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The field of vacuum microelectronics (VME) has experienced tremendous growth. VME devices benefit from collision-free motion of electrons in vacuum, enabling faster modulation and higher electron energies than possible with solid-state structures. In addition, VME devices can operate in a wide temperature range (4<T<1000K) and in high-radiation environments. Applications include field emission flat-panel displays, microwave tube power amplifiers, electron and ion guns, sensors, X-ray sources, high-energy accelerators, electron-beam lithography, free-electron lasers, and electron microscopes and microprobes. There are many critical aspects and special requirements for VME, and advancements in materials science and technology are playing an integral role in its successful development. This book, first published in 1998, outlines the issues involved in realizing the full potential of VME technologies. While all aspects of electron field emission are discussed, the theme of many papers is on the fabrication, characterization and modelling of electron-emissive materials. Topics include: field-emitter arrays and applications; carbon and wide-bandgap cathodes and other cathode materials.
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