
5.2.1 Synthesis of Cationic Surfactants
5.2.1.1 Rosin Acid-based Ester Quaternary Ammonium Salts
5.2.1.2 Dehydroabietylamine Derived Quaternary Ammonium Salts
5.2.2 Synthesis of Anionic Surfactants
5.2.3 Synthesis of Zwitterionic Surfactants
5.2.4 Synthesis of Nonionic Surfactants
5.3 Physicochemical Properties
5.3.1 Physical Properties
5.3.2 Phase Behaviour
5.4 Applications
5.4.1 Paper Sizing and the Rubber Industry
5.4.2 Antibacterial Activity
5.4.3 Corrosion Inhibition
5.4.4 Chiral Catalyst
5.4.5 Chiral Separation
5.4.6 Material Synthesis
5.5 Development Trends of Rosin-Based Surfactants

6. Biological Activity of Rosin Derivatives
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Biological Activities of Rosin Acid Derivatives
6.2.1 Antitumour Activities
6.2.2 Antiviral Activities
6.2.3 Antibacterial Activities
6.2.4 Effects on the Digestive System
6.2.5 Anti-inflammatory Activities
6.2.6 Ion Channel Activities
6.2.7 Other Activities
6.3 Quantative Structure-Activity Relationships
6.4 Biological Mechanisms
6.4.1 Antitumour Mechanism
6.4.2 Anti-inflammatory Mechanism
6.5 Development Trends in Biological Research

Abbreviations
Index
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