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The unprecedented growth of the semiconductor/electronics industry is the result of continued miniaturization of circuit devices, increases in chip functionality, improved performance and decreases in the per-function cost. The increasingly important role of surfaces, interfaces, defects and impurities has raised serious questions about interconnection performance, dimensional control of the functional properties, reliability and performance. New sets of materials are being proposed to replace conventional materials. Limiting electronic materials choices are becoming apparent and new directions are being sought. Processing schemes and physical layouts of circuits are being pursued to minimize the impact of miniaturization. This book focuses on the directions taken by researchers to meet these challenges. It provides an update of state-of-the-art materials, process and technology and also examines newer concepts in these research areas for application in silicon, GaAs, InP and other compound-semiconductor-based electronic, photonic and optoelectronic devices and circuits. Topics include: inter- connection frontiers; aluminum interconnects; cobalt and other silicides; MOSFET; copper interconnects and barriers; contacts to compound semiconductor devices; interconnect materials and schemes and diffusion barriers.
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