Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is a growing field with numerous potential commercial applications, including pressure and inertial sensing, optical and electrical switching, power conversion, fluidic flow control, and chemical analysis. MEMS combine mechanical and electrical (and sometimes optical, chemical, or biological) function at small scales using many of the batch fabrication techniques developed for the micro-electronics industry. Materials have been developed or adapted for MEMS applications for use as structures, actuators, and sensors. Processing techniques also have been established for integrating these materials with existing MEMS. In addition, MEMS technology has proven ideal for allowing the mechanical and tribological characterization of materials at small scales. This book, first published in 2001, addresses these issues and a variety of materials are discussed, including Si, porous Si, SiC, SiGe, diamond, electroplated Ni and Cu, as well as piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and shape memory materials, and self-assembled organic monolayers. Fabrication processes include plasma and chemical etching, Si bonding, high-aspect-ratio lithography and micromolding. In addition, the stress, fracture strength, fatigue, and friction of MEMS materials and structures are also discussed.
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