Interest in developing low-dielectric constant materials is driven by requirements from the microelectronics sector to improve performance in interconnections by reducing parasitic capacitance and cross talk. The continuing increase in density of semiconductor devices is becoming limited by the dielectric properties of the insulator which threatens to slow the rate of productivity. The requirement for dielectric constant is rapidly approaching an e value of 2.0, with continued improvement sought even below this level to maintain this progression, commonly known as Moore's Law. Synthetic methods of obtaining materials in this range are addressed in this book. The materials solution to the interconnect problem - changing the insulator to lower the dielectric constant from 4.0, the e of silicon dioxide - introduces a host of reliability concerns, as well as changes to the process of manufacturing semiconductor devices. Topics include: porous films - organic and inorganic; porous films - organic/low-k integration; low-k integration; low-k/advanced interconnect; low-dielectric constant materials and applications in microelectronics and low-k film property/integration.
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