Reliability concerns have forced interconnect systems to scale more slowly than devices. As a result, reliability engineers and scientists are now responsible for much of the performance and lifetime gains anticipated in the microelectronics industry. To achieve these gains, the interconnect must be viewed as a complex system with many types of reliability issues. A critical understanding of electromigration, stress-induced voiding, mechanical integrity, thermal performance, chemical effects, and oxide reliability are necessary. And of course, new models and materials will likely be necessary to improve the interconnect system for future needs. This book brings together researchers from academia and industry to discuss fundamental mechanisms and phenomena in the reliability field. Topics include: novel measurement techniques; microstructural effects; reliability modelling; stress effects; advanced inter-connect reliability; adhesion and fracture; and packaging reliability issues.
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